The fate of the hungarian jews: the last surviving jewish community in europe

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Judith Fai-Podlipnik, Ph.D., Associate Professor of History
I. Traditional Anti-Semitism versus Modern Anti-Semitism and why the latter was successful in Hungary

* the Hungarian government's propensity and independent actions against Jews before, during and after World War II

-- The Horthy Regime did have a choice regarding its treatment of Jews, thus all actions for and against Jews

in Hungary during the period of the Holocaust were those of the Hungarians, not the Nazis

II. Brief History of Anti-Semitism in Hungary

a. Pre-World War I-- late 19th century blood libel

b. Interwar Period

1. implementation of the Numerus Clausus, 1919

2. The White Terror following Bela Kun's Communist Regime:

Admiral Miklos Horthy becomes Regent

3. Emergence of the Arrow Cross, Ference Szalsi leader

4. The Churches view of Jews

5. Enactment of Anti-Jewish laws, 1938-

III. World War II, Hungary, and the Jews

a. Jewish Refugees and Hungary's reaction

b. Establishment of the Munkaszgolat, Labor Service for Hungarian

National Jews, 1941

c. Bi-Polar activities of Antal Joszef and the Interior Ministry

d. the beginnings of Ghettoization

e. March 19, 1944, Nazi invasion of Hungary

1. Dom Sztojay government

a. Eichmann arrives

b. Deportations begin May 1944

2. The collaborators

3. Heroes and Righteous Gentiles

a. Raoul Wallenberg

b. Hannah Szenes

c. men, women and organizations

f. Arrow Cross Coup, October 1944

1. massacre on the Duna

g. Siege of Budapest, December 25, 1944-- end of World War II

IV. Conclusion: Hungarian independent participation in the Holocaust & anti-Semitism was/is a component of the national character of the 20th and 21st century Hungarian government and peoples

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