The Illinois Open 2005: Spite, Death and the Devil Tossups by Somewhere Among Us a Stone Is Taking Notes

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The Illinois Open 2005: Spite, Death and the Devil

Tossups by Somewhere Among Us a Stone Is Taking Notes (Andrew Yaphe and Jerry Vinokurov)
1. One character in this novel becomes so fascinated by Noémie Nioche, an untalented painter, that he fights a duel to defend her honor. That character dies after that duel, but not before he manages to tell his friend that he should ask a housekeeper named Mrs. Bread to tell him a secret about the family of the woman he loves. That woman is a young widow to whom the protagonist is introduced by Mrs. Tristram, and who ends up becoming a nun. In the end, the secret of the Bellegarde family is destroyed by Christopher Newman. For ten points, name this 1877 novel by Henry James about a wealthy man from a certain nation.

Answer: The American

2. Evidence for their existence includes the fact that their namesake acidity is greater for P(OPh)3 [“triphenyl phosphite”] than for PPh3 [“triphenyl phosphorous”]. Their strength can be measured by the Cotton-Kraihanzel force-field technique, and in infrared spectra, alkyl amines, ethers, and alcohols form the weak end of their namesake acceptor scale because they lack empty low-lying orbitals. The carbon-oxygen stretching frequency is a good measure of their strength in metal-carbonyl compounds, and their existence explains the 18-electron rule and the stability of organometallic compounds. Having a nodal surface that includes the bonds axis and lobes of opposite sign on each side of the nodal surface, for ten points, identify these companions to sigma bonds formed by overlapping p-orbitals.

Answer: pi bonds (accept “pi orbitals” before “orbitals”)

3. After the end of the first of these, an anti-tax proclamation known as the Vyborg Manifesto was issued. The second one only lasted a little more than a month, and its demise coincided with the electoral law of June 16, which hurt minorities and workers. The more conservative third one was also elected in 1907, and featured numerous social reforms planned by Peter Stolypin. For ten points, name this series of popular assemblies that were instituted by Tsar Nicholas II following the revolution of 1905.

Answer: the Duma

4. One process given this name is also known as the Scholl reaction, while another reaction with this name is often used to create fused-ring systems. It is unusual among reactions of its type in that the entering group is activating, as well as the fact that the OH, OR, and NH2 groups do not facilitate the reaction. In most cases, the electrophile is a carbocation and aluminum chloride and boron trifluoride are common catalysts in this reaction. It typically fails for fused-ring compounds because they tend to react with the catalyst and is limited to arenes that are more reactive than mono-halobenzenes. Existing in arylation, acylation, and alkylation forms, for ten points, identify this electrophilic aromatic substitution, named for the two scientists who discovered it in 1877.

Answer: Friedel-Crafts reaction (accept Friedel-Crafts arylation before “with this name”)

5. The year before his death, he won a major victory at Berat, after which his chief rival made peace with Venice, forcing him to make a deal with Peter of Aragon. That chief rival had earlier annoyed him by proclaiming himself King of Albania, having used the Treaty of Viterbo to assume Baldwin II’s claims against this man’s empire. At the Council of Lyon, this man accepted the authority of the Pope, but his nation returned to the Orthodox fold less than a decade later under his son, Andronicus II. For ten points, name this ruler opposed to Charles of Anjou, and who, from 1261 to 1282, ruled the Byzantine Empire as the greatest of the Paleologi.

Answer: Michael VIII

6. The first notable response to this work, which claims that existence belongs to the essence of the composite “existing lion,” was written by Johannes Caterus. The author of this work wrote a letter to Father Dinet which contains his response to Pierre Bourdin’s commentary, while other objections to this work were written by Antoine Arnauld, Pierre Gassendi, Marin Mersenne, and Thomas Hobbes. This work consists of six parts, which purport to demonstrate the existence of God and the distinction between the human soul and the body. For ten points, name this work by René Descartes.

