Briefly summarize the two sides in the debate on the morality of Spanish conquest, being sure to include their major proponents (who supported them).
Destruction and Transformation of American Indian Societies
After reading the section, examine the charts on page 429. What do you think accounts for the odd shape of the first graph? What are your thoughts on the second graph? (try and use more than one or two words).
Exploitation of the Indians
How does the relationship between natives and Spaniards in the encomienda system to compare to traditional feudal relationships?
The Silver Heart of Empire
Create your own analytical question AND answer.
Haciendas and Villages
What is the difference between “encomiendas” and “haciendas”? (HINT: You may need to use the glossary)
Industry and Commerce
Describe the process that brings silver to Spain and goods to the colonies. What made it successful? What were some of the dangers?
Who are the “castas”? What role did they play in colonial society?
How does the role of the castas grow as time progresses? What opportunities were available for upward mobility?
Who are the “creoles”? What problems do they face that are unique to their class?
18th Century Reforms
create your own question and answer
The Shifting Balance of Politics and Trade
What are 5 reasons that Spain’s grip on the Western hemisphere begins to slip by the 18th century?
What changes were taking place in Spain’s colonies that made them harder for Spain to control?
The Bourbon Reforms
What are 4 efforts made by the rulers of Spain to regain Spanish economic, political and military control of their empire? Be descriptive.
Pombal and Brazil
What are 2 similarities between Portuguese and Spanish reform efforts in their colonies? What are 2 differences that are unique to Portugal’s reforms?
Reforms, Reactions, and Revolts
What were the common complaints of revolutionaries near the end of the 18th century? How did the division of the social classes affect the success of these revolutionary movements?
Points to Ponder (Answer in Notebook)
In what sense can it be said that the nature of the Latin American colonies was simply a reflection of Iberian society? Be sure to address at least 3 different characteristics (cultural, political, religious, economic, etc)
Compare and contrast the colonies of Spanish America with Portuguese Brazil.
Compare Latin American labor systems with either Russian or feudal European practices.
Compare the Spanish conquest of the Americas with one of the following…
Post-Classical Arab conquest of the Middle East
Classical Roman conquest of the Mediterranean world
Mongol conquest of the Eastern World
How did Latin American demography and environment change from Pre-Columbian times through the era of Spanish/Portuguese colonization?
Chapter 20: Africa and the Africans in the Age of the Atlantic Slave trade
Describe the debate between scholars on the importance/impact of slavery. Which side do you agree with? Why?
The Atlantic Slave Trade
Does Portugal or the African kingdoms hold the advantage in their early relationships? Why? How do the Portuguese begin to affect the balance of power?
What are three examples of the impact that Portugal has on African society?
How does the slave trade begin? How does it evolve as time passes?
Trend Towards Expansion
How does this section change/expand your understanding of slavery in British North America (the future United States)?
Create your own question and answer based on the charts on pg 452
How does the slave trade impact population in Africa?
Organization of the Trade
How is the slave trade organized by the various European countries? What are some of the unexpected effects of the trade on Europeans?
Why is it so difficult to determine whether or not the slave trade was as profitable as we’ve always believed?
African Societies, Slavery and the Slave Trade
Describe the institution of slavery within Africa. How does it differ from the type and degree of enslavement created by Europeans on these same people?
Slaving and African Politics
Explain the “gun-slave” cycle. Based on the information in the section, why do you agree/disagree with this theory that tries to explain the continuation of the slave trade despite the obvious negative effects on Africans?
Asante and Dahomey
Compare and contrast the relationship between Europe and EACH of the major slave kingdoms of the West African coast (Asante, Benin, and Dahomey)
East Africa and the Sudan
Is the East-coast slave trade more similar to or different from the West-coast slave trade? Why?
Describe the work of Islam in East Africa. What impact does it have on African society?
White Settlers and Africans in Southern Africa
What does South Africa look like (politically, socially, economically) before Europeans arrive?
Describe the relationship that develops between the Dutch and native Africans. Describe the later conflict between the Dutch and incoming British.
The Mfecane and the Zulu Rise to Power
Explain the Zulu’s rise to power. What allowed them to be successful? How do the neighboring tribal groups/kingdoms respond?
The African Diaspora
Read twice – take your own notes
Read twice – take your own notes
Africans in the Americas
Create your own question and answer
American Slave Societies
Describe the hierarchy that develops within slave societies. What aspects of this system seem most odd or illogical?
The People and Gods in Exile
Describe the ways in which African culture survived in a slave society. In addition, describe the ways in which African and European culture became intertwined.
The End of the Slave Trade and the Abolition of Slavery
List and Explain three reasons or justifications for the end of slavery/the slave trade.
Points to Ponder (answer these in your notebooks)
To what extent was slavery a feature of African society prior to the coming of the Europeans? How was it intertwined with the development of more centralized states?
Compare and contrast African slavery, Latin American forced labor, and Russian serfdom.
Compare and contrast the effects of the slave trade on Africa with the Black Death’s effects in Europe.
What changes do you notice in the practice of Islam in Africa by 1750? How has it remain unchanged since it was first introduced in the Post-Classical period?
Evaluate the causes for the end of the Atlantic slave trade. (*This means to not only “describe” them, but to also critique or judge them based on the thinking at the time.)
