The Great Depression and the Federal Government – Grade 10



Download 62.21 Kb.
Date conversion18.04.2016
Size62.21 Kb.



The Great Depression and the Federal Government – Grade 10


Answers may include, but are not limited to:



  1. What were some of the economic effects of the Great Depression?

Production declined and many businesses were forced to close or lay-off workers. The unemployment rate climbed significantly. Wealthy people, especially those who had invested in the stock market, were affected by financial losses. Many farmers were unable to pay their debts and lost their farms to foreclosure. A few people involved in commercial activities enjoyed some success during the Depression by supplying basic necessities that people continued to purchase.

  1. What was the Hoover administration’s response to the Great Depression?

Originally, the Hoover administration maintained the Republican/laissez-faire philosophy of that time. Hoover urged families to take care of relatives who were experiencing difficulties. He also encouraged businesses to voluntarily maintain wage and employment levels. He asked charitable organizations and churches to help the unemployed and the poor. Later, as the Depression deepened, his administration supported legislation creating public works projects and programs to refinance banks and businesses.
  1. Why did Franklin Roosevelt defeat Herbert Hoover in the 1932 election?


The main issue in the 1932 election was the Great Depression. Economic conditions worsened during Hoover’s time in office. A majority of the voters believed that FDR’s plan to alleviate the Depression more actively addressed the issue than President Hoover’s plan.
  1. What was the Roosevelt administration’s response to the Great Depression?


Roosevelt’s administration instituted a series of policies and programs designed to provide relief for the needy, stimulate recovery for the economy and institute reforms to avoid future depressions. Known as the New Deal, it provided jobs, built American infrastructure, and increased government regulation of the economy.
Post-Assessment:

Assign students to complete Attachment A, Post-Assessment.


Scoring Guidelines:

See Attachment B, Post-Assessment Rubric, and Attachment C, Post-Assessment Sample Response.



Instructional Procedures:

Day One

  1. Administer the pre-assessment.

  2. Ask students to volunteer predictions about what might be expected to happen in the United States because of the Great Depression. Explain that this lesson will examine the effects of the Depression on the federal government.

  3. Distribute copies of Attachment A, Post-Assessment. Review with students and explain what they will be expected to do at the conclusion of the lesson.

  4. Put students in groups of two or three. Distribute Attachment D, Herbert Hoover Quotations. Have the groups examine the quotations. Have each student answer the questions based on his/her group discussion.

  5. Ask students to share their responses to the questions on Attachment D. Clarify student responses and answer any questions. Ask students to remember the discussion as they do their homework.

  6. Assign students to read relevant sections in the textbook on the pre-New Deal years of the Great Depression as homework.


Day Two

  1. Have students take out Attachment D, Herbert Hoover Quotations. Ask the following questions:

  1. “How did President Hoover’s position on involving the federal government in addressing the economic troubles facing the country change as the Great Depression continued into 1931 and 1932?” (Answers should note a shift from limited government involvement to the creation of government programs addressing key aspects of the Depression.)

  2. “Can you cite evidence to support your conclusion?” (References can be made to Hoover’s remarks from Attachment D. Other references can be made to Hoover’s early position supporting rugged individualism and laissez-faire. At first, Hoover encouraged businesses to take voluntary steps to prevent a worsening of the Depression, and urged charitable organizations to aid the unemployed and the poor. He urged individuals and families to take care of their own needs. As the Depression deepened, his administration moved in the direction of greater involvement by the federal government in the economy. Hoover supported public works projects and the creation of the National Credit Corporation and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation. Measures such as the Agricultural Marketing Act and the Federal Home Loan Bank Act were also enacted.)

  3. “Why didn’t the measures enacted under the Hoover Administration get the country out of the Great Depression?” (The measures were initiated only after the Great Depression had taken a firm hold on the economy and were insufficient to address the full extent of the economic problems.)

  1. Put students in groups of two or three. Distribute Attachment E, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Quotations. Have the groups examine the quotations. Have each student answer the questions based on his/her group discussion.

  2. Ask students to share their responses to the Attachment E questions. Clarify student responses and answer any questions. Point out that during the next class, students will be examining how the new administration put Franklin Roosevelt’s ideas into action.

  3. Assign students to read relevant sections in the textbook on the New Deal as homework.


Day Three

  1. Have students take out Attachment E, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Quotations. Ask the following questions:

  1. “Why did President Roosevelt feel the New Deal was necessary in 1933?” (Answers should note that despite the efforts made by the Hoover administration, the Great Depression had continued to worsen. Roosevelt’s view was that further efforts by the federal government were necessary.)