Answer: Meditations on First Philosophy or Meditationes de Prima Philosophiae

7. The like-named sequel to this work involves such characters as Fastidious Brisk, Sordido and his son Fungoso, and the malcontent Macilente. At the end of this work, Justice Clement conducts an investigation that explains everything, and Kitely is reconciled with his wife, as are Cob and Tib. Earlier, a servant named Brainworm disguised himself to help Edward Knowell fend off his father, who doesn’t think that young people should fiddle around with poetry. For ten points, name this drama in whose original 1598 production Shakespeare is thought to have acted; a work by Ben Jonson in which each of the characters is designed to exhibit one of a group of four character traits.

Answer: Every Man in His Humour

8. Global warming makes him pleased but sticky, and he wishes the stalwart turtles peace among the Dutch tulips before yelling at his coworker that “Windmills do not work like that!” He learns that even hideous things can be sweet on the inside after eating a plate of ugly food laced with Spargel’s secret ingredient, LSD. At the Le Palm d’Orbit, he performs a karaoke rendition of Funkytown, and the inability to remember how to pronounce the letter that looks like the man with a hat causes him to misunderstand his teleprompter. Kittens give him gas, and he is good friends with Richard Nixon, whom he tells that his family is “belligerent and numerous.” All humans are vermin the eyes of, for ten points, what green monster, Linda’s co-host on Planet Network News in Futurama?

Answer: Morbo

9. This being lived in ascetic austerity for 60,000 years in order to acquire his powers and, in one version of his myth, he was created by Tvashtri in revenge for the slaying of Trisiras. That version has him meeting his end by way of foam, but a different version has him hoarding all the waters of the world, and only his death brings their release. According to the Mahabharata, he was 4,500 miles tall and 1,500 miles in girth, and had stupefied the King of the Gods with his maya until that king, exhorted by Shiva, slew him and had to do penance before Brahma afterwards. Typically portrayed as either a cosmic dragon or a titan, for ten points, identify this Vedic demon slain by Indra.

Answer: Vritra

10. At the end of this work, the author attacks “the fallacy of all prohibitory, sumptuary, and moral legislation,” particularly targeting the temperance movement. Previously, the author makes the assertion that “we can never annihilate a penalty.” He argues that the size of the United States makes it an ideal working environment for the unskilled classes and blasts trade unions for restricting the supply of workers. The central argument of this work is that a dollar that is used for charity or welfare is diverted from useful capital, and the worker who would have otherwise been employed using that money is the title character of this work. Beginning with two people, A and B, who “decide what C shall be made to do for D,” for ten points, identify this essay by William Graham Sumner, whose title refers to person C, who is not considered by A, B, or D.

Answer: The Forgotten Man

11. This person argued against the evils of impressment in the pamphlet The Sailor’s Advocate and was court-martialled for incompetence in the campaign against the Young Pretender but was acquitted, as he had been in another court-martial held two years earlier in 1743. He began reaching out to religious groups after having success with some Salzburger Lutherans, and would later attract a number of Moravians, as well as such noted preachers as George Whitefield and Charles and John Wesley. For ten points, name this philanthropist whose interest in penal reform led him to found the colony of Georgia.

Answer: James Oglethorpe

12. This author advises that jesters should not be taken into outer space in “Warning,” while noting to Marcus Emilius that “you can’t move an inch” without “Aborigines sprouting up as if from the earth itself” in “Voices.” An exam on the “History of Mankind” appears in “Brueghel’s Two Monkeys” which, along with “Notes from a Nonexistent Himalayan Expedition,” appears in 1957’s Calling Out to Yeti. “Conversation with a Stone” and “The Tower of Babel” appeared in Salt, while The People on the Bridge contains “View with a Grain of Sand.” For ten points, name this Polish poet who in 1996 won the Nobel Prize for Literature.

Answer: Wislawa Szymborska

13. Beethoven wrote 17 of them: his Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth were gathered in his “Razumovsky” suite. Franck composed one in 1889 in D major using cyclic methods, while Schubert’s last was composed in G major. Smetana’s Minor one was entitled, “From My Life,” while a famous one of Haydn’s, entitled “The Seven Last Words of Christ on the Cross,” was reworked into this form from a work for orchestra. Borodin wrote only two, but the scherzo and notturno of the second are famous due to their use in “Kismet.” Janacek also had two, called “Intimate Letters” and “The Kreutzer Sonata,” and Barber’s first, in B minor, was the source of his “Adaggio.” Also well known are Shostakovich’s Eighth and Fifteenth compositions in, for ten points, what musical form, usually written for two violins, a viola, and a cello?

