The Industrial Revolution Name____________________________
Second Most Transformative Date______________Pd.____________
Revolution in Human History Notes Worksheet
Renaissance to Industrialization
The Renaissance provided the intellectual spark that led to the ___________________ Revolution.
The Scientific Revolution led directly to the Industrial Revolution by providing the solutions and ____________________ to mechanize the production of goods for human consumption
The Industrial Revolution is one of the most _________________________ events in human history!
Terms and Concepts
______________________ – Having to do with industry, business or manufacturing
______________________ – a transformative change in the way things are done
_____________________________ – a change from making things by hand to making them in factories.
Historical Significance of the Industrial Revolution
An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different – ______________________ and ____________________________ were not much changed in 2000+ years!
The Industrial Revolution changed human life drastically & irrevocably!
More was created in the last 250+ years than in the previous 2500+ years of known human history
Industrialization made possible the ______________ class and the high _________________ of ___________ we enjoy today!
What was the Industrial Revolution?
The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way ____________ were _______________, from human ________ to _____________________, speeding up production while drastically reducing __________.
Industrialization fits perfectly into the ethos of _____________________ and the effects of this change have been ______________.
The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered far-reaching changes to ___________________________ societies
Created a prosperous middle class
Expanded the scope of human achievement and knowledge
Allowed man to control his _____________________ and take charge of his destiny.
The Industrial Revolution
_____________________________ were invented which replaced human labor
New ____________________ sources were developed to power the new machinery – _____________, ___________________, ________________________, ____________ (gas, kerosene) which made the machines independent of human power
Some historians place advances in atomic, solar, and wind energy at the later stages of the Industrial Revolution
Increased use of metals and minerals
Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, _______, etc.
Increased sophistication and power allows for an ever increasing living standard for humans.
Expansion of human endeavor and human knowledge is made possible!
The Industrial Revolution
Wooden ships → Iron ships → Steel ships
Wind-powered sails → Steam-powered boilers
___________ are the most cost-effective way to transport raw materials and finished goods. Almost everything we buy is transported at least partially by ship.
_____________—steam, coal and diesel powered, provided the most efficient way to transport raw materials, finished goods and human beings on land. It still is the most cost-effective way to transport goods on land.
Automobiles—Automobiles and trucks provided mobility for the individual and a way to efficiently ship merchandise to retail locations. This changed the culture of the US and altered forever the living standards of Americans.
Communication improved—rapid communication possible! Global reach!
Telegraph Telephone Radio
Transportation: Rail and Canal
_________________________________ nations first laid track in their own countries, then in their colonies and other areas under their political influence
Russia – Trans-Siberian railroad (1891-1905)
Germany – Berlin-to-Baghdad railroad across Europe to the Middle East
Great Britain – Cape-to-Cairo railroad vertically across Africa
____________ Canal (1869) – provided access to the Indian Ocean from the Mediterranean Sea without the need to sail around Africa
Kiel Canal (1896) – North Sea connected to the Baltic Sea
_______________________ Canal (1914) – provided access from one side of the Americas to the other without the need to sail around the tip of South America
Transportation: Auto and Air
Charles Goodyear – vulcanized ______________, 1839
Gottlieb Daimler – ____________________________, 1885
Henry Ford – ___________________ line, 1908-1915
Orville and Wilbur Wright – airplane, 1903
Charles Lindbergh – first non-stop flight across the Atlantic, 1927
20th-century – growth of commercial aviation
__________ production of goods
Increased numbers of goods
Increased ______________ of goods produced
Development of ________________ system of production
People left farms to work in _______________
Development of modern __________________________
Financial capital for continued industrial growth
Development and growth of new socio-economic classes
Working class, __________________________, and wealthy industrial class
Commitment to research and development
Investments in new technologies
Industrial and governmental interest in promoting _________________________, the _____________________, and overall _____________________________ growth
Increase in investment in science and technology
Origins of the Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
First Phase of Industrialization (1740-1860)
Industrial processes are introduced
Marriage of science, technology, energy, organization to produce industrial efficiency
________________________ are the first to industrialize, iron for ships, trains, buildings and machines; hallmark of the age!
