The European Reconnaissance of the World’s Oceans



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The European Reconnaissance of the World’s Oceans

Time period: 1400 – 1800 • Location: Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas
Motives for Exploration

The most important of those motives for exploration were the search for basic resources and lands suitable for the cultivation of cash crops, the desire to establish new trade routes to Asian markets, and the aspiration to expand the influence of Christianity.


Portuguese Exploration Mariners from the relatively poor kingdom of Portugal were most prominent in the search for fresh resources and lands. Beginning in the thirteenth century, Portuguese seamen ventured away from the coasts and into the open Atlantic Ocean to supplement their own meager resources. By the early 1500s, they had discovered the uninhabited Azores and Madeiras Islands and called frequently at the Canary Islands, inhabited by the indigenous Guanche people. These Atlantic islands proved ideal for the cultivation of sugar, a product that enjoyed a strong European demand. In the 1600s, Italian investors – who had organized sugar palnations in the Mediterranean since the 1300s – helped Portuguese mariners establish plantations in the Atlantic islands.
The Lure of Trade Even more alluring than the exploitation of fresh lands and resources was the goal of establishing maritime trade routes to the markets of Asia. During the era of the Mongol empires, European merchants often traveled overland as far as China to trade for Asian goods. When the Mongol empires collapsed and bubonic plague spread across Europe and Asia in the 1300s, however, travel on the silk roads became much more dangerous. As a result, Europeans relied on Muslim mariners to bring Asian goods through the Indian Ocean and the Red Sea to Cairo, where Italian merchants purchased them for distribution in western Europe. But prices at Cairo were high, and Europeans sought ever-larger quantities of Asian goods, particularly spices.
By the 1500s, the wealthy classes of Europe regarded Indian pepper and Chinese ginger as expensive necessities, and they especially prized cloves and nutmeg from the spice islands of Maluku. Merchants and monarchs alike realized that by gaining direct access to Asian markets and eliminating Muslim intermediaries, they could increase the quantities of spices and other Asian goods available in Europe while making enormous profits.

African trade also beckoned to Europeans and called them to sea. Since the 1300s, Europeans had purchased West African gold, ivory and slaves brought to North African ports by Muslim merchants. West African gold was especially important to Europeans because it was their principal form of payment for Asian luxury goods.


Missionary Efforts Alongside material incentives, the goal of expanding the boundaries of Christianity drove Europeans into the larger world. Like Buddhism and Islam, Christianity is a missionary religion that directs believers to spread the faith. Sometimes such efforts were attempted through peaceful persuasion. At other times the expansion of Christianity could be quite violent. Beginning in the 1000s, for example, western Europeans launched a series of crusades against Muslims in Palestine, the Mediterranean islands, and Iberia. In Iberia, the Muslim kingdom of Granada fell to Spanish Christian forces just weeks before Christopher Columbus set said on his famous first voyage to the western hemisphere in 1492. Whether through persuasion or violence, overseas voyages offered fresh opportunities for western Europeans to spread their faith. The goal of spreading Christianity thus became a powerful justification for the more material motives for the voyages of exploration.
The Technology of Exploration

Ships and Sails From their experiences in the rough coastal waters of the Atlantic, European sailors learned to construct ships strong enough to brave most adverse conditions. Beginning in the 1100s, they increased the maneuverability of their craft by building a rudder onto the stern. They outfitted their vessels with two types of sails: square sails (which enabled them to take full advantage of a wind blowing from behind) and triangular lateen sails (which could catch winds from the wide as well as from behind). With a combination of square and lateen sails, European ships were able to use whatever winds arose.
Navigational Instruments The most important navigational equipment on board these vessels were magnetic compasses (which determined heading) and astrolabes (which determined latitude). The compass was a Chinese invention that had diffused throughout the Indian Ocean basis in the 1000s and had reached European mariners by the 1200s. The astrolabe was a simplified version of an instrument used by Greek and Persian astronomers to measure the angle of the sun or the pole start above the horizon.
Directions Outline this reading as you did the Reformation reading

Part 2 – Mapping Activity: Christopher Columbus

Instructions: Map the trade routes of the following explorers. Complete the chart accordingly. Pages: 472-474 in text