Answer: string quartets

14. The third year of this conflict featured the battles of Minden and Krefeld, which were won with the help of English troops. The fourth year saw major battles at Maxen and Kunersdorf, while earlier years had featured engagements at Kolin, Leuthen, and Rossbach. One of the treaties ending this war was signed at a castle in Saxony named Hubertusburg, while a better-known treaty ending it resulted in Senegal being given to Great Britain, along with Canada and all of France’s territory east of the Mississippi. For ten points, name this war that ended with the treaty of Paris of 1763.

Answer: the Seven Years’ War (prompt on “French and Indian War”)

15. A secondary form of this process was first proposed by Mereschkovsky. Inhibitors of eukaryotic protein synthesis have no effect on structures theorized to have originated through this process, one example of which is the apicoplast, which is so old that it lacks a nucleomorph. Eukaryotic cilia and flagella may have arisen through this process, and the evolution of eukaryotic chloroplasts by this process has produced red and green algae. Developed by Lynn Margulis, for ten points, identify this process, the primary type of which is the engulfing and encorportion of a prokaryote by a eukaryote, which explains the origin of mitochondria.

Answer: endosymbiosis

16. In the first part of this work, the author recounts how he passed through U.S. customs with his German notes, while part 2, “From a Log-Book,” tells how the author chose his profession. In “A Native Society and Its Style,” the author remarks on the prevalence of abortion and infanticide among the Caduveo, while in the section on the Nambikwara, the production of guarana is discussed. The final people to be analyzed are the Tupi Kawahib, after which the author discusses the fate of rubber trappers and other residents of the Amazon rainforest. Centering on the study of three aboriginal tribes of Brazil, for ten points, identify this 1955 work by Claude Levi-Strauss.

Answer: Tristes Tropiques (accept A World on the Wane)

17. If a Hamiltonian is invariant this, a corollary of Laporte’s rule states that nondegenerate eigenstates cannot possess a permanent electric dipole moment. In the theory of radiative transitions, the operator corresponding to it connects only states with opposite values of it, and its non-conservation is a consequence of the dependence of angular distributions of decay products on pseudoscalars, first noted by Wu. Vectors that are odd under this operation are known as polar vectors, while those that are even are called axial vectors. Lee and Yang first predicted the non-conservation of, for ten points, what quantum-mechanical observable, the operator corresponding to which changes a right-handed system into a left-handed one, and vice-versa.

Answer: parity

18. His predecessor Sanakhte, who may have been his brother, ruled for 18 years and founded their dynasty following the death of Khasekhemwy. He was succeeded by Sekhemkhet, Khaba, and Huni, whose death ended the Third Dynasty. Known in his own time as Netjerikhet, he seems to have extended his rule as far south as Aswan, though he is best known for a structure that features the mysterious Houses of the North and South, as well as the South Tomb. For ten points, name this pharoah who was buried in Saqqara’s Step Pyramid, designed by his architect Imhotep.

Answer: Djoser or Zoser (accept Netjerikhet in the unlikely event anyone says it before it is mentioned)

19. Near the beginning of this novel, the title character casts a horoscope of a newly-born child and learns that its fifth, tenth, and twenty-first years are going to turn out badly. In his fifth year, that child vanishes while out with a revenue officer who, it turns out, was killed by a Dutch smuggler named Dirk Hatteraick. Dirk plotted the kidnapping of the child at the behest of the evil lawyer Gilbert Glossin, before killing him in prison after their plot was foiled by the lovable gypsy Meg Merrilies. For ten points, name this 1815 novel about the Bertram family and the titular colonel, a typically-convoluted work by Sir Walter Scott.

Answer: Guy Mannering

20. In order to create the explosion of blood in the final duel scene of this movie, chocolate syrup was mixed with carbonated water at 30 psi. During the conversation in the beginning, the title character upbraids nine men for siding with the attractive Kikui rather than the horse-faced chamberlain. The title character gives his age as 30 going on 40 and his name translates as “camelia,” the white form of which flower is used as a signal to attack the place where the chamberlain is held captive. Disgraced by the downfall of his master and enraged at having his trust abused by the title character, Hanbei Muroto challenges Toshiro Mifune’s character to a duel, in which Muroto is killed. Directed by Akira Kurosawa, for ten points, identify this movie about a rogue samurai, the sequel to “Yojimbo.”