  2. “Based on the readings in the textbook, what types of measures did Roosevelt propose to address the Depression? What was each measure designed to do?” (Answers will vary, but should reflect the textbook’s information on the New Deal programs. Every New Deal measure does not need to be mentioned, but a range of measures encompassing labor, banking and business, agriculture, families and environment should be addressed.)

  1. Distribute Attachment F, Relief, Recovery and Reform. Review the definitions and instructions. Using the Emergency Banking Relief Act of 1933, model how to complete the attachment and explain the rationale for the categorization. If needed, model a second example. Answer student questions about the task.


Instructional Tip:

Depending on the needs of the students, use a second example that can be readily categorized (e.g., Civil Works Administration) to model for the students, or use an initiative that can be categorized in more than one category (e.g., Tennessee Valley Authority); or use a New Deal initiative not included on the student list to model and allow students to work on all of the examples.




  1. Divide the students into small groups to work on Attachment F, Relief, Recovery and Reform. If needed, allow students to complete the assignment as homework.


Day Four

  1. Review student responses to each entry on Attachment F, Relief, Recovery and Reform. Discuss student responses by offering clarifications, extensions, and corrections. Note the shift in government activity between the administrations of Hoover and Roosevelt. Point out the variety of programs under the Roosevelt administration and the extensive involvement of the federal government in addressing the needs of the country.

  2. Have students retrieve Attachment A, Post-Assessment. Note that students will now be examining the nature of the expanding role of the federal government in the economy as a result of the Great Depression. Using one of the New Deal initiatives, model how to complete the post-assessment attachment and explain the rationale for the categorization. If needed, model a second example. Answer student questions about the task.


Day Five

  1. Administer the post-assessment.


Differentiated Instructional Support:

Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s).



  • Provide more time for this lesson if students need help with categorizing examples.

  • Permit students to give an oral presentation with a graphic organizer, or create a series of cartoons instead of completing the post-assessment. Use the rubric as the basis to evaluate this alternative assessment.

  • Challenge students to provide and explain more than one example in each category on the post-assessment chart.

  • Challenge students to present a chart of national indicators such as unemployment or GDP/GNP during this time period.

  • Challenge students to use an inflation calculator to examine what the dollar is currently worth compared to its value in the 1930s before the New Deal.


Extensions:

  • Have students write a biographical sketch showing how someone who lived during the 1930s was affected by a New Deal program.

  • Have students explore planks in recent Republican and Democratic party platforms and analyze them for evidence of individualism, laissez-faire attitudes, and a willingness to have the government intervene in economic matters.

  • Divide the students into two groups—the First New Deal and the Second New Deal. Have students research and do a visual presentation before the class, depicting the various programs and policies involved in each of the New Deals. After the presentations, have students consider if there were any major policy changes between the two “New Deals.”

  • Have students create a guide to the local community similar to the guidebooks written by Works Progress Administration (WPA) authors.


Homework Options and Home Connections:

  • Have students interview someone who lived through the Depression to gauge his/her attitude toward the role of government pre- and post-Great Depression. Require students to develop a short set of interview questions and/or points of interest related to this lesson before conducting the interview.

  • Have students look for examples in the news of current government policies or programs that are similar to, or a continuation of, the New Deal policies and programs. They can also look for examples of New Deal projects still benefiting the community—public buildings, works of art, bridges, conservation projects, etc.


Interdisciplinary Connections:

English Language Arts

Have students write poetry, short stories or essays that reflect conditions related to the Great Depression. Have students read their works to the class.


Materials and Resources:

The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.

For the teacher: Chalkboard or overhead projector.


For the students: Writing materials, computers, textbook, reference materials.
Vocabulary:

  • laissez-faire

  • rugged individualism

  • Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

  • Gross National Product (GNP)


Technology Connections:

  • Instead of writing a response to the post-assessment task, have students use presentation software to respond to the task. The rubric would still apply. Students could create a main menu with hyperlinks to various answers.

  • Have students use presentation software to create a chart of national indicators, such as unemployment or the GDP/GNP during the 1920s and 1930s to show the effectiveness of New Deal programs.


Research Connections:

Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement, Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001.


Identifying similarities and differences enhances students’ understanding of and ability to use knowledge. This process includes comparing and classifying.
General Tips:

  • Prior to the post-assessment, verify that students can apply the classifying skills used as part of the lesson. Students will need to demonstrate the connections between New Deal policies/programs and how the U.S. government provides public services, redistributes income, regulates economic activity and promotes growth and stability. If needed, model additional examples.

  • Help students understand the outcomes of the New Deal were not inevitable, but the result of decisions by individuals and the influence of other events such as World War II.