Explorer

Line Color

Motivation for Exploration

Final destination and contribution to mankind

Columbus










de Gama










Magellan










Part 2 – Mapping Activity: Christopher Columbus

Instructions: Map the trade routes of the following explorers. Complete the chart accordingly. Pages: 472-474 in text



Explorer

Line Color

Motivation for Exploration

Final destination and contribution to mankind

Columbus










de Gama










Magellan










Part 3 – Spain Builds an Empire

Instructions: Turn to page 477 in your text book. Read “Spain in the Caribbean” and “The Conquest of Mexico”.
In your notebook, draw a 3-slide cartoon to depict the events occurring during European expansionism. Set it up similar to the cartoon completed in class during Monday’s review:

Heading
(1 – 2 words)

Heading

Heading

Picture

Picture

Picture

Caption
(Brief phrase describing picture)

Caption

Caption

Part 3 – Spain Builds an Empire

Instructions: Turn to page 477 in your text book. Read “Spain in the Caribbean” and “The Conquest of Mexico”.
In your notebook, draw a 3-slide cartoon to depict the events occurring during European expansionism. Set it up similar to the cartoon completed in class during Monday’s review:

Heading
(1 – 2 words)

Heading

Heading

Picture

Picture

Picture

Caption
(Brief phrase describing picture)

Caption

Caption

Part 3 – Spain Builds an Empire

Instructions: Turn to page 477 in your text book. Read “Spain in the Caribbean” and “The Conquest of Mexico”.
In your notebook, draw a 3-slide cartoon to depict the events occurring during European expansionism. Set it up similar to the cartoon completed in class during Monday’s review:

Heading
(1 – 2 words)

Heading

Heading

Picture

Picture

Picture

Caption
(Brief phrase describing picture)

Caption

Caption

Part 3 – Spain Builds an Empire

Instructions: Turn to page 477 in your text book. Read “Spain in the Caribbean” and “The Conquest of Mexico”.
In your notebook, draw a 3-slide cartoon to depict the events occurring during European expansionism. Set it up similar to the cartoon completed in class during Monday’s review:

Heading
(1 – 2 words)

Heading

Heading

Picture

Picture

Picture

Caption
(Brief phrase describing picture)

Caption

Caption

Part 4 – Priest’s Account

Instructions: Assign a reader to each section of this account. That person is to read the passage aloud. As that person is reading, identify where you see references to the search for Glory, God and Gold. After you have completed the reading, finish the task at the end.

All the land so far discovered is a beehive of people; it is as though God had crowded into these lands the great majority of mankind. The people who live here are very clean in their persons, with alert, intelligent minds, docile and open to doctrine, very apt to receive our holy Catholic faith, to be endowed with virtuous customs, and to behave in a godly fashion. And once they begin to hear the tidings of the Faith, they are so insistent on knowing more and on taking the sacraments of the Church and on observing the divine cult that, truly, the missionaries who are here need to be endowed by God with great patience in order to cope with such eagerness. Some of the secular Spaniards who have been here for many years say that the goodness of the Indians is undeniable and that if this gifted people could be brought to know the one true God they would be the most fortunate people in the world.


Yet into this sheepfold, into this land of meek outcasts there came some Spaniards who immediately behaved like ravening wild beasts, wolves, tigers, or lions that had been starved for many days. And Spaniards have behaved in no other way during the past forty years, down to the present time, for they are still acting like ravening beasts, killing, terrorizing, afflicting, torturing, and destroying the native peoples, doing all this with the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty, never seen or heard of before, and to such a degree that this Island of Hispaniola once so populous (having a population that I estimated to be more than three million), has now a population of barely two hundred persons. All the people were slain or died after being taken into captivity and brought to the Island of Hispaniola to be sold as slaves.


Their reason for killing and destroying such an infinite number of souls is that the Christians have an ultimate aim, which is to acquire gold, and to swell themselves with riches in a very brief time and thus rise to a high estate disproportionate to their merits. The Spanish committed un-thinkable acts to reach their goal of riches. They attacked the towns and spared neither the children nor the aged nor pregnant women nor women in childbed, not only stabbing them and dismembering them but cutting them to pieces as if dealing with sheep in the slaughter house. They laid bets as to who, with one stroke of the sword, could split a man in two or could cut off his head or spill out his entrails with a single stroke of the pike. They took infants from their mothers' breasts, snatching them by the legs and pitching them headfirst against the crags or snatched them by the arms and threw them into the rivers, roaring with laughter and saying as the babies fell into the water. With still others, all those they wanted to capture alive, they cut off their hands and hung them round the victim's neck, saying, "Go now, carry the message," meaning, Take the news to the Indians who have fled to the mountains. After the wars and the killings had ended, when usually there survived only some boys, some women, and children, these survivors were distributed among the Christians to be slaves.

