Highlights from the Biography of Imam Hussain Bin Ali Q
He is Al-Hussain Bin Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q and the son of Fatima O, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah, Mohammad P. He was born on the third of Shaaban, (04 AH). He is one of the five persons of the garment (Al-Kesaa), whom Allah removed squalor away off them and purified them with a thorough purification. Further, the Prophet P, by them, asked Allah to invoke the curse upon the Christians of «Najran». The Prophet P used to ascertain to the Muslims, at each and every occasion, what both the Shiite and Sunnite recite:
«Hussain is from me and I am from Hussain», «O Allah do love he who loves Hussain», «Hussain is the grandson of the Prophet as where the off springs (Assbat) of Prophet Jacob»
Hussain’s Glow Q was one of the Mohammedan lights surrounding Allah’s Throne, even before Allah (SW) had created humanity.
No prophet was sent to humanity until he acknowledged the prophecy of Allah’s best human being, Mohammad P, throughout a private discourse, further to acknowledging the Prophet’s progeny’s right to reign.
Yet, each and every prophet has with Al-Hussain Q a unique Hadith (quote), as well as a special anguish and longing.
All of the Prophets R moaned him, and through his blood, Allah (SW) will preserve the efforts of all the prophets throughout centuries, and if it was not for his pure blood, all of such efforts would have been in vain.
The Prophet P had often informed Muslims about Karbala and the martyrdom of the Master of Martyrs .Al Hussain Q. He who deeply studies the Sunna (Prophet’s Rules), will find it fully enriched with the Prophet’s Hadith (saying) about Al-Hussain’s grave soil, Al-Hussain Karbala ‘a, Hussain’s whimpering, and encouraging Hussain’s support, while calling to apart from Yazeed and the Umayyad the murderers of Imam Hussain and the Prophet’s progeny R.
Imam Al-Hussain Q was martyred with his family and friends, during the battle of Karbala ‘a, on the tenth of Mouharram; 61 AH; after having refused pledging allegiance to Yazeed Bin Muawiya. Explaining the motives of his raise, He says:
«Indeed, I went out claiming reform for the Umma (Nation) of my grand-Father, Allah’s Prophet P. I want to order all that Islam has ordained and prohibit atrocious behaviors.»
Yazeed Bin Muawiya’s personality
Yazeed Bin Muawiya was born in 25 or 26 AH. His mother is Maysoun Al Nasrania (Maysoun the Christian of Kulaib tribe). She remained Christian though she was in the Muslim Caliph Castle!
While being pregnant, she went back to her family, in
the steppes, wherein she gave birth to him. Yazeed grew up there among his uncles. Yazeed was immoral, whereas to his behavior, his sins or even his hobbies. He did neither care for Allah’s regulations, nor for his limits. Yet, this was his father’s conduct preceding him, and he used to say to him:
«My son, you are able to get what you want without the carelessness that might obliterate your manly state and rank, and might allow your enemy to gloat you and your friends to misunderstand you.»
Yazeed was the first one to publicly show his alcohol consumption, devotion to singing, hunting, attraction to male slaves, and to playing with monkeys. He used to embellish dogs by dressing them with gold bracelets and jewels. He granted each dog a slave to serve it. Ziad Bin Abeeh said to Muawiya when the latter asked him to get Basra’s pledge of allegiance in favor of his son: «What would People say, if we call them to pledging allegiance in favor of Yazeed, while he plays with dogs and monkeys, wears jewels and excessively drinks wine, not withstanding his walking to the sound of tabors?! »
Yazeed ordered Oubeid Allah Bin Ziad to kill Imam Al-Hussain Q and to send him the Imam’s head, after the latter refused pledging allegiance to him. Indeed, He showed his pride of his belonging to pre-Islamic era of ignorance, while the Head of the Prophet daughter’s son Q was in front of him, and he recited the rhymes of Ibn Al-Zeabary that start with:
I wish my old chiefs at Badr could witness
Al Khazroj fearing of the impact of rush
He ends it by:
Hashem manipulated the Reign
So, neither news arrived nor revelations happened
Yazeed ruling term was of three years and six months.
- In the first year, he murdered Imam Al-Hussain Bin Ali Q, his family members, and his friends during the battle of Karbala. He captured the ladies of his family and took them as prisoners from Karbala to Damascus.
- In the second year, he robbed the Medina of the Prophet P, set his soldiers on it, for three days, killing seven hundred amongst Al-Muhajereen and Al- Ansar (expatriates and supporters since the Prophet era) afterwards no one amongst the early Muslims who witnessed Badr battle was still alive. About ten thousand amongst the followers of Ahlul Baytt, Arabs, and friends were murdered, while women were violated.