Answer: Tsubaka Sanjuro

Overtime. In this man’s first novel, the protagonist gets angry when his brother Amos offers him money and ends up spanking his niece Etta after dinner. That protagonist, Joseph, ends up asking to be drafted after getting tired of waiting around with his wife Iva for the army to take him. His second novel describes the relationship between Edward Allbee and Asa Leventhal. After Dangling Man and The Victim, this author hit it big with his novel about the adventures of Augie March. For ten points, name this recently-deceased Nobelist who also wrote Herzog.

Answer: Saul Bellow

Extra 1. The Kronecker-Weber theorem classifies all the possible abelian ones of the rational numbers. A Pythagorean one uses elements of the type “square root of quantity one plus lambda” where lambda is an element of the base set. The degree of one of them over a base is given by the dimension of them as vector spaces over the base set, and cyclotomic ones are obtained by using roots of unity. In seperable ones, each element’s minimal polynomial does not have degenerate roots, and for one to be Galois, every irreducible polynomial over the base set that has roots in one of these objects must factor into linear factors in it. Obtained by adjoining elements to a base, for ten points, identify these mathematical objects, the enlargements of commutative division rings.

Answer: field extension

Extra 2. Among the people whose deaths serve to title sections in this work are Redg the Satirist, Ferbaeth the Witless, a boy-troop, and Forgemen, who is responsible for the titular entity. It begins with “The Pillow Talk,” during which Ailill tells the main antangonist that “she is well off who is a rich man’s wife,” and the titular event is sparked by a defection from the antangonist’s herd to that of Ailill. More famously, this work contains sections which tell of the slaying of the smith’s hound and the taking of arms by the main character, as well as the combat between that character and Ferdiad. Also featuring sections such as “The Order of the Men of Ulster,” and “The Battle of the Bulls,” for ten points, identify this central piece of the Ulster cycle, which details the attempt by Queen Medb to capture a certain brown bull from Conchobar and the battle against Medb’s army by Cuchulain.

Answer: The Cattle Raid of Cooley (or Tain Bo Cualnge if anyone can pronounce that; prompt on “Ulster Cycle” before “Ulster” is read)

Extra 3. This place is the site of the Large Millimeter Array, a telescope for studying the cold radiation of the universe. Mining, much of which is done in the “salar” that cover this region, is its chief industry, and a 2003 “Science” article compared this region’s soil to that of Mars. Crossed by the Pan-American Highway, the center of this region houses the village of San Pedro, at an altitude of about 7,000 feet, and the province of Antofagasta is part of this region, whose rich sodium nitrate deposits led to a conflict over this place called the War of the Pacific. Running about 600 miles north-to-south but only 100 east-to-west and considered the driest place on Earth, for ten points, identify this arid Chilean desert.

Answer: Atacama Desert

The Illinois Open 2005: Spite, Death and the Devil

Bonuses by Somewhere Among Us a Stone Is Taking Notes (Andrew Yaphe and Jerry Vinokurov)
1. It resulted in Corsica being restored to Genoa, and left Emmanuel-Philibert in control of Savoy and Piedmont. For ten points each…

1. Name this 1559 peace agreement between France and Spain.

Answer: Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis

2. This husband of Catherine de Medici died accidentally in 1559 shortly after signing the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis.

Answer: Henry II

3. The treaty awarded France this seaport, which it had captured from the English in 1558. The city was occupied by Spain later in the 16th century, but was restored to France in the Treaty of Vervins.

Answer: Calais
2. After touring with Nirvana during Lollapalooza 1994, one of them took time to get over a drug problem while another moved back to Dayton, Ohio to start The Amps.

1. (5 points, 5 points) For five points each, identify these two sisters, one a former bass player for The Pixies, who started The Breeders in 1989. Both first and last names are required.

Answer: Kim and Kelley Deal

2. (10 points) The Deal sisters formed the original Breeders with Josephine Wiggs, Britt Walford, Carrie Bradley, and Tonya Donnelly who, at age 16, had founded this band with Kristin Hersh.

Answer: Throwing Muses

3. (10 points) This 1993 album remains the most famous release from The Breeders, and contains such gems as “Divine Hammer” and the unforgettable “Cannonball.” Going to hell, crash!

Answer: Last Splash
3. Among his lesser-known operas are Fuersnot, or Fire Famine, which centers on the love between Kunrad and Diemut and Guntram, about a singer brought up by the Band of the Good. For ten points each…

1. Identify this composer.

Answer: Richard Strauss (prompt on “Strauss”)

2. This Strauss work is intended to be an interlude in Moliere’s The Bourgeois Gentleman and features the Bacchus’ wooing of the titular woman, who has been abandoned by Theseus.

Answer: Ariadne on Naxos (or Ariadne auf Naxos)

3. This long Strauss opera features the Princess von Werdenberg sending off the title character, Octavian, to act as a proxy between the vulgar Baron Lerchenan and Sophie, the daughter of Herr vo Faninal.

Answer: The Knight of the Rose (or Der Rosenkavalier)
4. Jerry Vinokurov suffered through algebraic topology to bring you this bonus. Thank him later. For ten points each…

1. This is the group formed by the sets of equivalence classes of the set of all loops in a given topological space.

Answer: fundamental group

2. Any space whose fundamental group is trivial, that is, in which every loop is homotopic to a constant loop, is called this. All contractible spaces, and in particular Euclidean spaces, fall into this category.

Answer: simply connected (prompt on “connected” as a space cannot be simply connected without being connected)

3. This object is the only exception to the Heawood conjecture and has the fundamental group equal to the direct product of the integers with the integers modulo two. It can be cut into two Mobius strips.

Answer: Klein bottle
5. Around 547 BC he led an army against Lydia and captured Sardis. For ten points each…

1. Name this king who founded the Achaemenid dynasty.

Answer: Cyrus II (or Cyrus the Great)

2. This city, located in modern-day Hamadan, was captured from the Median king Astyages by Cyrus the Great, who made it one of his capitals.

Answer: Ecbatana

3. This eldest son of Cyrus succeeded him in 529, but may have gone mad after invading Egypt. In any event, he died after only seven years in power.

Answer: Cambyses II
6. It typically makes up about 10 to 15 percent of the mammalian genome, and due to its different density can be separated out as satellite DNA in a centrifuge. For ten points each…

1. Identify this type of repetitive DNA, distinguished from interspersed repetitive DNA.

Answer: tandem repetitive DNA

2. The first sequence of tandemly repeated nucleotide triplets to be identified involves the triplet CGG repeated hundreds of times within the 5’ [“5-prime”] region of the first exon. It causes this genetic disorder.

Answer: fragile-X syndrome

3. Another triple-repeat disorder is this disease in which a string of repeated CAG triplets result in the production of a long string of glutamines in the resultant protein. Its symptoms are typically manifested in victims’ 30’s

Answer: Huntington’s disease
7. Influenced by Patrick Geddes, this man’s first work was “The Story of Utopia,” followed by “Sticks and Stones.” For ten points…

1. Identify this man, also known for such works as “The Myth of the Machine,” and “The Urban Prospect.”

Answer: Lewis Mumford

2. Mumford distinguished between two concepts of technology, the polytechnic and the megatechnic, in this 1934 work.

Answer: Technics and Civilization

3. Mumford is best known for this 1961 work, which criticized urban sprawl and advocated an organic relationship between people and the cities they live in.

Answer: The City in History
8. Name these ancient Greek poets for ten points each.

1. This native of Cos died in Sicily around 468 BC, having gained renown for the epitaphs he composed during the Persian Wars, including one for those killed at Thermopylae.

Answer: Simonides

2. According to myth, this poet of such lyrics as “To Anaktoria” died by jumping from the Leucadian rock out of love for Phaon.

Answer: Sappho

3. This pet poet of Polycrates of Samos and friend of Symonides is the namesake of a seven or eight syllable stanza measure with three or four stresses. Herrick was fond of his “The Wounded Cupid.”

