The Ideas of the Enlightenment Were Spread Spread by



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The Spread of Enlightenment Ideas
Enlightenment: Also known as Age of Reason, exciting time of truth, optimism and unlimited possibilities, through the power of reason


  1. The Ideas of the Enlightenment Were Spread

    1. Spread by:

-Salons, social meetings held by women, bringing together philosophers, scientists, artists and writers to share their ideas.

-Diderot’s Encyclopedia

- Printed materials-newspapers, periodicals, pamphlets, tracts


  1. Art and Literature changed during this time to reflect the differences of thought in the Enlightenment

    1. Baroque-ornate, gaudy(overdone), asymmetrical

    2. Classical-order, balance, simplicity

    3. Music- Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Handel

    4. Literature

-the novel

-vernacular

-purpose: entertain and instruct

-Popular less with the middle class

-Tom Jones, Robinson Crusoe



  1. The Enlightenment’s Impact on Monarchy

    1. Voltaire’s best type of govt. Enlightened Monarchy- absolute ruler who respects subjects rights

    2. Enlightened Despots; Monarchs who ruled according to Enlightenment Ideals

      1. Frederick the Great (Prussia)

      2. Joseph II (Austria)

      3. Catherine II (Russia)




  1. Philosphers and Thinkers

    1. Thomas Hobbes-English thinker, wrote the Leviathan, he believed that people are naturally selfish, brutish and greedy.

      1. Believed people needed government to maintain order

      2. Social Contract Theory: people must agree to be governed.

      3. Absolutism is the best form of government.

    2. John Locke-English philosopher who believed people are naturally happy and reasonable.

      1. Natural Rights-Life Liberty and Property

      2. Social Contract-People agree to government so that government can protect these rights

      3. Monarchs not chosen by God

      4. People consent to government, whose power should be limited.

      5. Wrote Two Treatises on Government

      6. Believed if government did not protect natural rights people had right to overthrow the government.

***His thoughts were fundamental in the development of the Declaration of Independence.

    1. Rousseau-French Philosopher

      1. People naturally good

      2. Wrote book the Social Contract.

      3. Government for common good, not the few wealthy

      4. Believed all peoples should be equal in society

      5. Only true good government is Direct Democracy

    2. Montesquieu

      1. Separation of Powers in government

      2. Not one group of government should be too powerful (3 branches Legislative, Executive and Judicial)

    3. Adam Smith

      1. Wrote Wealth of Nations

      2. Free Market Economy, basis of Capitalism

      3. Laissez-Faire economics (French for Hands off, or leave it alone)

    4. Voltaire

      1. Freedom of thought and expression

      2. Freedom of Religion

***1st Amendment of Bill of Rights

    1. Beccaria

      1. Abolish Torture-Rights of the accused, no cruel or unusual punishment protected by U.S. Constitution.

    2. Comenius

      1. Stressed education and tolerance as alternatives to war (response to the 30 years war)

    3. Descartes

      1. developed a deductive approach to philosophy using math and logic that still remains a standard for problem solving.

    4. Olympe de Gouges (1748–1793)

      1. A French feminist and reformer in the waning years of the Enlightenment who articulated the rights of women with her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen

    5. Hume

      1. skepticism , Hume took religion to task, asking why a perfect God would ever create an imperfect world


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