Second Phase of Industrialization (1860-1914)
Consolidation of industrialism and the industrial __________________
Expansion of _________________________ to vastly speed up the industrial process; all facets of national economy are mechanized and industrialized (ex. agriculture, education)
_____________________ is industrialized and conflict becomes exponentially more lethal towards the end of this phase, leading to the _________________ Wars and beyond.
________________________ is a system that runs on automatic pilot; no one leader controls it and nothing can stop it once it gets started!
Today we are in the __________-Industrial Age, where the US is a ______________________ nation and manufacturing has moved to more cost-effective locations like __________, Malaysia and Vietnam.
The Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution was the result of a marriage between ______________________, _______________________ and ____________________________
The Industrial Revolution used ideas of __________________________ “survival of the fittest” to frame the ________________________ that drove the revolution
The Industrial Revolution was a rapid change in the methods of producing goods.
The Industrial Revolution was the ________________ most ______________________________ revolution in human history
Changed the way goods are produced and consumed
Changed the way humans ____________, ___________ and _______________________, while creating the modern class stratification in society.
Provided material wealth that lifted mankind substantially out of dire poverty!
Transformation of Labor
During the Industrial Revolution, the manufacture of goods was increasingly done by ____________________ instead of human hand labor
The energy to drive the machines was from inanimate sources rather than human or animal power. Water, Coal, Steam and Oil=______________________!
The goods themselves increasingly were derived from _________________________ objects
The central component was the ___________________________, a __________ to speed up manufacturing, increase efficiency and produce more wealth more cheaply than ever.
_________________ no longer creates, but rather runs the machinery of production; part of the process!
Labor is a______________________ like everything else! In a competitive market, _________ trend ___________!
Industrialization of Labor
The processes required to manufacture a product are reduced to their individual steps. (____________________)
Each step now becomes a __________ skill job.
Labor simply operates the machines, the ________________ of _________________________.
Labor is fungible, replaceable and portable; labor typically is performed where costs are the lowest!
________________ is no longer ___________________; Labor is simply a part of the overall industrial system.
Human beings are treated in this system like machines!
The Labor Force
No single description could include all of these 19th century workers:
Domestic system craftsmen
Variations in duties, income, and working conditions made it difficult for them to unite.
The Condition of Labor
All working people, however, faced possible ________________________, with little or no provision for security.
In addition, they were subject to various kinds of __________________________:
The closing of factory gates to late workers
___________ for tardiness
__________________________ for drunkenness
Public ______________________ for poor quality workmanship
Beatings for non-submissiveness
________________________ in ___________ or non-payment of wages owed!
No disability for on the job injury and no recourse in a dispute with bosses!
During the ______th century, factory workers underwent a process of _________________________________ (i.e., they lost control of the means of production).
Family Structures Changed
With the decline of the domestic system and the rise of the factory system, family life changed.
At first, the entire family, including the children, worked in the factory, just as they had at home.
Later, family life became fragmented (the father worked in the factory, the mother handled domestic chores, the children went to school).
Family members were _________________________ units living in mutual support.
Family as a Unit of Consumption
In short, the European family changed from being a unit of production and consumption to being a unit of ____________________________ alone.
The Family existed to pool its resources together to survive and maintain the human workers needed to tend the machines.
The value of the workers __________________________ with the increasing speed and power of the machines.
Industrial _____________________________ is _________________________________
Management ______________________ is reduced to smallest individual steps
_____________________ of corporate managers oversee the industrial production
Management allows for ________________ supervision, ___________________________ and adaptability in the _________________________ line.
_____________ can control thousands of employees and implement decisions almost immediately in a highly __________________________ environment.
__________________________ is part of the __________________________ process!
Origins of Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution began in _______________________:
Landowners enclosed common farmland, forcing poor farmers to find jobs in urban areas
Surplus of money to invest by entrepreneurs
Mature banking system creates capital pools for investment
Abundant water & coal for energy
Colonial empire for obtaining raw materials cheaply.
Britain has huge overseas colonial _______________ with ___________________ markets for manufactured goods; guaranteed _________________!
Old World Manufacture
Prior to the Industrial Revolution goods were hand made by _______________________ and ______________; need: speed up the process!