Answer: Anacreon
9. Fashioned by Hephaestus, one version of it was a sort of a cloud, and its center was adorned with the head of the Gorgon Medusa. For ten points each…

1. Identify this protective device, most commonly associated with Athena.

Answer: Aegis

2. In another version, the Aegis was created from the skin of this creature, which originally lived on Crete.

Answer: Amalthea

3. Yet another account of the construction of the Aegis has it being made from the skin of this offspring of Typhon and Echidna, which lived in Lycia until being slain by a Corinthian.

Answer: Chimera
10. It proposes that the earth’s magnetic field is produced by the circulation of molten metal. For ten points each…

1. Identify this geophysical theory.

Answer: dynamo theory

2. Central to the dynamo theory is this effect, which causes the twisting of the toroidal field by deflecting fluid about the axis of rising convective cells.

Answer: Coriolis effect

3. Coriolis twisting converts a toroidal field into this kind of field. Together with the toroidal field, it makes up the solenoidal field.

Answer: poloidal field
11. Its results were summed up in a 1974 article entitled, “The Perils of Obedience,” and it was motivated by the trial of Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. For ten points each…

1. Identify this experiment, performed in 1961 at Yale.

Answer: Milgram experiment

2. Milgram developed the concept of “six degrees of separation” when he performed this experiment in Kansas in 1967, asking participants to get letters from Wichita to Cambridge, Massachusetts, by passing them to acquaintances.

Answer: the small world experiment

3. These experiments, performed in 1951 by the man who inspired Milgram’s work, demonstrated conformity to majority opinion and involved having subjects compare the lengths of different lines while confederates of the experimenter gave the wrong answers.

Answer: the Asch experiments
12. It can be derived by following the motion of an element in phase space or by doing a path integral over molecules that have previously suffered a collision and then moved without further collisions to the region of phase space in question. For ten points…

1. Identify this fundamental equation of kinetic transport.

Answer: Boltzmann equation

2. Because the Boltzmann equation assumes the breaking of time-reversal symmetry in macroscopic processes, it gave rise to this apparent paradox, named after an Austrian physicist. It purportedly shows that there must exist a reversed path for a Boltzmann system along which entropy decreases.

Answer: Loschmidt’s paradox

3. Loschmidt’s paradox was finally resolved in 1993 by the publication of this theorem by Evans, Morris, and Cohen.

Answer: fluctuation-dissipation theorem
13. They include Sigi, son of Odin, Rerir, son of Sigi, and the character who gives his name to their saga. For ten points each…

1. Identify this family of Scandinavian heroes, who were so awesome that they got a whole saga named after them.

Answer: the Volsungs

2. The most famous of the Volsungs was this man, the son of Sigmund, wielder of the sword Gram, slayer of Fafnir, and rescuer of Brunhilde.

Answer: Sigurd (grudgingly prompt on “Sigfried”)

3. With the help of Hogni, this man kills Sigurd at the urging of Brunhilde, but is later thrown into a snake pit by King Atli, where he perishes.

Answer: Gunnar
14. During the 19th century, several groups of artists sought a return to a more primitive form of art. Identify them for ten points each.

1. Comprised of German painters such as Peter Cornelius, Friedrich Overbeck, and Phillip Veit, they took their name from the place where Jesus was said to have come from and rejected the advances of the Rennaissance.

Answer: Nazarenes

2. This group of painters included Edward Burne-Jones and William Holman Hunt and sought to bring back the style of art overthrown by the advances of a certain Renaissance painter.

Answer: Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood

3. Developing a decorative, simplified style influenced by Japanese prints, these disciples of Gauguin, who included Pierre Bonnard, Felix Valloton, and Edouard Vuillard, took their name from the Hebrew word for “prophet.”

Answer: Les Nabis
15. They are defined as chemical species containing one or more unpaired electrons. For ten points each…

1. Identify the general term for these types of compounds.

Answer: free radicals

2. Free radicals may be detected by this method, similar to NMR in its operation principle.

Answer: electron spin resonance (or electron paramagnetic resonance)

3. In order to find if free radicals are being produced in a reaction where the concentrations are small, one can use this technique, which involves adding a compound that combines with reactive radicals to produce more stable radicals.