Chapter 21: The Muslim Empires
Who are the 3 new Muslim empires that rise from the ashes of the old Arabic Empire? Where are they located? How do they interact (as a group) with the West?
The Ottomans: From Frontier Warriors to Empire Builders
Where do the Ottomans come from? What are 3 of their significant accomplishments?
A State Geared to Warfare
Who are the janissaries? What allowed them to become so powerful?
The Sultans and Their Court
What advantage is gained by using both Christians and Jews as merchants?
What problems typically faced a sultan during his reign? What problems arose at his death?
Constantinople Restored and the Flowering of Ottoman Culture
Describe the culture of the Ottoman Empire. Be sure to touch on the following topics…
What steps does Akbar take to improve the status of women in Mughal society? How successful were these reforms?
Mughal Splendor and Early European Contacts
What was the key to India’s economic success? What impact did this have on their relationship with the West?
Artistic Achievement in the Mughal Era
Compare the lifestyles of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal leaders.
Create your own question and answer on Mughal architecture.
Court Politics and the Position of Elite and Ordinary Women
Describe the opportunities that became available to women like Nur Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal. How do their lives compare with those of the average woman in Mughal society?
The Beginnings of Imperial Decline
What were the two main causes of Mughal decline? Describe how these two factors cause the collapse of this empire?
Points to Ponder (answer these in your notebooks)
Discuss the social and political organization of the Ottoman Empire.
Compare the interactions between the Ottomans and the West with those of Russia and the West.
Compare and contrast the role of religion in the new Muslim empires (Ottomans/Safavids) with Mughal India
How has India changed from the Mauryan dynasty to the Mughal? How has it remained the same?
How have gender roles and relations changed from Aryan India to Mughal India?
Chapter 22: Asian Transitions in a Age of Global Change
Describe the arrival of da Gama’s fleet in Calicut from the perspective of both the Portuguese and Indians. What is noticeably different about their views? (feel free to narrate if you so desire)
The Asian Trading World and the Coming of the Europeans
What major problem do the Portuguese encounter after finally making the trip around Africa and across the Arabian Sea? What secondary problem do they face regarding their nemesis, the Muslims?
Bonds of Commerce: The Asian Sea Trading Network
List the 3 “zones of trade” as described in the text, as well as the major products associated with those zones.
What 2 characteristics/weaknesses of this trade network will the Europeans ultimately be able to exploit?
Trading Empire: The Portuguese Response to the Encounter at Calicut
What objections do the Portuguese have to using silver as a medium of exchange in their trade with the East?
How do the Portuguese change the way trade is conducted in the East. Describe at least one example of their ability to dictate the terms of trade and exchange.
Portuguese Vulnerability and the Rise of the Dutch and English Trading Empires
What are 3 reasons for the failure of the Portuguese to establish a trading empire, thus opening the door for the Dutch and English? How do the Dutch methods differ from the Portuguese?
Going Ashore: European Tribute Systems in Asia
What prevented Europeans from simply taking over the foreign countries they visited? What methods were used (particularly with smaller kingdoms) to ensure that Europeans were able to get the products they wanted with a minimum of fuss?
Spreading the Faith: The Missionary Enterprise in South and Southeast Asia
Why do you suppose Christian missionaries had success in converting lower-caste Hindus, but not those of the upper castes?
Despite the best intentions of European missionaries, what were the primary reasons that the “native pagans” agreed to conversion?
Ming China: A Global Mission Refused
Read twice…no question
Another Scholar-Gentry Revival
How has the exam system changed from its Foundations-era origins? How has it remained the same?
Reform: Hongwu’s Efforts to Root Out Abuses in Court Politics
What steps does Hongwu take to prevent corruption in the bureaucracy? How does he attempt to keep peace in the palace itself?
A Return to Scholar-Gentry Dominance
Describe the conditions of the peasant class during the Ming dynasty. In addition, how has the status of women changed/remained the same?
An Age of Growth: Agriculture, Population, Commerce, and the Arts
Create your own question AND answer
An Age of Expansion: the Zhenghe Expeditions
Read twice…no question (This should be mostly review for you)
Chinese Retreat and the Arrival of the Europeans
Describe the successes and failures of European missionaries in China (be sure to mention efforts focused at both upper and lower classes).
Ming Decline and the Chinese Predicament
Describe the effect of dynastic decline on the peasantry.
Fending Off the West: Japan’s Reunification and the First Challenge
How do the plans/policies of Hideyoshi compare with those of his successor Tokugawa Ieyasu? Whose are ultimately more successful for Japan?
Dealing With the European Challenge
Describe the initial reaction of the Japanese to the Christian missionaries. What causes their attitude to change as time progresses?
Japan’s Self-Imposed Isolation
How do Japanese attitudes towards Europeans begin to change during the 16th and 17th centuries? What are some of the causes of this shift?
Points to Ponder (Answer in your Notebook)
Define the characteristics of the Asian sea trading network. In what ways did the European incursion change the Asian system? In what ways did it remain the same?
What was the nature of the Ming restoration of traditional Chinese values? What innovations were made?
Compare and contrast Chinese and European means (how they did it) and motives (why they did it) for commercial expansion.