__________________ Industry-production done in the____________ by _________________________.
__________ work—individuals piece together a product from parts provided; ____________________ step in industrial process!
_____________________________: During the first half of the 19th century, the European manufacturing process shifted from small-scale production by hand at home to ___________-scale production by machine in a ________________ setting.
The Machine converts workers into industrial cogs in a system of production that creates vast amounts of wealth for industrialists and poverty for workers whose wages are driven lower.
At the Expense of Workers
The shift meant high quality products at _________________________ prices, but often at the _______________ of ____________________. For example, the raw wool and cotton that fed the British textile mills came from:
Lands converted from farming to sheep raising, leaving farm workers without jobs
The southern plantations of the United States, which were dependent upon slave labor
Those who could no longer make a living on the land migrated from the countryside to the cities to seek work in the factories.
At the same time, the population of Europe continued to grow.
Huge labor pool to feed the machines!
The Plight of the Cities
The sheer number of human beings put pressure on city resources:
Housing, water, sewers, food supplies, and lighting were completely ________________________.
Conditions in the Countryside
The only successful farmers were those with large landholdings who could afford agricultural _________________________.
Didn’t have enough land to support themselves
Were devastated by poor harvests (e.g., the Irish Potato Famine of 1845-47)
Were forced to move to the _______________ to find work in the __________________________; no other alternative existed for earning a living!
Why the Industrial Revolution Started in England in 18th Century
England’s Resources: __________________
The Commercial Revolution made many English merchants very wealthy
These merchants had the capital to invest in the _________________ system – money to buy ________________, ____________________, and ___________ materials
England’s Resources: Colonies and Markets Stimulate English Industrialism
Wealth from the Commercial Revolution spread beyond the merchant class and created ______________
England had more ___________________ than any other nation; British Empire covered ________% of Earth’s surface.
Its colonies gave England access to enormous markets and vast amounts of raw materials for English factories.
Colonies had rich textile industries for centuries
Many of the natural cloths popular today, such as calico and gingham, were originally created in India
China had a silk industry—the British skillfully dominated this trade.
England controlled the seas!
England’s Resources: Raw Materials
England itself possessed the necessary raw materials to create the means of production
______________ Power (waterfalls, streams, rivers)
_____________ – vast coal reserves powered steam engines
_____________ – basic building block of large machines, railroad tracks, trains, and ships
___________—important metal used in many industrial alloys.
England’s Resources: Workers
Serfdom and guilds ended earlier in England than other countries
English people could freely travel from the countryside to the cities
________________________ Acts – caused many small farmers to lose their lands, and these former farmers increased the labor supply
Concentrated supply of ______________________________workers ready to work the new factories; the first industrial armies!
England’s Resources: Merchant Marine
World’s largest _______________________ fleet
Merchant marine built up from the ______________________________ Revolution
Vast numbers of ships could bring raw materials and finished goods to and from England’s colonies and possessions, as well as to and from other countries
England’s Resources: Geography
England is the political center of ______________________________, an island
Great Britain (as the entire island was called beginning in _________) did not suffer fighting on its land during the wars of the 18th century
Island has excellent ________________ and ______________
Damp climate benefited the ___________________ industry (thread did not dry out)
No internal trade barriers
___________________________: 1st to Industrialize!
The Textile industry was the first to industrialize in England
Textiles required relatively _________________ capital investment and firms could _____________________________ out of profits.
Textiles were a ________________________ that was in strong demand thanks to a rising _____________________________!
1733-____________________________ invented the flying shuttle for weaving thread.
1764-____________________________ invented the Spinning Jenny to create thread
1787—___________________________ invented the water-powered loom to weave cloth.
1782—___________________ improved the steam engine to drive machinery; factories could be set up anywhere!
With the invention of the _________________________ and the ________________________, the ______________________ industry took off.
___________________ could now be made far faster than ever before.
Cost of production was dramatically slashed and the retail cost of cloth plummeted. A rising tide of cheap goods made a _______________ standard of living affordable for more people.
Rising production of wealth made possible the ________________________ Class and created the modern ______________________________ class, the ________________________________.