- In the third year, he besieged Mecca, and set fire in The Holy Kaaba.
Between Muawiya and Yazeed
Muawiya’s insistence on his son Yazeed becoming the Islam Caliph was a definite decision to abolish Islam and to get his revenge from Allah’s Prophet P by turning the caliphate into a Reign where the Nation’s will and choice are of no value.
Muawiya said: «If it was not for my love to Yazeed, I would have been rational and realized my goal». This expression points out that Muawiya, with all his slyness, knew that the continuity of the hypocrisy movement, which produced the ignorant Umayyad regime, under the cover of the Islamic appearance, required Muawiya to provide a successor as sly as him, who wouldn’t commit fatuities that expose the use of the Islamic religion as coverage, so that the stratagem keeps going until the time comes where nothing remains of the Islamic
religion other than its name. But Muawiya knew that Yazeed did not have such qualifications, because he possessed enough frivolity and idiocy to destroy what needed fifty years to be established.
Nevertheless Mouwiya’s selfishness and his love to Yazeed as a continuation of his existence and lineage, made him insist on Yazeed becoming his successor, because he was driven by his passion towards his son, though he was aware of the catastrophes he was going to induce, against the Umayyad , especially that there were rulers alike Yazeed governing other Islamic principalities whose stupidity would lead them to a public confrontation with the family of the Prophet P due to the deep feeling of resentment and hatred towards them, knowing that they were going to exterminate the principality of the governors who adopted the malignant politics of Muawiya, which is the secret confrontation, by pointing out their weak management of the country affairs.
Muawiya’s grabbing the allegiance pledging for Yazeed
After Imam Al-Hassan’s Q martyrdom consequently to being poisoned by his wife, Jaada Bint Al-Asha’ath, further to a promise Muawiya made to her, whereas to make her the wife of his son, Yazeed, but he didn’t keep his promise, Muawiya grabbed the allegiance pledging in favor of Yazeed, in «Bilad Al-Sham» as well as in most of the other regions.
He delegated to the Medina governor at that time, Marwan Bin Al-Hakam, to obtain the Yazeed allegiance pledging from the people’s dignitaries, who refused granting it to Marwan.
The Holy City (Almadina) was the center of gravity of the Islamic vocation. In it, is the residence of Imam Al-Hussain Q and his immaculate family members the Hashim’s family, as well as the remaining companions of the messenger of Allah.
Thus grabbing allegiance out of its rightful owners would be deemed a great victory for Muawiya, whereas to placing the Hashim Family along with Imam Hussain Q in front of an in evidence fact, by keeping the ruling of Muslims caliphate within the Umayyad hands.
When Medina refused to grant the allegiance to Yazeed, Muawiya revoked Marwan and appointed Saed Bin Al A’as as its governor. He ordered him to obtain the allegiance of Mouhajereen and Ansar by force. He wrote commanding him to be strict and rigid while staying lenient to avoid any infringement while dealing with Imam Al-Hussain Q. Muawiya’s letter said: «Keep an eye on Hussain particularly, don’t cause him any harm, because he enjoys great kinship and right which no Muslim man or woman may deny. He is a lion, king of his den, but I don’t trust that you are able to handle him, have you sake his advice». These facts were not due to Muawiya’s respect toward Imam Al-Hussain Q, but to his slyness, whereas to the incoming events.
During his life time, Muawiya monitored Imam Al-Hussain Q closely. He used to observe each and every move of Imam Al-Hussain Q, slight or big, within his private and public life. He meant for Imam Hussain Q to know that, in order to prevent him from even thinking about rising or revolting.
Muawiya wrote to the Imam Q, after the latter had refused pledging allegiance to Yazeed as the Caliph successor, saying:
I have been told things about you, I didn’t think that you are far from it; Thus, the most eligible person of loyalty towards a pledge of allegiance he gave is someone like you, with your special status, honor and respect, that Allah granted you, so
don’t rush after seizing your severance, and do fear Allah and don’t throw the Umma (Nation) in turmoil. Look after yourself, your religion, and the Nation of Mohammad, do not underestimate those who are not true believers».
Imam Al-Hussain Q replied to Muawiya objecting and including his condemnation to Muawiya for having murdered the sublime companion of the Prophet, Hojor Bin Ouday, further to granting Ziad Bin Obeid, the Roman, Abi Sufyan’s pedigree, and then granting him the power to devastate the Umma. He reminded him about the harsh aftermath, that this life is going to end, and that Allah has a book which does not omit any big or small behavior without recording. Yet, the closing paragraph of that reply was as follows:
«Be aware that Allah has not forgotten your killing for just suspicion and punishing for just considering accusation is enough for punishing, and your caliphate granting to a boy, who drinks wine and plays with dogs. I don’t see you but as having ruined your soul, destroyed your religion and caused your subjects’ loss, and Peace.»
