99 IWGIA, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, http://www.iwgia.org/sw228.asp
100 United Nations cyberschoolbus, http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/
101 The EU’s Human rights & Democratization Policy http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/human_rights/ip/index.htm
102 http://geography.about.com/cs/politicalgeog/a/statenation.htm, Matt Rosenberg, Country, State and Nation
103 Colonialism and its aftermath, http://colonial.arts.utas.edu.au/ Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialism
104 United Nations cyberschoolbus, http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/indigenous/advocate_2.asp
105 “Apology to Australia’s Indigenous Peoples’, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, Feb 13 2008.
106 ERIC, Education Resources Information Center, http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal
18Indigenous Community-based education, Steven May, University of Bristol, http://books.google.com/books/education+for+indigenous
108 The Dag Hammarskjold Library, http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/indigenous/
109 Triandis, 1972. supra note 1, at 2, 12, 28, 34-35, 43-44; see alsoHofstede, supra note 1, at 50-51; Brishkai Lund et al., Conflict and Culture: Report of the Multiculturalism and Dispute Resolution Project 4 (1994). For a discussion of collectivism and collectivists in Japan, see Robert C. Christopher, The Japanese Mind 38-58 (1st Tuttle Co., Inc. ed. 1987).
110 Macfarlane, A. (1978). The origins of English Individualism: The family, property and social transition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
111Gudykunst, (1979). The Thematic Analysis of Intergroup Communication Over Time.
Intercultural Communication Studies VI:2 1996-7 S.L. Guerrero & W.B. Gudykurst.
112 Durkheim, E. (Orig. 1893; retransl. 1984). The division of Labor in society. London Macmillan.
113 Triandis, H.C. Individualism and collectivism 2,12, 28, 34-35, 43-44 (1995) see also Geert Hofstede, Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind 50-51 (rev ed. 1997). For a brief discussion of Individualism and individualists in the United States, see Edward C. Steward & Milton J. Bennett, American Cultural Patterns: A cross-Cultural Perspective 94-96, 110, 133-38, 142-47 (rev. ed. 1987).
114 Triandis, supra note 1, at 2, 12, 28, 34-35, 43-44; see also Hofstede, supra note 1, at 50-51; Brishkai Lund et al., conflict and Culture: Report of the Multiculturalism and Dispute Resolution Project 4 (1994). For a discussion of a collectivism and collectivists in Japan, see Robert C. Christopher, the Japanese Mind 38-58 (1st Tuttle Co., Inc. ed. 1987)
115 Thomas Jefferson: Legal Argument, 1770.
116 Wink, P. (1997). Beyond ethnic differences: Contextualizing the influence of ethnicity on individualism and collectivism. Journal of social issues, 53, 329 – 349.
117 Kiyayama, S., Markus, H.R., & Lieberman, C. (1995).The collective construction of self-esteem: Implications for culture, self, and emotion. In J. Russell, J. Fernandez-Dols, T. Manstead, & J. Wellenkamp (Eds.), Everyday conceptions of emotion: An introduction to the psychology, anthropology, and linguistics of emotion (pp.523-550). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.
118 Azima, R.D. (1994)”Group Psychotherapy with Personal Disorders”. In Kaplan & Shaddock, (eds.)
119 Bellah et al., (1988) Habits of the Heart.
120. Davidson, Jacquard, J.J., Triandis, H.C., Morales, M.L., & Diaz-Guerrero, R. (1976). Cross-cultural model testing: Toward a solution of the etic-emic dilemma. International Journal of Psychology 11, 1-13.
121 Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, and Nesbit, 1998
122 Markus, H.R. and Kitayama, S. (1991b). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review 98, 224-253.
123 Matsumoto, D. (1989). Cultural differences in the perception of emotion. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 20, 92-105.
124 Miller, K.S. (1994) “Public Relations, the Community, and Newspaper Coverage of a local Steel Strike, 1946”. American Journalism Historians Association; Roanoke, Virginia; October.
125 Earley, P.C. (1989). Social loafing and collectivism: A comparison of the US and the People’s Republic of China. Administrative Science Quarterly in italics 34, 565 - 581
126 Wager, J.A., III, (1992). Individualism-collectivism and free riding: A study of main and moderator effects. Paper presented at the Las Vegas, Nevada, meetings of the Academy of Management, August.