The spinning wheel was the first invention for the manufacture of textiles, but it was very slow.
Threads were spun one at a time, by hand and then had to be woven into cloth.
The Spinning Jenny
The spinning jenny could spin up to eight threads at time. The spinning jenny was much faster than the spinning wheel.
Automated the process of thread making and sped up the production of textiles.
Samuel Crompton (1753-1827)
The Spinning Mule
The spinning mule used water power to spin the thread, which was much faster than doing it by hand.
More cloth could now be made faster and more efficiently.
The Spinning Mule was invented by Samuel Crompton between 1775-79.
Edmund Cartwright (1743-1823) The Power Loom
The power loom used water power to weave ______________
People could make a lot of cloth quickly.
Edmund Cartwright developed the Power Loom in 1784
_________________________ the textile industry!
With the invention of _____________, buildings could be made much taller=______________________!
Steel was much harder than iron, which would bend if made too tall.
The steel industry created many new products, and led to the invention of the car.
_________________________ Steel reshaped the landscape of American cities, allowing for _________________ development and skyscrapers, which changed the ___________________ of urban areas.
Iron & Steel Processes
___________________________ (1741-1800) invented the __________________ process to burn off impurities and create a higher grade of iron—British iron industry boomed as a result, producing 3 million tons by 1852
________________________________(1813-1898) invented the Bessemer Process for __________ production
Used ____________________________ blown through molten pig iron to burn off the impurities
Steel was created quickly and in large batches of up to 30 tons. It was economical in the use of fuel and the process operated around the clock to make ____________, reliable, high ____________________ steel.
Steel became the ___________________________ building material of the late Industrial Revolution!
Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919)
Andrew Carnegie, an ________________________ from ______________________, became a multi-millionaire in the ________________ business by putting many of his competitors out of business.
He helped create ___________________ in Pittsburgh, PA, the largest steel manufacturing firm in the world.
Carnegie gave away most of his fortune when he died, establishing ____________________ all over the country
Ripple Effects of the Industrial Revolution: Transforming Life!
________________________-efficient bulk transportation
Railroads created new jobs for farm laborers, cheap transport meant cheap prices for goods everyone could afford; transport efficiency led to higher profits that were invested---__________________ growth!
_____________—large, ocean going vessels made of ___________ & ______________ and capable of carrying immense cargoes allowed for very cheap transport of goods. Most raw materials and manufactured goods were carried by ship to market—most efficient form of transport; still is!
Water– waterfalls and waterwheels provide energy
Coal—cheap source of energy makes factory location variable; cities favored locations!
______________________ production facility transforming _________ materials into _______________________ goods quickly and _________________________ on a large scale basis in 24/hr production
Cities provide cheap __________ pools centrally located for _____________________; transport, residential hubs for workers make cities efficient industrial centers!
Immigrant—pool of cheap labor for emerging industrial economy!
Developed to replace the domestic system of production
Faster method of production
Workers concentrated in a ______ location & production regime.
Production anticipated demand
For example: Under the domestic system, a woman might select fabric and have a businessperson give it to a home-based worker to make into a dress. Under the factory system, the factory owner bought large lots of popular fabrics and had workers create multiple dresses in common sizes, anticipating that women would buy them.
Economic Changes: Factory System Perfected with the Assembly Line
Developed by ___________________________ between 1908 and 1915
Brought the work to the worker instead of the worker to the work
Product moves along a ________________________ belt, with each worker contributing labor along the way to create the finished product
Efficient manufacture of ______________________ products at the __________________ possible cost.
Factory Assembly lines depend on the principle of _________________ of ___________________
Economic Changes: Factory System – Assembly Line Brings Division of Labor
Assembly lines bring the____________ to the worker, saving time
Each worker ___________________ in one part
An automobile worker may spend 30 years in a factory only ever putting passenger-side doors on motor vehicles
Focusing on one aspect of production can be ________________________ but can also make a worker an expert at that particular aspect
_____________ level of labor is__________________________ to only that portion of the process that is required of the worker; keeps labor ____________ down!