Thus Muawiya came in pilgrimage to Medina and sent for Imam Al-Hussain Q, Abdullah Bin Al-Zoubeir, and Abdel Rahman Bin Abi Bakr, each of whom individually, inviting them to pledge allegiance to Yazeed, but he failed to obtain anything of them.
The very next day, Muawiya sent for Imam Al-Hussain Q and Abdullah Bin Al-Abbas who arrived there first. Then, Muawiya seated him to his left and talked for a long time with him, until the arrival of Imam Al-Hussain Q. When Muawiya saw the Imam, he provided for him a cushion on his right to sit on. Imam Al-Hussain Q entered and greeted them. Muawiya asked him about the family of his brother, Al
Hassan Q, so he informed him and then kept quite.
Muawiya started talking and after Praising Allah, he talked in a long discourse describing his son Yazeed and the intention of Muawiya, to appoint him as a Caliph, and amongst what he said: «…There has been things about Yazeed that you are fully aware of; Allah knows what I’m trying to do about our national affairs whereas to fill the gaps and mend the splits by appointing Yazeed a Caliph, which had raised (his) vigilance and made his acts seem good, this is what I aimed by appointing Yazeed…»
Here, Imam Al-Hussain Q replied,
«…. I understood what you said about Yazeed, concerning his perfection and politics awareness towards Mohammad’s Umma (nation). You want to delude the people about Yazeed, as if you were describing an invisible person or describing an absent one, or telling what you learned through a personal knowledge, at a time when Yazeed has pointed by himself his true personality and opinion …»
Afterwards, Muawiya isolated himself from the people for three days, and then he came out and ordered the announcer to call the people together for a comprehensive issue. Thus people gathered in the Mosque. Imam Al-Hussain Q, along with his companions, sat around the rostrum. Muawiya started telling the people about Yazeed’s virtues asking for his allegiance from all villages and cities, which all approved except for Medina that delayed pledging for him.
Imam Al-Hussain Q debated in front of the people Yazeed’s virtues. But the kinsfolk’s of Damascus drew their swords and asked the permission to decapitate the men refusing to pledge. Imam Al Hussain Q wanted everyone to know his opinion, in order to clarify that He wasn’t giving the slightest
legitimacy to appoint Yazeed… which forced Muawiya to leave the rostrum.
The people of Mecca came to Imam Al-Hussain Q to inquire about Yazeed allegiance pledging, and to inform him that they got news that he, Imam Hussain Q, was invited to pledge allegiance and he accepted.
Thus, Imam Al-Hussain Q said: «No, By God, we did not pledge allegiance, but Muawiya deceived and conspired against us, with some of the ways he used to deceive you.»
Imam Al-Hussain Q in the City of Allah’s Messenger P.
People hated war, due to their long sufferance from it; not withstanding that they wanted to have a quiet secure and peaceful life in this world, further to obeying their tribes’ chiefs will. However, after a while, they discovered the extent of the error they fell into, due to their feebleness to assume the combats consequences, and disappointing Imam Al-Hassan Q after they have witnessed the reality of the reigning authority that adopted the principle of persecution, terrorism, starvation, privation, continuous chasing, freedom strangulation, and religion and values mocking, . Imam Al-Hussain Q gave his followers the utmost care and protection. He persisted, in spite of his very sensitive and dangerous socio-political condition, to protect them from any harm. He tried his best to keep them away from devastation. He encouraged the knowledgeable amongst his loyalist followers to provide their deprived brothers with the knowledge they needed, further to spread out political culture and awareness against the government danger besetting the Mohammadan Religion.
Within the frame of the political and religious current confusing the Islamic public opinion, Imam Al-Hussain Q was fighting against such trend, trying to break through it in
demonstrating true right, calling to join in and defend it.
Imam Al-Hussain Q aimed to expose confusion and its falseness, and to keep it away from the Nation’s mentality.
