The Feudal Order



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The Feudal Order

  1. This illustration shows six peasant farmers from Europe during the Middle Ages. How can you tell these people lived in the Middle Ages?

    1. It was simple technology for that time

    2. The way they dressed

      1. Shoes




  1. The illustration also helps show how simple and primitive farming methods were in the Middle Ages. How does the illustration show this?

    1. The tools are all hand tools

    2. Mostly wood

  2. The use of iron in the farming tools was increasing. Why might this have been an important change?

    1. More durable tools

    2. Can cultivate harder soils

  3. A key improvement in the Middle Ages was the use of a heavier iron plow along with a special collar that enabled easier harnessing of horses. Why would those two changes have been important? Can you think of other important agricultural improvements during the Middle Ages

Illustration 2



  1. What does “in kind” mean and why might peasants in the Middle Ages have had to pay taxes in this way?

    1. It was a way for the peasants to pay their taxes because very few had real money and paid with what they had.

  2. What is generally meant by the term “serf”

    1. Like a peasant but not a slave

    2. Generally tied to the land

  3. What service would a knight give to his lord?

    1. He would protect and fight for his lord.

  4. The knight was a man with a horse and armor. The need for his equipment was important and the knight was granted his land-explain why.

Illustration 3



  1. How can a man be a knight, a vassal, and a lord at the same time?

    1. A knight can have land therefore be a lord and still have to be vassal and knight to the king

  2. How does this illustration give a sense of the aspect of honor between the lord and vassal?

    1. It shows the bond between the lord and the knight

      1. Knight kneeling in respect and loyalty to the lord

  3. What do you know about the code of chivalry?

    1. It was a moral system which went beyond rules of combat and introduced the concept of Chivalrous conduct

    2. Qualities idealized by knighthood, such as bravery, courtesy, honor, and gallantry toward women.

  4. What was the effect of the code of chivalry on women?

    1. Women’s lives in the middle ages was harsh, the code softened that somewhat.

    2. Women were to be respected and protected.


The Universal Church
Illustration I


  1. Which religious organization helped unify political power in Europe during the High Middle Ages?

    1. The Catholic Church

  2. What was the name of the new type of church architecture seen in the illustration?

    1. Gothic

  3. What about the church in the illustration makes it an example of Gothic architecture?

    1. Pointed arches, delicate carvings, high walls, wide windows and often statues surrounding the door way.

  4. Why do you think Gothic architecture illustrates the power and confidence of the Church as an institution in the 12th and 13th centuries?

    1. The vast size represented the power of the church

    2. The arches pointed toward heaven showing a confidence in God’s support.

Illustration 2



  1. What do you know about Thomas Aquinas?

    1. He was a church scholar who believed that knowledge could be face without fear and could actuall7y strengthen Christian faith.

  2. Why did the Church leaders thing the ideas of the ancient Greeks would threaten the Church?

    1. Ancient Greeks relied on their own reason and disagreed with the teachings of the church

    2. Thought people would lose their faith

Illustration 3



  1. Why did the monastic orders begin to focus on a more active way of promoting the Christian faith during the 11th and 12th centuries?

    1. They felt their faith led them to concern for the sick, the poor and other outcasts of society

  2. How did the words of St Bernard seem to differ from the older monastic ideal of withdrawal from the world for prayer and study?

    1. Older monastic orders separated themselves from society; St Bernard charged the monastic orders to become part of society to promote the Christian faith.

  3. What was the focus of Francis of Assisi?

    1. He felt the role of the church was work with the poor and sick and show kindness and respect for the entire natural world.


Europe and the World Beyond
Illustration 1

  1. Why did Europe so fear the Muslim world between the 8th and 11th century?

    1. They feared the expansion of the empire and the loss of Christian influence and faith

  2. Who was the Pope at the Council of Clermont and what did he say at the meeting?

    1. Pope Urban II called on Christian believers to rescue the Holy Land from the Muslims

  3. What city is shown in the illustration and why was it so important to the Europe’s Christian Crusaders?

    1. Jerusalem was the holiest of Christian cities.

Illustration 2



  1. Where is Cologne located?

    1. Lowlands of northern Europe

  2. Why did the growth of trade affect northwestern Europe and northern Italy the most?

    1. Cities and towns begin to appear because of the rise of specialized industries that fueled long-distance trade.

  3. What group generally exercised social and political leadership in these growing towns?

    1. They became independent from the local lords and created their own political structure.

Illustration 3



  1. What was the Black Death and when did it occur?

    1. It was bubonic plague

    2. During the mid-1300s in Europe

  2. What do you know about the nature of this disease and how it is transmitted?

    1. It is carried by rats and fleas

    2. It produces lumps in the armpits and death occurs within days

  3. How this disaster was another sign of Europe’s growing involvement with a world beyond itself?

    1. The disease was spread to Europe by caravan trade routs from the East and by ships from Asia

  4. How was a growing population in Europe’s towns and their poor sanitation a contributing cause to the spread of disease?

    1. Polluted water sources, close living quarters



Beyond Lord and Vassal
Illustration 1

  1. What do you know about the Hundred Years’ War?

    1. It was a series of conflicts between England and France from 1337 to 1463.

  2. What were some new forms of weaponry? Why did kings have an advantage in this regard?

    1. Longbow, dismounted men-at-arms

    2. Only kings could afford the larger and better equipped armies

  3. What do you know about Joan of Arc? How did she foster a new spirit of national identify in France?

    1. She rallied French forces during several battles against the English during the Hundred Years War

    2. Her heroism and fame helped foster a new identity.

Illustration 2



  1. Identify the document and the date it was signed

    1. The Magna Carta, 1215

  2. What segment of the population was involved in this feudal conflict?

    1. The barons were afraid of losing their feudal rights

  3. Why was the signing of this document a step on the road to parliamentary democracy?

    1. It began to define “nation” as a representative institution as well as monarch.


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