Manufacture comes from the Latin manu and facere, meaning to make by hand
But during the Industrial Revolution, the meaning of manufacturer switched from the person who made an article by hand to the ______________________ who hired workers to make articles
Workers no longer owned the means of production (simple hand tools)
Instead, the newer means of production (expensive machinery) were owned by the capitalist
Mass Production of Goods
Motor vehicle production in the United States
1895 – 33,000 motor vehicles
1910 – 181,000 motor vehicles
2000 – 5,542,000 passenger cars alone
Factors contributing to mass production
Standardized (or interchangeable) parts
Labor ___________________ and ____________________________
_______________ production meant more items were produced at lower costs
More people could afford to buy manufactured goods, which in turn spurred demand
Work performed in a factory where workers tend the machines as part of the process, ___________________ to the machines.
Workers frequently had to “______________________” for a job, working without pay sometimes for months to prove they could do the job.
Women and children worked 12-16 hours per day for low wages that were continually lowered due to competition for scarce jobs.
No safety standards were in place; workers were ___________________________; workplace accidents were deadly and ____________________.
_________________ Labor-children as young as 6 worked in coal mines and textile mills. No possibility for education existed for most
_________________________ housing—most workers lived in crowded tenement apartment buildings that were unsafe and unsanitary in ______________ areas that were experiencing population explosions.
Worker health was _____________; in England, workers lived only ____________ as long as the owners.
Reactions to Industrialization
Adam ________________—wrote “The _________________ of __________________” (1776) advocating lassiez-faire, free-market economics of ________________________; he predicted the market would work as though guided by “an _______________________ hand”
Thomas ___________________—wrote about the problem of ____________________________ in the industrial world and the inevitability of __________________________ and _____________________.
David ____________________________, a British economist supported Malthus and the “_________________________ of ______________”—when wages are high, more children are born, creating more workers and in the long run, lower wages; _______________________ is inevitable!
The ______________________________- (1800) Jeremy ___________________—preached _________, goal of society is to provide ________________________ to the greatest number of ______________. Therefore all laws or actions should be judged according to their utility. John Stuart___________ was also a utilitarian “On Liberty”, said government should stop harm to workers.
Karl ____________ and _____________________________—Marx wrote the Communist ______________________ as a reaction to the ______________________ Revolution. Said ________________________ was the last stage before a return to nature, _______________________________. Marxism is a _____________________________ determined theory rooted in ________________________________.
______________________ Darwinism—”Survival of the Fittest”—only the worthy survive and succeed was the motto of the age.
The Nature of Social Change
The Industrial Revolution represented a triumph of the_________________________ class and _________________________ over the landed __________________________.
Strong ____________________ Class emerged and access to ______________________ was expanded
An impoverished __________________ class emerged to fill the ______________ of Europe and America.
___________________ of ________________—overall, it did _________, despite pervasive poverty in urban areas.
______________________—unemployed craftsmen who tried to stop the Industrial Revolution by smashing the machines—they failed!
New Social Classes Emerged:
_________________________—owners of ___________________ (means of production)
_________________________- property-less workers who sell their labor to survive; the poorest segment of the new industrial society, the human cogs in the industrial machine!
Process of Diffusion
spreading industrial mechanization from Europe to America and beyond. History of Industrialization has been one of______________________________!
Competition and Imitation
Capitalism encouraged extreme ________________________ and _____________________ of successful technologies that provided a competitive edge
Despite laws governing industrial _______________________, __________________________ was transferred to countries eager to industrialize; lure of _____________ triumphed over rule of ________!
_________________ Law—_____________________ could get patents and the exclusive right to profit from their inventions for a set period of time. This encouraged innovation and the many violations of patent law quickened the diffusion of industrial mechanization throughout the world.
___________________________ became larger, multinational and increasingly powerful in the global marketplace
The Industrial Revolution and revolutions in transportation and the unification of markets led to the globalization of the economy, an ___________________________ that binds all trading nations together.
__________________________ drives industrial activity globally, in the quest for new _________________, more efficient production and higher_______________!
Today we are in the Industrial Revolution 2.0, as other regions of the world go through the process of Industrialization!