He ordered what Islam had ordained and forbade the wrong doing, by educating the nation and enlightening it throughout his preaching and guidance sessions that he used to hold in both Medina and Mecca. He used religious occasions to spread awareness amongst the nation while reminding it about the Prophet’s noble rules and He called them to support and advocate what is right. Within a speech addressing the erudite and educated people particularly amongst the companions and the followers in general, wherein he discussed and clarified the deep reasons for refusing pledging allegiance for Yazeed, saying:
«O Allah! Thou know that what we have done was not for competing to reign. Neither was it a solicitation for the offal wreckage of this world. Yet, we aim to show your religion postulates features, to intensify reform in your land, wherein the victim of injustice, being amongst your servants, may be secure as your obligatory religious duties, rules, and orders shall be applied…»
People from Iraq, and dignitaries from Hejaz, Basra and Yemen, as well as from the different Islamic cities, all came to pay him high regards and to dignify him, devoting themselves to his service while saying:
«We will be your reinforcement and support», but when Muawiya died no one amongst those people was just towards Imam Al Hussain Q.
Muawiya devoted his remaining days, paying great attention to Imam Al Hussain Q; He took acute measures to neither
molest nor provoke him while constantly keeping a close eye on him, to hinder his revolution thought from coming out. He would rather leave it as an intention than it becoming a practical execution and implementation. Al Waleed Bin Utaba, who assumed Medina ruling, after Said Bin El A’ass, declared acknowledging the restrictions adopted by the official authority towards the Imam Q, when the latter severely scolded him saying:
«You are being unjust towards yourself, while disobeying Allah; why are you impeding me from meeting the people who knew my right, what you and your uncle did not realize?»
Muawiya died at the age of seventy, out of which he spent around forty two years as the Governor of Damascus, including some nineteen years and few months (as a king) ruling all the Islamic countries. He is the one who said: «I am the first among kings», and «We accepted it as a kingdom».
He let his close companions know that he wrote in his will to his son Yazeed: «Regarding Al-Hussain, I hope Allah will suffice him with the one who murdered his father and let down his brother. He has a close kinship, a sublime right, and a relationship with Prophet Mohammed P, I don’t think the people of Iraq would leave him, until he arises. If you defeat him, set him free, as if I was alive at that time (in your place), I would have forgiven him…»
This devilish Umayyad will isn’t but a hidden message to attract Yazeed’s attention who disdained the religion and politics affairs, to the danger he might incur if he fights against Imam Al Hussain Q publicly, because such issue will indefinitely separate Islam away from the authority, and tear apart the religious frame to which the Umayyad reign adheres
to, granting thus the nation a new revolutionary and sacrificing spirit, free of any defects of psychological paralysis; accordingly revolutions against the regime will keep going. Yet, any secret confrontation, and the murdering of Imam Al-Hussain Q by either poisoning or assassinating him, will leave no tracks, and his fabricated death trick will deceive the nation.
Nevertheless, the issue wasn’t restricted to the probable secret confrontation, but a public confrontation was possible, where Imam Al-Hussain Q would choose its time and place, further to generating its publicity and intimation atmosphere, as he determine and not according to the authority’s will, and this is precisely what Muawiya feared, in his life time. The same occurred, after his death, with his son Yazeed, who became the Muslims’ Caliph.
Yazeed’s Request Allegiance Pledging of Imam Al Hussain Q
Yazeed Bin Muawiya sent his letter to Al Waleed Bin Ataba after Muawiya’s Death. It said:
«If you receive this letter, you should invite Al-Hussain Bin Ali and Abdullah Bin Al-Zubayr and get their allegiance pledging in my favor, but if they refuse to do so, decapitate them and send me both their heads, then do oblige the people to declare their homage to me, while decapitating those who refuse.»
If Imam Al-Hussain Q has pledged allegiance in favor of Yazeed, this would have meant legitimating and approving the ending of the upright Islamic religion and replacing it with the Umayyad religion, in addition to turning the Islamic ruling into an inheritance reign.
Moreover, killing Imam Al-Hussain Q shall mean to get rid of the utmost danger, which ought to uncover
Yazeed allegiance’s lack of legacy. This issue ascertains that sly Muawiya had planned that and pretended otherwise, additionally to Yazeed’s Attempt afterwards, to impute the consequence on Ibn Ziad.
When Al-Waleed read the book, He said: «We belong to God and to Him we shall return» and called: «There is neither power nor strength, unless with Allah the Almighty» and he murmured: «Woe unto Al Waleed Bin Ataba, who let him be a prince? What business do I have with Al-Hussain Bin Fatima?!» The reason behind Al-Waleed reaction is due to his knowledge of the bad consequences of the public confrontations and the spiteful impacts that the Umayyad ruling will be drifted towards.
Muawiya’s death remained a secret; only the intimates amongst ruling followers knew, in an attempt to obtain the allegiance pledging of Imam Al-Hussain Q before declaring the Caliph’s death. Thus, Al Waleed delegated to Imam Al-Hussain Q to obtain his allegiance pledging.
Al Waleed was usually compelled to seek advice from Marwan Bin Al- Hakam, who was his predecessor as a governor, even though they were in great controversy with each other. Al Waleed sent after Imam Al-Hussain Q, who Q addressed to his young men, tribe, supporters and next of kin to inform them about the invitation and said:
«Be at the door of this man; I’m going to meet him and talk to him. If you hear my voice becoming loud and you may hear what I’m saying, and I called you, you have to enter, you the family of the Prophet, break the doors without any authorization, and then do draw your swords but don’t start any fight. However, if you see what does not please you, do use your swords and kill he who wants to murder me.»
Afterwards Imam Al-Hussain Q left his house, while holding in his hand the staff of His Grandfather, Allah’s Prophet Q, while surrounded by thirty men of his next of kin, supporters and followers. He Q stopped them at the door of Al Waleed Bin ATaba and said:
«Do adhere to what I told you and don’t exceed it, I hope I’m going to come back safe to you, if God wills (Inshallah)»
Then, Imam Al-Hussain Q came into Al-Waleed’s place, where he greeted him, whilst the latter’s response was proper. He called him and invited him to sit by his side; and Marwan Bin Al-Hakam was sitting there as well.
Al Imam Q addressed to both Al-Waleed and Marwan saying:
«May Allah guide the prince to do what is right, as goodness is better than corruption; and having a good relationship is better than hardness and enmity; you ought to rally with each other, thanks are to Allah, who restored harmony between you both»
However, they remained silent. Thus the Imam Q said:
«Did you get any news about Muawiya’s situation, he was sick and his sickness lasted long! So, how is he now?»
Al Waleed sighed and said:
«Ya Aba Abdullah (Ô, father of Abdullah!), May Allah provide you with his condolences about Muawiya! He was a good uncle to you. He is dead, and this is the letter of Yazeed, the Caliph…»
The Imam Q said: «To God we belong, and to him we shall return! May God enhance your recompense, O prince.
But, why did you invite me?»
Al Waleed said: «I called you to pledge allegiance for him, since all the people elected him»!
Al-Hussain Q said:«Indeed, people like me do not pledge allegiance secretly, but I like to do it publicly in front of a group of people. However, when tomorrow comes, and when you call the people for the pledging, and invite us too, so our decision shall be one!»
Al-Waleed answered: «Aba Abdullah, you spoke and talked excellently. I liked the answer of such person like you, and this is what I expected of you, do go in guidance and with Allah’s blessings, until you come to me tomorrow with all the people».
At that moment Marwan said: «Dear Prince, if he sets away from you, at this very moment, he will not pledge allegiance, you won’t be able to make him do so, and you won’t be able to bring him here again? Do imprison him; don’t let him go out unless he pledges allegiance, otherwise cut his throat!»
Imam Al-Hussain: Q looked back at him and said: «Woe unto you, unlawful child! Are you commanding to cut my throat? You are surely mistaken! By God! By God! If one of you even wishes it, he shall see his blood watering the ground before he moves. If you want so, do give the orders to cut my throat, should you be honest!»
Afterwards, Imam Al Hussain Q approached Al-Waleed and said:
«We are the progeny of the Prophet P and the core of the holy message. We are the haven for the angels and the cause of mercy. Allah started with us to close also with us, thus, Yazeed is an immoral man, who drinks alcohol, kills sacred souls,
and practices his immorality publicly! He who is like me does not pledge allegiance to a person like him, but, tomorrow’s daylight shall rise over your and our heads, thus we and you shall realize who amongst us has the right of becoming the Caliph and getting the allegiance from the people.»
Those who were at the door heard the Imam. They were about to break the door and withdraw their swords, but the Imam quickly went out to them and ordered them to go home while He Q headed to his house.
Accordingly Imam Al-Hussain Q made the local authority lose the opportunity of killing him, by accompanying himself with his family, partisans, supporters, and followers fully armed, awaiting for the signal to intervene at the conclusive moment.
Marwan burst with rage against Al Waleed: «You disobeyed me, until Al-Hussain is free away of your hands. By Allah, you are unable to face or defeat him; and By Allah He will start his rebellion against you and the Caliph, so be aware of that!»
Al-Waleed replied: «Woe unto you! You ordered me to kill Al-Hussain. Should I have done so, I would have lost my religion and my earthly life! By Allah! I will not be pleased even if I own the whole world having killed Al Hussain Bin Ali, son of Fatima Al Zahra’a. By Allah! I don’t think that anyone who kills Al-Hussain would go to face Allah, unless being accompanied with a light set of deeds to be produced before Allah, on the resurrection day, then Allah will neither look at him, nor help him, while being tormented and tortured.»
Al-Waleed knew that the reign safety required the murdering of Imam Al-Hussain Q in secrecy not publicly. Marwan kept silent since he wanted Al Waleed to kill the Imam Q and get rid of him, because he hated him on one side, while on
the second, to let mutiny burst up in Medina, encouraged by his envy and fury against Al-Waleed because the latter became the ruler instead of him.
Al-Imam made all the necessary precautions for any expected harm resulting of such meeting, and to defeat any possible crush, he went escorted with a military force of his family members. He even announced his revolution and apposition against Yazeed during the same meeting. The Imam Q intended, through his answer to Al-Waleed’s request, to be called to pledge allegiance publicly in front of all common people. This way he exploits a vast force and utilizes the intimation factor and publicity effect on the general public allegiance gathering that the nation of the Medina is usually called for. Whereas if he refuses pledging allegiance to Yazeed in front of the Medina’s crowd, while divulging for this massive gathering of people Yazeed’s truth of immortality and perversion, further to instigating them to refuse allegiance pledging in favor of Yazeed and steering them to revolute against such person, while announcing his uprising in front of them, informing them about the objectives of the resolved rise; and calling upon them with what is common and well known sayings of the Prophet P, this will enable him to take off the reign’s veil of legitimacy before the largest possible crowd.
The Imam’s Q Decision to Leave Al-Medina
After the meeting Imam Al-Hussain Q had with Al-Waleed, and his declaration of his honest position, this fortified the possibility that the authority might try to assassin the Imam Q or that a military confrontation would burst up, in Medina, between the Imam Q and his supporters on one side and the authority on the other side due to the insistence of the governing party and its planning members, and this is what was revealed by Marwan’s attitude, and accordingly
which was materialized though Yazeed’s stringent orders to Al-Waleed to kill Imam Al Hussain Q in case he refuses to pledge allegiance.
In anticipation to the expected occurrence, the Imam decided to leave Medina, along with all his convoy, since Medina, The city of his grandfather, the Prophet P, is no longer safe for him. Yet, it appears that his decision to get out of Medina City was to avoid being assassinated, and fearing for his noble soul from being killed whether by betrayal or through an armed confrontation, the truth also penetrates deeply inside the fact that such fear was an element of a greater one, which was to see his sacred revolution extinguished before being ignited, by getting killed in Medina with fabricated time and place circumstances. Therefore, he was keen to realize his unavoidable demise, while depriving the enemy from keeping it under obscurity and benefiting of it, strangling all aims sought of such death, which he wanted for it to shake the conscience of the nation, in order to move in the right direction he desired for it.
Imam Al-Hussain Q Visiting the Graves of his Grand-Father, Mother and Brother Q
During the same night, when Imam Al-Hussain Q was at Al-Waleed Bin Utba, he came to the tomb of his Grand Father, the Prophet P and said:
«Allah’s Peace be upon you, O messenger of God, I’m Al-Hussain, son of Fatima, I’m your offspring the son of your beloved daughter, I’m your grandson and your succession that you bequeathed to your nation. Do be the witness onto them, Allah’s Prophet, that they had disappointed me and let me down, they did neither respect nor protect me, this is the compliant I submit to you, until I meet you, May God’s Peace be upon you.»
On the same night, Al-Waleed sent after Imam Al-Hussain Q but he didn’t find him at home. He thought then, that he left Medina. In the next morning, while Imam Al-Hussain Q was on his way back, he met Marwan Bin Al Hakam, who invited him to pledge allegiance. Hence Imam Al-Hussain Q ascertained that pledging allegiance in favor of Yazeed is to eliminate Islam, by saying to Marwan:
«To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return; farewell to Islam, if Umma is afflicted with a ruler such as Yazeed.» Afterwards, the Imam Q went back, on the same night he met Marwan, to visit the grave of his Grand Father. He did a small prayer, and when he finished, He went on saying:
«O Allah this is the grave of your Prophet Mohammad, and I am the son of the daughter of Mohammed. It had Occurred to me what you already know; O, Allah I love goodness and hate wrong doing, I ask you, thee Almighty, with the value of this grave and the person resting therein, to select for me on this matter what shall be of satisfaction to you!»
At that moment, he started crying till he placed his head on the grave and fell asleep for some hours, thus he saw the Prophet P coming surrounded by angels, and he embraced Al-Hussain Q in his arms, he kissed him between his eyes and said:
«My son, Ô Hussain, it is as if I am soon visualizing you murdered and slaughtered in a land of distress and disaster, by a gang derived from my nation. You are thirsty but they will give you no water, you are parched; but you will not be quenched, though they are asking for my intercession. May Allah deprive them of my intercession on the resurrection day, because they have no merits to be valued by Allah. My beloved Hussain, Your Father, Mother and Brother came to me, and
they all miss you. There is a special place in heaven for you, but you’ll not reach it except through martyrdom.»
He headed in the middle of the night to the Grave of his Mother Al-Zahra’a O wherein he prayed and said farewell to her, then he visited the grave of his brother, Imam Al-Hassan Q to do the same.
Farewell Meetings in Medina
During this short period of time, men, women and other people of the Hashems Family rushed to Imam Al-Hussain Q to see him off and try to get enough of him before he leaves. Um Salama, , the wife of the Prophet P came to him and said:
«Son, don’t cause me sorrow by going to Iraq, because I had heard your Grand Father saying:
«Hussain, My son, will be murdered on the land of Iraq, in a place called Karbala ‘a.»
Thus, The Imam Q said to her:
«O mother, by Allah, I am aware of the day when I will be killed, I know my murderer, and I know the spot wherein I shall be buried. I, furthermore know who, amongst my family, relatives and followers will be killed too, and if you want I may show you, mother, my grave and my final bed!»
Then Om Salama>, went on weeping and shedding tears; and she submitted to Allah’s will. She said, addressing to him: «and I have some soil, your Grand-Father gave me in a bottle!». Thus, he Q said:
«By Allah! I shall be killed this way, even if don’t go to Iraq they will still kill me.»
Afterwards, he took some soil; put it in a small bottle and said Q:
«Keep it with the small bottle of my Grand-Father, if they flood with blood, know that I’m killed.»
Then he entrusted her with his will, commandments’ letters and other things, while saying:
«If my elder offspring comes to you, give him the consignment I gave you.»
The Imam’s Q Will to his Brother, Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah
He is Mohammad, son of Imam Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q, while the term «Hanafiah» is the surname of his mother, who is Khawla daughter of Jaafar son of Qeiss son of Salama son of Thaalaba son of El Dual son of Hanafiah. She was one of the prisoners of Al Yamama. They were captured for their allegiance to Imam Ali, Q. They wanted to sell her but Imam Ali Q married her. Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah was a loyal follower for the Imamate of both Imam Al-Hussain and his son Ali Bin Al-Hussain L.
Imam Ali Q used to throw Mohammad into distracting while not allowing Imam Al Hassan, or Imam Al Hussain Q to do so, while saying:
«He is my son, while they both are the sons of the Prophet P»
Some of the apostates said to Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah: «Why does your father accept sending you to wars, while he spares them both?»
And he used to answer by saying:
«I’m his right hand, while they are his two eyes; hence he protects his eyes by using his right hand.»
Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah came to Imam Al Hussain Q in the morning of another day in Medina; he was overwhelmed with sorrow and gloominess, while being overpowered by the yoke of concern and fear for the life of Imam Al Hussain Q. When he sat next to the Imam Q he said:
«Dear Brother, you are to me the most beloved amongst people. I may not spare advice to anyone but to give it to you; you are the most entitled one for it. Do abstain from pledging allegiance in favor of Yazeed Bin Muawiya and keep as much as possible away off the regions. Afterwards, do send invitations to the people to pledge allegiance in your favor. If they do so and in your favor you shall praise Allah accordingly. But if they unanimously agree upon electing some other person, Allah will diminish neither your faith nor your good judgment and your kindness or generosity shall not be perished. I fear you might go into some of such region, wherein people might suffer disparity to become thus divided among themselves, some of them might support you, while others oppose. Then they start fighting, and thus you’ll become the first target for their spears, which might result for the best person of this nation, on all levels with respect to his pure soul, or his noble father and mother , for his blood to be shed and his family to be humiliated».
Imam Al-Hussain Q replied: «Where do you want me to go, Dear brother?»
Ibn Al Hanafiah said: «Go to Mecca, and if you feel secure you can settle there, but if you don’t you would follow the sands and the people of the mountains, thus you will move from a place to another, awaiting for the decision to be taken
by the people. As you make better judgment if you receive the decision instead of letting it come to you.»
The Imam Q Said then:
«O Brother, by God, if the whole world becomes empty of shelters, I’ll never pledge allegiance in favor of Yazeed Bin Muawiya, Ô Allah, do not bestow your blessing on Yazeed.»
This is when Mohammad Ben Al Hanafiah cried and Imam Al-Hussain Q shared his tears.
Then, Imam Al Hussain Q said:
«Brother, you have given your advice and compassion. I wish your opinion is pertinent and fortunate. I have decided to go to Mecca. My brothers, nephews, my followers and I are ready for that. They all have the same opinion as I, and they want to face the same destiny. As for you, my brother, I want you to stay in Medina, wherein you will be keeping an eye on them for me, and don’t worry about me of any of their plots!»
Afterwards, Imam Al-Hussain Q asked for an inkwell and a blank paper. He wrote his immortal will to the order of his brother Mohammad, wherein he explained the main and principal objective for him to dissident against Yazeed:
«In the Name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful,
This is the will made by Al-Hussain Bin Ali Bin Abi Taleb to his brother Mohammad, known as Ibn Al-Hanafiah:
Indeed, Al Hussain states that there isn’t any God but Allah, the one and only, who has no associate, and that Mohammad is his servant and messenger. He came with the divine right from the utmost right, and that heaven and hell surely exist, and that the time of resurrection is undoubtedly coming where Allah
will raise those in the graves. Yet, I did not secede for greed, vanity, corruption or despotism, indeed I aim reformation for the nation of my Grand Father, the Messenger of God P and my Father, Ali Bin Abi Taleb Q I want to order good doing and prohibit wrong doing, He who recognize me, by acknowledging the truth, then God is the cardinal of truth, and he who did not recognize that this is my right, I shall endure until Allah makes his judgment to resolve issues between me and those people and Allah is the most trusted judge. This is my will to you and my success isn’t granted by no one but Allah, only onto him I rely and to him I shall return».
Leaving Medina at Night and Going on the Great Path (Main Road):
Imam Al-Hussain Q departed Medina with his companions and convoy during late night hours. The same situation occurred also when he left noble Mecca, which indicates that his departure occurred secretly, fearing the authority pursuit, and due to his concern not to be killed in Medina or in order to avoid any armed confrontation therein. Nevertheless, he announced in Mecca, as we will state at a later stage, about the time of his departure. Some scholars say that Imam Al-Hussain had left Medina, while reciting Allah’s following utterance:
«So, he escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said: «My Lord! Save me from the people who are Zâlimûn (polytheists and wrong-doers)»Al-Qasas (Verse 21)
Knowing that it is unlikely for the authority to be unaware about the departure of Al-Hussain convoy, because it is relatively large, notwithstanding that Al-Waleed Bin Utaba was lenient to exert pressure on the Imam Q and wished him to leave Medina, so he would be spared of the calamity of
shedding his blood.
The Imam Q insisted on taking the longest road, ready to face any danger, whether being accounted for or not, and he will not let go of this path, in order to create awareness for his uprising by enabling the Hussain’s convoy to meet every traveler and every convoy heading to Mecca. Since they will surely wonder about the reasons that forced Imam Hussain Q to leave the City of his Grand Father P, together with all the Hashim’s family and his partisans, accordingly a necessary publicity work and intimation would be accomplished in order to widen the scope of such blessed insurrection, out sourced by the Mohammedan and Hussain’s courage. This is also how he would announce to the nation, that he is not such a rebellion, opposing to a legal government, that they had recognized at first, to revolt against it afterwards. In fact, He is the legal representative and the most eligible party for the Greatest Road and the Caliphate succession, as well as for all the nation’s affairs.
Al Hussain Convoy:
Imam Al Hussain Q left Medina, accompanied by all his sons, brothers, his brother’s sons, and his household members Q except for Mohammad Bin Al Hanafiah due to sickness, Abdullah Bin Jaafar, being the husband of Lady Zeinab O, for being blind, his daughter Fatima Al Sughra’ for being also hindered by sickness, and Abdullah Bin Abbas, because of acute shortsightedness which turned into blindness after Imam Al-Hussain’s Q martyrdom
In addition to the non-Hashemi partisans who had left Medina with him, they were around ten men, counting: Abdullah Bin Boukter Al-Houmayri, Souleiman Bin Razeen, and Saad Bin Abdullah Al Doualy….
Some of the partisans rejoined the convoy while heading to Mecca, including: Majmaa Bin Ziad Bin Amro Al Juhani, Ibad Bin Al Mouhajer Bin Abi Al Mouhajer Al. Jouhani, Akaba Bin Al Salt Al Jouhani…
The Imam Q led his convoy until reaching Mecca. Yet, he didn’t receive any letter from the Kufa people, because they did not know about Muawiya’s death, till the arrival of the Imam Q to Mecca.