127 Yamagishi, T.(1988) The Provision of a sanction system in the United States and Japan.
128 Eckensberger, L.H. (1994). Moral development and its measurement across cultures. In W.J.Lonner & R. Malpass (eds.). Psychology and culture (pp. 71-78).
129 Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills: Sage.
130 1997 Samovar , L.A., Porter, R.E. & Stefani, L.A.(1997). Communication and cultures.
131 Hofstede, Geert (1976), p867. XIII. Individualism versus collectivism.
″Cultures and Organizations – Intercultural Cooperation and its importance for survival”.
132 ibid pg 61
134 Draft Convention for the Establishment of a United Nations War Crime Court, UN War Crimes Commission, Doc.C.50(1), 30 September 1944.
136 The Statute of the International Criminal Court; A Documentary History, Ardsley, NY; Transnational Publishers, 1998.
137 Report of the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, UN Doc.A/51/22
138 Report of the Inter-sessional Meeting from 19 to 30 January 1998 in Zutphen, the Netherlands, UN Doc. A/AC.249/1998/L.13.
139 See Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, First Session, New York, 3-10 September2002, Official Records,Doc.ICC-ASP/1/3.
142 An Introduction to the International Criminal Court, Third Edition, William A. Schabas, Cambridge University Press.
143 On Art.12(3),see Carsten Stahn, Mohamed El Zeidy and Hector Olasolo, The International Criminal Court’s Ad Hoc Jurisdiction Revised, (2005)99 American Journal of International Law 421.
144 Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, analysis of Government, proposals for Redress, Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for World peace, 1994.
145 GA Resolution 96(1).
146 Lesline C. Green, International Regulation of Armed conflict:; in M. Cherif Bassiouni,ed., International Criminal Law,2nd edn, Ardsely, NY; Transnational Publishers,2003,vol.1,p.355-91
147 Terraviva, 13 July 1998, NO. 21,p .2;UN Press Release L/ROM/16, 13 July 1998.
148 Rome Statute, Art.70; Rules of Procedures and Evidence, Rules 162-169and 172.
149 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/9 (Here-in after “Rome Statute”), Art.62; Rules and Evidence,Doc.ICC-ASP/1/3,PP.10-107, Rule100.
150 Strategic Plan of the International Criminal Court,Doc.ICC-ASP/5/6, Para.34.
151 US under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Marc Grossman, American Foreign Policy and the International Criminal Court, Remarks to the Center for Strategic and International Studies; 6 May 2002, available at www.state.gov/p/9949pf.htm.
152 Daniel D. Ntanda Nsereko,” The International Criminal Court: Jurisdiction and Related Issues; (1999) 10 Criminal Law Forum87 at 109.
153 Paola Gaeta, “Is the Practice of “‘self-Referral”“ a Sound Start for the ICC? , (2004) 2 Journal of International Criminal Justice 949
155 See Holmes, Complementarity; National Courts versus the ICC supra note 11, at 677.
156 See Rome Statute, supra note 11, preamble. (Recalling the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over those responsible for international crimes……..)
157 Pursuant to Article 123(1) of the Rome Statute, a Review Conference will be held seven years after the Statute’s entry into force, at which amendments and changes to the Statute can be proposed and considered. See id.art.123 (1).
158 For the background to the conflict, see Mohamed El Zeidy, “The Ugandan Government Triggers the First Test of the Complementarity Principle: AN Assessment of the First State’s Party Referral to the ICC ;( 2005)5 International Criminal Law 83.
159 "C.E”. throughout the paper stands for Christian Era (A.D.).
168 Encyclopedia American international (edition), Vol. 29, p. 108.
169 Encyclopedia Britannica, 1968, Vol. 23, P. 624.
170 Quoted in Mace, marriage east and West, op.cit., p. 81.
171 ibid., pp. 82-83.
172 Encyclopedia Biblical, 1902, Vol. 3, p. 2942.
173 ibid., p.2942.
174 ibid., p. 2947
175 The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., op.cit., p. 782.
176 Verses (2:35-36); 7:19, 27; 20:117-123).
177 (Quran, 49:13; cf. 4:1).
178 (Quran 3:195; cf 9:71;33:35-36;66:19-21).
179 (Quran, 58:1-4; 60:10-12)
180 (16:57-59, 62; 42:47-59; 43:15-19; 53:21-23).