Spread of Industrialism
______________________________ (1768-1835): Father of the American Industrial Revolution
Samuel Slater (June 9, 1768 – April 21, 1835) an Englishman who memorized the plan for a textile mill and brought the technology to the United States; first case of _______________________________!
Sold his expertise to Moses _________________ and eventually set up textile mills throughout New England
Brought in English managerial expertise as well to ensure success.
Owned_________ textile mills when he died and was worth over 1 million dollars.
Eli Whitney (1765-1825)
______________________________ Parts—Eli ________________ (December 8, 1765 – January 8, 1825) conceived of interchangeable parts as a way to mass produce guns for the US Army—led to assembly line style production utilizing division of labor & interchangeable parts
Introduced _____________________________ analysis to determine profitability of industrial process as well as _________________________ studies
_______________________— invented the cotton gin which allowed for efficient cleaning of cotton, stimulating the US cotton boom and the rise of the US Textile Industry.
________________________ Machine- invented the milling machine, which is a machine tool for milling solid objects—used in the manufacture of __________________ machinery.
Whitney's defenders have claimed that he invented the American ______________________ of Manufacturing, the combination of power _______________________, interchangeable parts and ____________________ of ______________ that would underlie the nation's subsequent industrial revolution!
Economic Changes: Factory System Possible Due to Standardized Parts
Eli Whitney is popularly credited with the invention of interchangeable parts in the late 1700s
But interchangeable parts had already been used in Europe
Before the late 1700s, each part of an item (like a musket) was made individually by a single person, with each part made to fit the whole
______________________________, or interchangeable, parts were created en masse to make a lot of duplicate products (such as hundreds of muskets)
Manufacturers decided upon standard sizes for their goods and created large quantities of components
Such as deciding that a musket barrel should be two feet long and making 100 duplicate musket barrels, then deciding that triggers for these muskets should be two inches tall and making 100 2-inch triggers
Standardized parts could be kept in a set location in a factory
As a worker assembled an article, he or she would take whatever parts were needed from a bin of standardized (interchangeable) parts
The Lowell Experiment: Bringing Industrialization to America!
1830’s Lowell Massachussetts—Textile manufacturing center. Need: _____________________________
_______________________________ System of company towns that cared for workers; ________________ ideal for workers.
Rural ___________________ were employed in the mills, provided housing in company _____________, and _______________________ at company sponsored _______________ and literary events.
Company towns were not the answer to labor shortages, _________________________________ was!
More and more people moved to cities where there were factory jobs
This was more true of the North than the South which remained agricultural
Wage labor became the norm
Thomas Edison & The Electric Light
Can you imagine what life would be like without the electric light?
Thomas Edison invented the ________________________ light.
Thomas Edison also invented many other things, like the ________________________.
Samuel Morse (1791-1872) & The Telegraph
In 1844, Samuel Morse demonstrates his ______________________ by sending a message to Baltimore from the chambers of the Supreme Court in Washington, DC. The message, "What hath God wrought?," marks the beginning of a new era in ___________________________.
The telegraph used ____________ and _____________________ to send messages over electric lines. These dots and dashes became known as_____________________ Code.
Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922)
& The Telephone
Alexander Graham Bell patented the first telephone in 1876.
Provided for ________________________ voice communication over long distances.
Improved communication and served to aid in the eventual ___________________________ of the economy.
Stock Market & Corporations
___________________ market invented
“_________________” would receive a percentage of __________________
_____________________ became stock market center
Stock market became a vehicle for raising capital ______________ for economic _____________________.
___________________________________ became the dominant organization in the new industrial economy; becoming _________________________ integrated and controlling most areas of the industrial process.
Corporations became so powerful they could actually influence the operation of the ____________________!
Results of the Industrial Revolution
Energy and the New Global Economy in the Post Industrial Age
The energy sources for the Industrial Revolution were:
John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937)
Owned _________________________ Oil Company and was the richest American ever. In the second part of the Industrial Revolution _________ became the fuel of choice
The Industrial Revolution represented a globally______________________________ change that has altered the course of human __________________ and human ___________________.
Today we are in the ____________-Industrial Age and are dealing with a global economy where manufacturing is done remotely in _________________________ nations. What will the future look like? Explain below: