The greatest poet that ever lived



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THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES


Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and their answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)

BOOK ONE

Athena Inspires the Prince

The beginning of any book introduces an alert reader to important people and places.  The alert reader will want to identify all of the people and places in order to understand what the book says.  The Odyssey uses this technique, also,  In Book I Homer presents a long list of names, hoping that the alert reader will ask, "Who are these people?" and expecting the alert reader to find the answer to this important question.  Here is your opportunity to fulfill Homer's hopes and dreams.  Learn this list.



Throughout these outlines, you will find names printed in bold letters.  Add these names to your ID list.  Be sure to know the identity of all names printed in BOLD.

PEOPLE


REMINDER
Write your identifications on notebook paper.

Odysseus             Calypso                Poseidon              Ethiopians            Aigisthos
Agamemnon      Clytemnestra    Orestes                 Zeus                     Athena
Cyclops                Polyphemos       Thoosa                 Hermes                 Mentes
Telemachos         Phemios              Laertes                 Penelope               Nestor
Menelaos             Antinoos             Eurymachos       Eurycleia

PLACES
Ithaca               Ogygia             Sparta              Pylos                Olympus

A very valuable reading skill is predicting what might happen in the next part of the book.  This is important because your predictions will help you stay focused as you read.  You will want to find out whether  or not your predictions are accurate.  You will also want to find out how the author continues with the story and how the author introduces new twists, turns, and characters.


Write three predictions.



THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES

Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and their answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)

BOOK TWO

Telemachos Sets Sail

  1. A council of the people (all men) meets with Telemachos.
    a. What does Aigyptios say? (Page 94)
    b. How does Telemachos respond? (page 94)
    c. What does Antinoos say? (page 96)
    d. How does Telemachos respond? (page 97)

  2. Zeus's eagles appear.  (page 98)  How do people interpret them? (page 98)

  3. More people speak to Telemachos.
    a.  What does Halitherses Mastorides say? (page 98)
    b.  What does Eurymachos say? (page 99)
    c.  How does Telemachos respond?  (page 100)
    d.  What does Mentor say (page 100)
    e.  What does Leocritos say?  page 101)

  4.  Telemachos prays to Athena.  What does he ask for?  (page 101)
    How does Athena respond? (page 102)

  5. Antinoos and Telemachos speak to each other.  What do they say?  (page 102-103) What do the bullies say to Telemachos? (page 103)

  6. Telemachos prepares for his voyage.  (page 104)  Where is he going?  With whom will he visit?

    1. What does Eurycleia, the nurse, ask Telemachos(page 104)

    2. How does Telemachos respond?  (page 105)

  7. Athena prepares the ship for Telemachos.  What disguise does she use? (page 105)

  8. What is Telemachos doing at the end of this book? (page 106)



THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES

Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and their answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)

BOOK THREE

King Nestor Remembers

  1. Telemachos arrives at Pylos.  Why is he here? 

    1. How does Telemachos feel as he arrives on Pylos?  What does he feel this way? (page 108)

    2. What does Athena say to comfort him? (page 108)

    3. What are the Pylians (the people of Pylos) doing when Telemachos arrives? (pages 107, 108)

  2. How many Pylians are gathered at the shore? (page 107)

  3.  List in order the events that occur as Telemachos meets Nestor. (page 108-109)

  4. As planned, Telemachos asks Nestor about Odysseus.  What information does Nestor give to Telemachos(pages 110-113)
    Here are some names for you to learn and know as
    Nestor talks about them:
        
    Achilles
         King Priam
         Patroclos
         Antilochos
         Atreus (House
    [family] of Atreus
         Crete


  5. How does Telemachos respond to Nestor's story? ((page 113-114)

  6. Telemachos asks Nestor about Agamemnon's horrible arrival at home.  Summarize Nestor's story.  (page 115-116)
    Here are two more names for your ID list:
        
    Clytemnestra
         Mycenae


  7. Where does Telemachos plan to go after he leaves Nestor at Pylos?  (page 117)

  8. What advice does Athena give to Nestor(page118-119 )

  9. What invitation does Nestor offer to Athena (Mentor) and to Telemachos?  How does Athena (Mentor) respond?  What does she say this? (page 118)

  10.   What parting gift does Nestor give to Telemachos(page 120-121)

  11. This chapter gives us some important information about what the ancient Greeks thought was important about hospitality.  Briefly summarize what they thought was important.



THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES

Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and the ir answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)


BOOK FOUR


The King and Queen of Sparta


  1. What is happening at the palace of King Menelaos as this book begins? (page 124)

  2. Why dies King Menelaos get angry when he receives the message that two young men are approaching the palace?  What does this little temper tantrum say about Greek hospitality? (125

  3. No doubt, King Menelaos is very wealthy. What happens as Telemachos and Peisistratos Nestorides (King Nestor's son) enter the palace?  (pages 125-6 )  What do they see as they look around?

  4. Without being asked, King Menelaos talks about Odysseus?  What does he say?      (page 127)

  5. When Helen speaks, Telemachos learns more about his father? What does he learn? (page 128-130)

  6. What an emotional scene - everyone is in tears? Why do all of these people have such a strong reaction to Menelaos's words? (page 48129-130)

  7. Helen knows about herbal medicine. Where did she learn this information? Why does she use pacifying herbs in this scene? (page 131)

  8. Because Helen was a captive in the city of Troy, she witnessed several of Odysseus's deeds. What does she tell about his accomplishments inside the city? (page 132)

  9. Menelaos tells the story of the famous Trojan horse, which really should be called the Greek horse because of who was inside of it. Briefly summarize this world-famous story. (page 133)

  10. Notice that Menelaos waits until the next day to ask about Telemachos's reasons for visiting him. This is a very traditional characteristic of hospitality: wait until the guests are comfortable and rested before beginning business with them. What does Telemachos say to Menelaos to explain why he is there? (page 134)

  11. Menelaos uses an analogy to predict Odysseus's behavior when he finds the suitors in his house. Summarize the analogy. (page 135)

  12. Menelaos tells the story of his troubled return from the war. What problems did he met and how did he solve them? How did they involve Odysseus? (pages 135-142)

  13. Menelaos invites Telemachos to stay for ten or twelve days and to accept many gifts. Telemachos shows us something about his character when he responds to this invitation and to the other gifts. What does Telemachos say and what does his answer reveal aout his as a person? (page 143 )

  14. Meanwhile, back in Ithaca, the suitors learn of Telemachos's voyage. How do they react to the news? What do they plan to do? (pages 144-145)

  15. When Penelope learns of Telemachos's voyage, she also has a extreme reaction. How does she respond to the news? What are her reasons for this behavior? (pages 146-7)

  16. Who calms Penelope and how does she do it? (pages 148-151)

  17.  “Her mind in torment, wheeling
    like some lion at bay, dreading gangs of hunters
    closing their cunning ring around him for finish.” (page 149, next-to-last paragraph)   

    This is called a Homeric simileHomer often describes animal behavior to explain human behavior.  The comparison is a simile.  Homer makes a little story in the comparison to give it his special touch.  In what ways does he compare Penelope to a lion?  Complete this chart to understand the several dimensions of a Homeric simile.



                                        LION                                                              PENELOPE

            a.  dreading gangs hunters                    a.


            b.                                                                     b.  Her mind in torment

            c.  closing their cunning ring around him for finish.


           
    18.   Bright-eyed Athena helps Penelope in her time of troubles.  What does Athena do and how does this help?  Pages 149-150)
    19.  Summarize the last paragraph of this book in a newspaper headline:

Suitors Sail to __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ ;
They Wait to __ __ __ __ __ __
__ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __

     20 . How did you like Book 4?  What are its strengths and weaknesses, if any?

 



THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES

Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and their answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)

BOOK FIVE

Odysseus – Nymph and Shipwreck

Note:  The first four books focus on Telemachos.  For this reason, these books are called The Telemachy.  Beginning with book five, we learn about Odysseus.  We stay with him for several books until both father and son are united and stay together until the end.  So, don't worry too much about Telemachos.  You will find him again soon.