Attachments:

Attachment A, Post-Assessment

Attachment B, Post-Assessment Rubric

Attachment C, Post-Assessment Sample Response

Attachment D, Herbert Hoover Quotations

Attachment E, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Quotations

Attachment F, Relief, Recovery and Reform

Attachment G, Relief, Recovery and Reform Key



Attachment A

Post-Assessment
Directions: Complete the chart below by identifying one New Deal policy or program that fits under each category. Describe the policy or program and explain how it reflects the selected category. Each category must have a different New Deal program. You can only use a New Deal policy or program one time. Then, answer the question at the bottom of the page.






Program Description, Explanation and Conclusions

Redistribute Income





Regulate Economic Activity




Promote Economic Growth and Stability




Provide Public Services




Consider the outcome of the presidential election of 1932. What conclusion can you draw about the outcome of the election on the role of government in political, economic, and social matters? Support this conclusion with evidence.


Attachment B

Post-Assessment Rubric





Three Points

Two Points

One Point

Redistribute Income


Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program and explain how it redistributes income.

Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program but cannot correctly explain how it redistributes income.

Student attempts but cannot describe an appropriate New Deal program or correctly explain how it redistributes income.

Regulate Economic Activity

Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program and explain how it regulates economic activity.

Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program but cannot correctly explain how it regulates economic activity.

Student attempts but cannot describe an appropriate New Deal program or correctly explain how it regulates economic activity.

Promote Economic Growth and Stability

Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program and explain how it promotes economic growth and stability.

Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program but cannot correctly explain how it promotes economic growth and stability.

Student attempts but cannot describe an appropriate New Deal program or correctly explain how it promotes economic growth and stability.

Provide Public Services

Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program and explain how it provides public services.

Student can describe an appropriate New Deal program but cannot correctly explain how it provides public services.

Student attempts but cannot describe an appropriate New Deal program or correctly explain how it provides public services.

Conclusions

Student can draw an accurate conclusion and provide at least one supporting piece of evidence.

Student can draw an accurate conclusion but does not provide at least one supporting piece of evidence.

Student cannot draw an accurate conclusion.


Attachment C

Post-Assessment Sample Response







Program Description, Explanation, and Conclusions

Redistribute Income


The Social Security System is an example of a program that redistributes income. Most workers put money into the social security system. The money is then redistributed to retired Americans, the unemployed, dependent children and the disabled.

Regulate Economic Activity

The Securities and Exchange Commission is an example of an agency regulating economic activity. This agency was designed to end manipulation of prices on the stock market. It created and enforced rules governing corporations, such as outlining what corporations must include in financial statements to investors.

Promote Economic Growth and Stability

The Emergency Banking Relief Act is an example of a law which promoted growth and economic stability. This program made sure banks were sound and encouraged Americans to put their money back into banks, which helped stabilize these financial institutions and end bank failures.

Provide Public Services

The Tennessee Valley Authority is an example of a program which provided public services. The government provided citizens in the area with electricity and flood control.

Conclusions

The election of Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 began a major shift in the role of the federal government in political, economic and social matters. Campaigning during the Great Depression, Herbert Hoover stood for a limited federal role in dealing with the economic crisis. Roosevelt’s call for a “New Deal” represented a willingness to have a larger role for the government in addressing the challenges of the times. After the election, New Deal programs provided relief, promoted economic recovery, and established reforms. New programs were created, regulations were issued and income was redistributed. These changes impacted political, economic and social affairs. If Hoover had been elected, chances are these changes would not have come about in such a short period of time, if at all.

Attachment D

Herbert Hoover Quotations
No one man is responsible for the Great Depression. However, when America entered the depression, President Hoover had a certain philosophy, or system of motivating principles, about how to lead the nation.
Directions: Read the quotes from President Herbert Hoover and answer the questions that follow.

On Government intervention:


“Economic depression cannot be cured by legislative action or executive pronouncement. Economic wounds must be healed by the action of the cells of the economic body - the producers and consumers themselves.”
“We must not be mislead by the claim that the source of all wisdom is in the federal government.”

On the individual American:


“We shall stimulate effort of each individual to achievement; that through an enlarging sense of responsibility and understanding we shall assist him to this attainment; while he in turn must stand up to the emery wheel of competition.”

On getting re-elected:


“We are opposed by six million unemployed, 10,000 bonus marchers, and 10 cent corn.”

On how bad the Depression was:


“Let no man tell you it could not be worse. It could be so much worse that these days now, distressing as they are, would look like veritable prosperity."
Questions:

  1. What did President Hoover believe was the best way to fix the economy?




  1. What approaches to meeting the challenge of the Depression was President Hoover against?




  1. What did President Hoover believe were his chances of getting re-elected?




  1. Why might President Hoover have been opposed to the government trying to fix the broken economy?



Attachment E

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Quotations
During the Great Depression, many people believed that America needed to do away with laissez-faire economics and have the government accept much more responsibility and power. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt expressed his own philosophy regarding how our country should get out of the Depression.
Directions: Read the quotes from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and answer the questions that follow.
On the Depression:

“The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.”


“I pledge you, I pledge myself, to a new deal for the American people.”
“The country needs and, unless I mistake its temper, the country demands bold, persistent experimentation. It is common sense to take a method and try it. If it fails, admit it frankly and try another. But above all, try something."
“If I were asked to state the great objective which Church and State are both demanding for the sake of every man and woman and child in this country, I would say that that great objective is ‘a more abundant life.’”
“True individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence. People who are hungry and out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made.”
Questions:

  1. What did President Roosevelt believe the government should provide for Americans?




  1. What do you think President Roosevelt meant by an “abundant life?”




  1. What was President Roosevelt’s philosophy regarding trying new ideas?




  1. What evidence do these quotes provide that President Roosevelt was confident that America would get out of the Depression?


Attachment F

Relief, Recovery and Reform
New Deal programs were classified according to their intended goal. The goals included:
Relief: This goal was to provide Americans with immediate assistance to help them with the basic necessities of life including food, direct monetary payments and employment.
Recovery: This term referred to a policy or program that had as its primary goal to promote growth in the American economy.
Reform: This term generally referred to the government making a policy or program that was designed to ensure that the effects of the Depression did not occur again. The government frequently became involved in the economy in ways it never had before.
In one sense, some of the New Deal programs incorporated elements of all three “R’s.” The specifics of each program usually correlated more closely to one “R” than the others.
Directions: Choose which “R” you believe belongs with each program listed below. Then, on a separate sheet of paper, explain why each program is related to the “R” you chose. A program may have more than one “R.”





  • Civil Works Administration




  • Civilian Conservation Corps




  • National Industrial Recovery Act




  • Tennessee Valley Authority




  • Agricultural Adjustment Administration







  • Federal Housing Administration




  • National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act







  • Farm Security Administration




  • Fair Labor Standards Act

Attachment G

Relief, Recovery and Reform Key
Note: Many of the programs provided more than just relief, just recovery or just reform. The Agricultural Adjustment Administration, for example, really provided all three. Answers may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Glass-Steagall Banking Act

Recovery/Reform—this act established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. It was designed to help restore confidence in the banking system. It also involved the federal government for the first time in providing insurance coverage for bank deposits.


  • Civil Works Administration

Relief—this agency provided jobs such as building roads and schools. It provided relief to the unemployed.


  • Civilian Conservation Corps

Relief—this program provided jobs related to reforestation and controlling erosion and flooding. It provided relief to the unemployed.


  • National Industrial Recovery Act

Recovery—this act made codes for the major industries in an attempt to control competition and balance out prices to enable the economy to recover. It established the National Recovery Administration. This agency worked to control prices of products, regulate wages and working conditions.


  • Tennessee Valley Authority

Relief/Recovery/Reform–this agency provided relief in the form of jobs building dams and power plants across the Tennessee Valley. The generation of electrical power and the implementation of flood control projects enabled the area to develop new industries and recover from the Depression. The government operated a utility in an area with few private utilities and this changed how people received their power. It also set a benchmark for utility costs to measure the fairness of private utility charges.


  • Agricultural Adjustment Administration

Relief/Recovery/Reform–this agency provided subsidies (as a form of relief) to farmers to reduce crop production and help raise the price of crops in order to protect farmers from bankruptcy (recovery). It also represented reform because it engaged the government in production decisions previously made by farmers.

Attachment G (continued)

Relief, Recovery and Reform Key


  • Securities and Exchange Commission

Reform—this agency was responsible for regulating the stock market and curbing over-speculation. These procedures changed the way the stock market operated in an effort to avoid another crash.


  • Federal Housing Administration

Recovery—this agency helped provide financing so people could obtain a mortgage to purchase a home.


  • National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act

Reform—this law protected workers’ rights to join labor unions, legalized labor practices such as collective bargaining, and outlawed unfair labor practices on the part of employers. It also created the National Labor Relations Board. This reform inserted the federal government into labor relations.


  • Social Security Act

Relief/Recovery/Reform—this law provided old-age pensions and unemployment insurance as a form of relief for the aged and those who lost jobs. It helped the economy stabilize because those who were affected continued to have a limited income and could make needed purchases. It redistributed wealth and reformed one of the conditions that led to the Depression.


  • Farm Security Administration

Relief/Recovery–this agency helped create camps for migrant workers to improve their housing. It also made loans to help tenant farmers purchase land to have a more secure livelihood.


  • Fair Labor Standards Act

Recovery/Reform–this act helped workers obtain higher wages and increase their spending. This act injected the influence of the federal government into labor/management relations by establishing minimum wages and maximum hours.






The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page