Instructions – In your notebook, answer the following question.

  1. Write a one sentence thesis answering the following question – Were the Spaniards right to kill in the name of God? Why or why not?

  2. Write a complete paragraph defending the position in your thesis. Use evidence from this document to support your position.

  3. Once all group members have written their paragraph, take turns reading your responses aloud. For each group mate, mark down one thing that you enjoyed about their writing and one thing that could improve their paragraph. Share your reasons.

Part 5 – Letter to Governor Perdue

In today’s class, you have learned about the cause for expansion as well as its lasting impact on native populations. Write a letter to North Carolina Governor Bev Perdue addressing the controversy of Columbus Day: are the achievements of Christopher Columbus worthy of celebration? Why or why not? Use specific facts that you have read. Consider other people/events that are celebrated in America (Veterans’ Day, Christmas, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, etc). Your letter should be one page.



Part 6 – Christopher Columbus Video

When you have finished steps 1-5, take your notebook to the back table and click on the Christopher Columbus video. Write a thesis statement to answer the following question: Did Christopher Columbus discover America? Why or why not?

***Write thesis statement at your desk***

While you are watching the video, think about the following question:



Does Christopher Columbus deserve to be remembered as a hero? Why or why not?

Christopher Columbus

Background Information


The Good
(write specific good things that happened as a result of Christopher Columbus)

The Bad
(write specific bad things that happened as a result of Christopher Columbus)

After watching the video, answer the above question in the form of a thesis statement.

The Conquest of the Philippines

In an age when real estate was as abundant as air, the electronic industry was yet to come and financial bubbles didn't exist, the big business was spices. Discovered by the Romans many centuries ago, they became an essential part of European life pretty quickly. There was a catch: they were only found in India, over seven thousand miles away, and there was a whole industry of middlemen making money by bringing them from over there to.

Whenever they weren't waging war against each other or arranging to marry their offspring, the monarchs of Europe would devote themselves to finding new routes from which to bring the spices themselves -- that way they could cut the middle man and join in on this lucrative business.In fact, the game-changing discovery of America in 1492 was a blatant mistake. The courses the Spanish had set before sailing were actually aimed towards finding the Middle East. Even though the happenstance discovery had a lot of other advantages, Charles V was aware that he hadn't found his way to India. So he sent a new explorer, a Portuguese-born captain called Ferdinand Magellan, to finish that job. He didn't find India either. Instead, he did the Columbus thing of accidentally discovering new land.

In March, 1521, Ferdinand Magellan was darting across the Atlantic ocean when he thought he'd spot some land. It was a much-needed sight. He had just suffered a mutiny (one of the side effects of sailing through uncharted waters is that the crew tends to lose their patience) and had but three ships out of the five he initially had. He decided to stop and get some food and water.

Now, besides being a successful sailor, he must have been a man with people skills. Ferdinand Magellan was quickly taken in by the natives and befriended their leader, the Sultan of Cebu. He promptly Christianized everybody because that was the gentleman thing to do at the time. Everybody except one.LapuLapu. The chief a tribe in the nearby island of Mactan who disliked Cebu and wouldn't accept his orders to be Christianized.

It was fantastic opportunity for Magellan to showcase the power of his men and his weaponry. That'd show the natives how unwise it would be to not obey him. He decided to battle the Mactan tribe. After all, fighting natives seemed pretty easy.

That was a fatal mistake. When he met the Mactans on their own island, he found about 1,500 ready to attack. They immediately recognized the captain and swarmed over him. After admirably surviving a few blows (an arrow in his shoulder and two hits on the head), Ferdinand Magellan died. The remaining crew was driven back to their boats. There were so few survivors, they easily fit into two vessels. They had to burn the other one to prevent the natives from chasing them.

LapuLapu thus became the first native to victoriously resist the oppression of foreign colonists. It would be another 40 years until Spain finally attempted the Spanish conquest of the Philippines again. This time around Spanish forces approached the Philippines in 1565 under the command of Migial Lopez de Legazpi, who names the islands after King Phillip II of Spain. Because the Philippines had no central government, there was no organized resistance to the intrusion. By 1575 Spanish forces controlled the coastal regions of the central and northern islands. And during the seventh century they extended their authority to most parts of the Philippines except the southern island of Mindanao, where a large Muslim community stoutly resisted Spanish expansion.

Spanish policy on the Philippines revolved around trade and Christianity. Manila was a port in the Philippines, which soon emerged as a bustling, multicultural port city. Malina’s main attraction was its silk. It quickly became the hub of Spanish commercial district. It was a very profitable discovery for the Spanish. As for the natives, the Spanish were highly invested in their conversion to Christianity. Spanish rulers and missionaries pressured prominent Filipinos to convert to Christianity in hopes of persuading others to follow their example. They opened schools to teach the natives about the fundamentals of Christianity., along with basic literacy. Although missionaries initially faced resistance, over the long term Filipinos turned increasingly to Christianity.

Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.


  1. What drove Spanish sailors to explore?

  2. How were the Philippines discovered?

  3. What was Magellan’s fate?

  4. How did the Spanish benefit financially from the Philippines’?

  5. Aside from trade what other goal did the Spanish hope to reach in the Philippines?


Activity 3: THE HISTORY OF FOODS | Interactive Online Database

URL—http://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/life/plants-fungi/seeds-of-trade/index.dsml

Overview: In the following activity, you will identify information concerning the history of the potato, wheat, and rice, three very important staple crops. You will use the above link/website to fill in the appropriate information on your chart labeled “Activity 3.”

  • Begin with the drop down box within the search category labeled “Products.”

  • Click “Go” to begin your search.

  • The list of categories in the left-hand column will help you find the information fast.

Activity 1: EUROPEAN DISEASES | Secondary Sources

Overview: In the following activity, you will study information pertaining to diseases historically originating in the “Old World.”

Step 1: read through the descriptions of cholera, smallpox, and typhus providedhttp://shelledy.mesa.k12.co.us/staff/computerlab/images/w_co_history3_native_americans_small_pox.jpg

Step 2: draw your interpretations of the symptoms of each disease within the section labeled “Activity 1.”

Step 3: answer the remaining questions based on the picture to the right.



Activity 6: THE LIFE OF AN EXLPORER | Projection of Drawing

Overview: In the following activity, you will make inferences using a picture drawn during the time of early European Explorers.

Step 1: Identify & list as many different activities as possible that you see depicted in the picture below in the space provided labeled “ACTIVITY 6.”

Step 2: Pretend you are a European Explorer. Write an account of your daily activities using the list you brainstormed in Step 1. (What’s happening? How does your character feel? Etc. ) Make sure your account makes sense & be creative. Your account must be at least 2 paragraphs.

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Activity 2: THE DEVASTATION OF THE AZTECS| Secondary Sources

Overview: In the following activity, you will gather information concerning the interaction of the great Aztec society of Central America and the conquistadors of Spain.

Instructions: Read through the provided text entitled “The Devastation of the Aztecs”. First, create a timeline using the dates from the reading. Then, for each black box within the reading, stop and answer the question within the section labeled “Activity 2.”



Activity 5: REGIONAL POPULATIONS OVER TIME| Graphs & Tables

Overview: In the following activity, you will create a line graph properly indicating the growth rate of regional populations from 1400 to 1800.

Step 1: Label correctly and color in the key on the blank graph located within the section labeled “ACTIVITY 5.”







1400 CE (A.D.)

1600 CE (A.D.)

1800 CE (A.D.)

CHINA

70

110

330

INDIA

74

145

180

EUROPE

52

89

92

SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

60

104

92

LATIN AMERCA

36

10

19


Step 2: Create lines indicating population growth or decline using the information found from the supplied chart.

Step 3: Answer the questions below the graph.

----------------------------------

Regional Populations in Millions



Activity 4: EFFORTS TO CHRISTIANIZE NATIVES| Primary Sources

Instructions: In the following activity, you will make inferences concerning efforts by Spanish Missionaries to convert Native Americans to Christianity.

Step 1: Read through the provided text below. At each black box, stop and answer the question within the section labeled “Activity 4.” http://www.freeelectroniccigarettes.com/wp-content/themes/wu-wei/human-body-outline-side-782.jpg


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