1.  What plans does Zeus have for Odysseus as he struggles to get home?
          (page 153)
          a.  Hermes will go to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ and tell her to _ _ _ _ _ _ _  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.

          b.  No _ _ _ and no _ _ _ will  _ _    _ _ _ _    _ _ _.

          c.  Odysseus will sail on a _ _ _ _ , which he will _ _ _ _ _   _ _   _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .

          d.  After _ _ days, Odysseus will land on  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , where the  _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _  live.

          e.  These people will treat Odysseys _ _ _ _    _ _ _ _ _ _ , and they will  _ _ _ _ _ _  him in one of their

_ _ _ _ _ to Ithaca.

          f.  They will give Odysseus _ _ _ _  and  _ _ _ _ _ _  and _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -- more than he would ever have


brought back from  _ _ _ _ .

2.  Hermes has some special equipment that enables him to travel with speed and  accuracy. (page 154)   What is this equipment?


3.  What impression does Calypso's island create in your imagination?  (page 154) Would you like to visit there?  Why?


4.  After Hermes delivers the message to Calypso, she shudders and replies.  What does she say?  (page 156) 

5.  What is Odysseus doing when we meet him for the first time in The Odyssey? (page 157)  What does this remind you of?

6.  Calypso offers to help Odysseus because (page 158) _ _ _    _ _ _ _  told her to.

7.  Start to make a list of the ways in which Odysseus is labeled.  This should be quite a long list.  The label on page 157 (epithet) is long-enduring.

8.   What does the "long-enduring" man do and say? (page 157)  Why do you think he speaks to Calypso in this way?

9.  How does Calypso respond? (pages 158)  What do you think about he reply?

10.  Calypso helps Odysseus by giving him directions to _ _ _ _ _  a _ _ _ _.    (page 159)

11.  What does Calypso promise to Odysseus if he will stay with her? (page 159)

12.  What is Odysseus's answer to Calypso's suggestion that he stay? (page 159)
               What impression does Odysseus's answer create in your mind?

13.  Homer's description of the raft construction is very detailed.  Draw what you think the raft looks like by reading the description very carefully. (page 160)  Why do you think Homer gives such detail.

14.  Odysseus sails for 18 days.  How does he find his way through the sea? (page 161) What interrupts his voyage?

15.  What does Odysseus think when the winds stir the sea and he had great trouble sailing?  (page 161)



16.  Who saves Odysseus?  How?  (page 162)

17.  What does Poseidon, the Earthshaker, do to prolong Odysseus's agony? (pages 163-164)

18.  Athena helps Odysseus think of several ways to save himself?  What ideas does he get and how does he use them?  (page 166)

19.  As Odysseus crawls upon the shore, what does he look like?  What has he suffered?  (166-167)

20.  What question(s) do you have as you complete this book?  (page 167)


http://odysseus9wt.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/850154871.jpg



THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES

Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and their answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)

BOOK SIX

The Princess and the Stranger

1.  Scheria is the name of the island on which Odysseus lands after his raft broke apart.  List the details of the city that the original king had built on this island.  (page 168)



2.  Alcinoos is the name of the king of Scheria.  Nausicaa is his daughter.  What does Athena tell Nausicaa?  Why does she say this?  What disguise does  she use?  (page 169 )

3.  What does Nausicaa do as a result of her beguiling dream? (page )

4.  What did Nausicaa and her maids do by the riverside?  (pages 171-172)



5.  What Homeric simile does Homer use to describe Odysseus as he investigates the noise that awakened him?  (Quote the exact words.) (page 172)

6.  Why did Nausicaa's maids run away when they saw Odysseus?  (page 172)

7.  What requests does Odysseus make of Nausicaa after he explains why he is on the  island of Scheria(page 174)

8.  The Phaiacians are the people who live on the island of Scheria(page174 )[NOT A QUESTION. JUST A FACT.]

9.  What request does Odysseus make of the maids?  Why does he ask this? (page 175)

10.  How does Athena help Odysseus look presentable when he returns to Nausicaa?  (page 175)

11.  What steps does Nausicaa ask Odysseus to follow as they approach the city?  (pages 176-178)

12.  Why is Athena cautious about answering Odysseus's prayer for help? (page 178)



THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES

Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and their answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)

BOOK SEVEN

Phaeacia’s Halls and Gardens


http://users.otenet.gr/~psailasn/jiakoscen.jpg
1.  How does Athena help Odysseus travel through the city and find the mansion  of King Alcinoos?  (page 180)

2.  What special gift did Poseidon give to the Phaiacians? (page 180)

3.   Why is Queen Arete so special?  (page 181) 

4.  What word would you use to describe the great mansion of King Alcinoos and  Queen Arete?  (page 182-183)

5.  If you have artistic ability, perhaps you would like to draw the picture that  Homer creates on these pages.  (pages 182-183)  Extra credit available.

