1 a. Ancient Egyptian letters are called ‘hieroglyphs’.
b. Hieroglyphic writing differs from our way of writing on the following points:
- it is written in recognisable pictures
- it is written without the use of punctuation marks
- it is written without the use of capitals
- it is written without the use of interspacing
- it can be written from left to right, as well as from right to left as well as from top to bottom.
- one sign can sometimes mean a whole word
- it consists of more thatn 7000 signs
2. The following things can be named:
- had, as one of few, attended school and had learned to read and write
- was someone who was well thought of
- wrote down taxmatters, made contracts, made notes at trials, kept books on stock and arranged the logistics at public works.
- had a writing palet with reedpens and ink.
- wrote normal text lines in black ink and important passages in red ink.
- usually wrote on papyrus, but also on potshards, pieces of stone or wooden boards.
3. By means of the Rosette Stone, the hieroglyphic writing could be deciphered. On the stone namely, was three times the same piece of text written, but in three different languages. The french scientist Champollion compared the greek text on the stone with the one in hieroglyphs and by doing so, could lay the basis for the deciphering.
The god Osiris - answers
1a. The first kings were buried in pyramids, later kings had their tombs cut out in the rocks.
b. People with important jobs were buried in a small building or in rooms cut out deep in the rocks.
c. Ordinary people were simply buried in a pit in the desert sand.
2a. The afterlife, according to the ancient Egyptians, is the place where the soul of the deceased will live on forever.
Also can be named:
- the god Osiris ruled the afterlife
- the afterlife is a fertile land with lots of water
b. To get to the afterlife, one would have to make a dangerous journey through the underworld.
Also can be named:
- only good people would be able to enter the afterlife
- the deceased was buried with a ‘book of the dead, a sort of travelguide to the underworld
3 a. The ancient Egyptians believed that they would need all these things in their second life.
b. They believed that these statues would be their servants in their second life.
The god Anubis - answers
1. They hoped that this way, their bodies would be kept for ever.
2. The body was covered in salt to dry it out. Intestines, liver, stomach, the heart and the brain were removed. The heart was put back into the body. Then the body was rubbed with scented oils and wrapped in linen bandages. Sometimes amulets were wrapped in between the layers of cloth.
3. A mummy could be protected and decorated with:
- a mask or a painted portrait.
- a painted cover for the feet.
- a net of beads or a painted shroud.
- a mummy case or sarcophagus.
4. Some animals were thought the be sacred. The Egyptians believed that these animals could be inhabited by gods. These sacred animals were mummified.
The god Hapi - answers
1. The river Nile:
- yearly flood and therefor made the soil fertile.
- provided in drinking water for both people and animals.
- provided in foods, like fish and waterfowl.
- provided water for washing.
- provided water for cooking.
- was the most important artery for transport.
- provided in papyrusplants for making e.g. papyrus.
2. For Yuty can be named that he sets of to work the land, take care of his cattle or helps with the construction of a public building. For Nefer can be named that she is going to bake bread, will weave cloth, make pottery, cooks meals and takes care of the children.
Other things that can be named is that life is very tough, that they make long days and the the children don’t go to school, but work in and around the house to help their parents.
The goddess Isis - answers
1a. Ordinary men wore a sort of skirts from creamcoloured linen. Women usually wore dresses.
b. Ordinary Egyptians mainly ate bread and a few sorts of vegetables like onions and garlick. Sometimes they also had meat or fish. They drank water and beer.
c. Gewone Egyptenaren woonden in eenvoudige huizen met een plat dak. Ze waren gebouwd van kleistenen, stenen van gedroogde klei.
2a. Rich men wore long pleated garments of creamcoloured or bleached linen. Women usually wore dresses.
b. Rich Egyptians ate bread, but often also meat, fish, honey, fresh vegetables and fruit. They drank water, beer, wine and milk.
c. Rich Egyptians live in large houses that were surrounded by walls. Within these walls they had storehouses, temples and quarters for their servants. All of these buildings were built with mudbricks.
3. Rich Egyptians used make up, jewellery, wigs, scented oils and cones of scented bees wax to make themselves beautiful.
The god Amun - answers
1. The head of the administration was the pharaoh.
2 a. The most important task of the administration was the assessent and collection of taxes.
b. The pharoah had many people do this assessing and collecting for him: scribes, taxcollectors, supervisors, mayors, gouvernors of the provinces and ministers.
3. The following things can be named:
- the Egyptians believed in many gods.
- every god had its own ‘task’.
- a god could appear as a human being, an animal or a combination of the two.
- gods could be married and have children.
- gods were worshipped in temples.
- on temple grounds sometimes sacred animals were kept.
- priests and priestesses looked after the temple and its statues and brought offerings to the gods.
- priests and priestesses were highly thought of.