Strong religious ideology: monarchs appointed by God to rule (‘Divine Right’)
Shakespeare’s Richard II: ‘Not all the water in the rough rude sea. Can wash the balm from an anointed king; The breath of worldly men cannot depose. The deputy elected by the Lord.’
Cardinal Richelieu (France): ‘kings are the living images of God’.
Monarchs aim to create visual, public sensation of royal power.
The ‘King’s Evil’ / royal touch = king has ability to cure the sick by laying arm on shoulder and praying. Tradition derived from Louis XIII of France in 13th century. Practised by descendants in England, Scotland and France.
Jean Bodin theorises absolute sovereignty of monarch (1576): “It is the distinguishing mark of the sovereign that he cannot in any way be subject to the commands of another”.
‘Composite monarchies’ (John Elliott)
Spain: Forged with houses of Aragon and Castile (marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand in 1469); C16th absorbs Catalonia, Valencia, Sicily, Naples, provinces of Netherlands and Portugal (1580)
BUT regional political structures retained
France: No official language until 1539
Even in 1515 only 1 royal official for every 4,700 inhabitants.
The most important powerbases in Italy are the self-governing territories of Venice, Florence, Genoa, Milan, whose power is by and for the city and its leading inhabitants.
Greater civic participation, though still domination of elites/oligarchies, e.g. Venice governed by oligarchy of merchant noble families.
Republican/humanist ideology – claim to preserve political ethics of Republican Rome.
Spread of humanism= influence of Italian civic writings over wider parts of Europe:
Cities and republics beyond Italy
Historians also see republics elsewhere in Europe, e.g. England: Patrick Collinson – ‘monarchical republic of Queen Elizabeth I’; Mark Goldie – C16th England ‘an unacknowledged Republic’ > ‘chief inhabitants’ of towns and cities closely involved in their governance.
3. Expansion of royal power in Europe and some challenges
Competition between monarchs for territory – greatest source of conflict. Driven by better funded imperial armies and better technology
Spain: Conquer Valencia, Catalonia, the Netherlands and Portugal in C16th, and Mexico and Peru
Italian Wars 1494-1559: City states fall in face of French, Austrian and Spanish expansion; by 1559 – only Venice and San Marino retain independence
Meaning of concept ‘empire’ / ‘imperium’ = total dominion, absolute sovereignty, not territorial conquests.
1. Control of the Church
Facilitated by Reformation, e.g. Thomas Cromwell (1533) in England:
‘this realme of England is an Empire ... governed by one supreme head and king having the dignity and royal estate of the imperial crown of the same, unto whom a body politic... be bounden and owe to bear next to God a natural and humble obedience’’
Occurs in Catholic as much as Protestant states: 1516 Concordat of Bologna – kings of France given right to nominate appointments of all bishops ; 1555 Holy Roman Empire states - adopt policy of ‘cuius region, eius religio’ – of him the region, of him the religion.
Expansion of control over the regions to challenge representative institutions and nobility
Europe 1400 had 1,000 independent polities; by 1700 less than 350.
England under Henry VIII, 1536-41: Wales incorporated into full union with England; Ireland brought under English control - ‘surrender and regrant’ forced landowners to submit control of lands to Crown
Spain under Philip IV and Count Olivares, 1620s-40s: ‘one king, one law and one coinage’ across Spanish domains; 1632 - control of cities taken from Castilian Cortes; New military policy called ‘Union of Arms’
Centralisation in France under Cardinal Richelieu Louis XIII from 1610s: Dilute power of nobility with royal councils and provincial officials called Intendants; can raise troops, administer justice, raise and collect taxes; Growth of bureaucracy: 1515 1 royal official for every 4,700 inhabitants; 1665 1 royal official for every 380 inhabitants
Centralisation leads to rebellion from nobles, regional rulers, and scholars
1590s: Irish Rebellion against English Rule and ‘Plantation’ policy (Nine Years’ War); Dutch Revolt against Philip II of Spain > creation of Dutch Republic
1640s: Rebellions in Scotland and Ireland against religious uniformity > Civil War in England and execution of Charles I; Rebellions in Naples, Catalonia and Portugal against Philip IV of Spain and Count of Olivares > Portuguese independence.