6.  What special place does King Alcinoos give Odysseus after the guests left the banquet?  (page 184)



7.   What attracts Queen Arete's attention to Odysseus at the banquet table? (page 187)

8.   Why does Odysseus say:  "Suspicious we are, we men who walk the earth."?  What does this show about Odysseus? (page 189)

 9.  What promises does King Alcinoos make to Odysseus?  (page 189)

10.   How does Odysseus respond to these promises?  (page 189)

11.  What atmosphere exists at the end of this book?  (page 190)

12.  What predictions do you have for the next several chapters as you finish this book?



THE ODYSSEY


Homer: “The greatest poet that ever lived.”
STUDY GUIDES AND BOOK OUTLINES

Answer all questions on all outlines on notebook paper.  Keep these sets of questions and their answers securely in your notebook so that you can use them in class discussions.

(PAGE NUMBERS REFER TO THE ROBERT FAGELS TRANSLATION)

BOOK EIGHT

A Day for Songs and Contests

1.  Look at the title of this book. Pay special attention to the word contests. Think of contests as athletic competitions. Then think of the major setting of The Odyssey: Greece.  Put the two ideas together and write the name of the event that both should bring to your mind.  The name should fit on these lines, one letter to each  line.  (page 88)


                                  _  _  E    _  _  Y  _  _  _  _     _  _  M  _  _
     Of course, the events in this chapter are not the official   _  _  Y  _  _  _  _ 
       _  _  M  _  _, which occurred much later in history; but they let us know that the
       ancient Greeks enjoyed all types of sports, even in their early history.  Read on
       and enjoy the competitions.  Oh, by the way, guess who the hero of these
       _  _  M  _  _ will be. Prediction: The hero will be _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ !

2.  A large crowd gathers to hear Odysseus tell about himself.  How do these people


      learn about Odysseus's presence in their city?  (page 191)

3.  How many sailors does King Alcinoos promise to give to Odysseus to help him
      get back home? (page 192)

4.  Demodocos, the minstrel in King Alcinoos's palace, sings "the famous deeds of fighting heroes..."  Odysseus has a sharp reaction to these stories.  What is his reaction and why does he have it? (page 194)

5.  Who notices Odysseus's reaction and what does he do about it? (page 194)

6.  What do you think about the names of the "young champions?" (page 195)

7.  Find the twenty-word statement that Laodamas says to Odysseus.  Copy it onto your notebook page for this chapter .  What does this idea make you think of? (page 196)



8.   How would you react to Odysseus's reply to Broadsea, when Broadsea says, "You’re no athlete. I see that."  (Can you imagine anyone saying  something like this to Odysseus?  How do you think the original audiences  reacted when they heard the story teller tell this section of The Odyssey?  (page 196-197)

9.   Do you think that Odysseus is too proud and boastful after he throws the discus?  Why do you think so?  (page 198)



10.  Demodocos, the harper and storyteller in King Alcinoos's palace, tells many  stories of the ancient Greek myths.  These stories represent the way in which these myths were taught to the people who heard them often at dinners.  What do you think of this type of entertainment and education?  (pages 200)

11.  What other form of classical entertainment does Homer describe?  Would you  like to see this sometime in the Student Center?  Why/why not?  (page 203)

12.  What gifts does Odysseus receive from the royalty of Phaiacia?  Do you think it a bit strange that Odysseus gets so much before he identifies himself? (page 204)

13.  After finishing dinner and getting ready for his travels home, Odysseus has some words of advice for Demodocos.  What does he suggest?  (page 207)

14.  We find a famous Homeric simile on page 208.  Interpret it.  [Write the idea expressed in the simile in your own words.]

15.  How does King Alcinoos respond to Odysseus's behavior after Demodocos sang the new song?  This is the second time Alcinoos does this.  What does this say about the king? (page 208)

16.  Finally, Alcinoos asks the important questions.  What has he noticed and what does he want to know? (page 209)



THE ODYSSEY

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