Answer: spin trapping
16. After being wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks in 1862, he was replaced by Robert E. Lee. For ten points each…

1. Name this Confederate general, who took command of the Army of the Tennessee near the end of 1863.

Answer: Joseph Eggleston Johnston (prompt on “Johnston”)

2. Before moving on to command the Army of the Tennessee, Johnston commanded Confederate forces in Mississippi, in which capacity he proved unable to relieve this commander of Vicksburg before it was taken by Grant’s army.

Answer: John C. Pemberton

3. In 1865, Johnston surrendered to this Union general in North Carolina, having fought him earlier at Bentonville.

Answer: William Tecumseh Sherman
17. This thinker wrote about China in his Novissima Sinica, and was influenced by the I Ching in his book on binary arithmetic. For ten points each…

1. Name this German philosopher, who conducted a notable correspondence with Samuel Clarke.

Answer: Baron Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz (or Leibnitz)

2. In this 1714 book, Leibniz argued that the universe is constituted of an infinite number of the titular units.

Answer: Monadology (or Monadologia)

3. Leibniz expounded his epistemological views in this lengthy 1705 treatise, which is a detailed response to a similarly titled work by John Locke.

Answer: New Essays on Human Understanding (or Nouveaux essais sur l’entendement humaine)
18. In one of the more distressing scenes in the novel, Cecil reads aloud from Miss Lavish’s latest novel, which describes two people embracing in a field of violets. For ten points each…

1. Name this novel, which was originally published in 1908.

Answer: A Room with a View

2. This British novelist wrote A Room with a View.

Answer: Edward Morgan Forster

3. In the novel, this young woman ends up marrying George Emerson, having earlier embraced him in a field of violets.

Answer: Lucy Honeychurch (accept either name)
19. He may have received his nickname for his success at craps, but it proved accurate in 1929 when he survived despite being stabbed with an ice pick and having his throat cut. For ten points each…

1. Name this one-time lieutenant to Joe Masseria, who had Masseria murdered in 1931 on his way to becoming the chief boss of New York City.

Answer: Salvatore “Charles” “Lucky” Luciano

2. In the 1930s, this New York special prosecutor and future two-time Republican Presidential candidate directed an investigation of Luciano that sent him to prison.

Answer: Thomas Edmund Dewey

3. This Jewish gangster, the chairman of Murder, Inc., allegedly loaned Bugsy Siegel to Luciano for the purpose of whacking Masseria. He later had Siegel whacked, and went on to establish a gambling empire in Cuba and the Bahamas.

Answer: Meyer Lansky
20. She is acquitted of murder after shooting her third husband, who was bitten by a rabid dog while saving her during a hurricane. For ten points each…

1. Name this protagonist of a 1937 novel.

Answer: Janie Mae Crawford (accept either)

2. Name the novel in which Janie Mae Crawford marries Tea Cake after her earlier marriages to Logan Killicks and Jody Starks don’t work out.

Answer: Their Eyes Were Watching God

3. Name the African-American novelist who wrote Their Eyes Were Watching God.

Answer: Zora Neale Hurston
Extra 1. Part of the Himalayan orogenic belt, this mountain range situated on the border of Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan, and China has its second-highest point at Khan Tengri, or Lord of the Spirits. For ten points each…

1. Identify this mountain range.

Answer: Tien Shan Mountains

2. This lake, which lacks any outflow and is located in the northern part of the Tien Shan range, is the second-largest mountain lake in the world.

Answer: Issyk Kul (or Issyk Kol)

3. This is the highest peak in the Tien Shan range. At 7,439 meters, it is more than 400 meters taller than Khan Tengri and was named after the Soviet triumph in World War II.

Answer: Pik Pobedy (or Victory Peak)
Extra 2. In the end, Kjartan is killed after marrying Hrefna out of spite. For ten points each…

1. Name this classic of medieval Icelandic literature.

Answer: the Laxdale Saga (or Laxdaela Saga)

2. The Laxdale Saga features this strong-willed woman, who loves Kjartan but marries Bolli to spite him. She shares her first name with Ursula Bragwen’s sister.

Answer: Gudrun

3. A central conflict in the work involves a special coif entrusted to Kjartan by Ingebjorg, the sister of this king. When Kjartan gives the coif to Hrefna instead of Gudrun, all hell breaks loose.

Answer: King Olaf

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