181 Quran, 4:11-14, 176
182 Quran 31:14-15;46:15
183 Quran, 24:30-31.
184 Amnesty International , Abuse of Women in Custody, Sexual Misconduct and the Shackling of Pregnant Women in 50 States of USA
185 According to Amnesty International
186 The Schengen Group and the Justice and home affairs European groups.
187 In the other countries bordering candidate states, Austria and Italy - both countries with far-right, anti-immigration parties in government - the migration flows that will arise from enlargement have led to threats about the national veto being wielded on EU enlargement.
188Figures through the 1990s show that net immigration from the 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe to the European Union fell considerably through the decade. According to the University of Kent, while 330,000 made the move in 1990, by 1997 the total was under 14,000.
189The country has one of the largest populations of Muslims in Western Europe — about 1 million, roughly 6 percent of the population, second only to France. The largest groups are people with origins in Morocco or Turkey.
190The Commissioner said the EU had to use «the most advanced technology to reach the highest level of security» to stop visitors overstaying their welcome in Europe and to prevent terrorists from entering.
191 The official statistics compiled by the US Border Patrol consistently undercount the actual number of deaths in Arizona and elsewhere along the US-Mexico border. But various academic and government studies estimate that the bodies of between 2,000 and 3,000 men, women, and children have been found along the entire southwest border since 1995, including at least 1,000 in the inhospitable terrain of southern Arizona
192According to the International Organization for migration (IOM) migrants "are more and more targeted as the scapegoats for all manner of domestic problems facing societies today, particularly unemployment, crime, drugs, even terrorism”.
193 Adrienne Millbank, Social Policy Group «Boat People, Illegal Migration and Asylum Seekers: in Perspective» 14 December 1999
194 OECD, SOPEMI 1999.
197 Clive Baldwin, Chris Chapman and Zoë Gray:Minority Rights: The Key to Conflict Prevention
223 Examples of this may include the publications of agencies such as Christus Rex (http://www.christusrex.org/www1/sdc/hr_facts.html) and Amnesty International (http://www.amnesty.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=17393).
224 Sarkin, J. (2008) Human Rights in African Prisons.
225 Daly, K. & Immarigeon, R. (1998) The Contemporary Justice Review, 1(1), 21.
252 Smith, P.S. (2006) Crime and Justice, 34, 441.
253 Cunningham, M.D. & Reidy, T.J. (1999) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 26(1), 20.
254 Flanagan, T.J. & McGarell, E.F. (1986), cited in Cunningham, M.D. & Reidy, T.J. (1999) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 26(1), 23.
255 Sorenson, J. & Wrinkle, R.D. (1996) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 23, 542.
256 Cunningham, M.D. & Reidy, T.J. (1999) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 26(1), 23.
257 Heliperm, D.M. (1998) Fear or Favour: Sexual assault of young prisoners.
258 Robertson, J.E. (2003) AIDS, Patient Care and STDs, 17, 423.
259 Boston, J. (2006) Journal of Law and Policy, 22, 155.
260 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, in force 1976) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force March 23, 1976.
261 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force January 3, 1976.
262 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. res. 39/46, [annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984)], entered into force June 26, 1987
263 Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, adopted Aug. 30, 1955 by the First United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, U.N. Doc. A/CONF/611, annex I, E.S.C. res. 663C, 24 U.N. ESCOR Supp. (No. 1) at 11, U.N. Doc. E/3048 (1957), amended E.S.C. res. 2076, 62 U.N. ESCOR Supp. (No. 1) at 35, U.N. Doc. E/5988 (1977).
264 United Nations Mechanisms regarding the treatment of prisoners. Barbara Nazareth Andrade de Oliveira, Legal Experthttp://www.legislationline.org/?tid=160&jid=57&less=false
267 The UN Human Rights Commission Special Procedures. United Nations University Centre
269 World Report 2002-Prisons. http://www.hrw.org/wr2k2/prisons.html
271 Analyzing prison sex: Reconciling self-expression with safety. Brenda Smith www.spr.org/pdf/Analyzing%20Prison%20Sex.pdf
272 Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and syphilis among prison inmates and officers at Nsawam and Accra, Ghana. Adjei, A. A., Armah, H. B., Gbagbo, F., Ampofo, W. K., Quaye, I. K. E., Hesse, I. F. A. & Mensah, G. (2006). J Med Microbiol 55, 593–597.
279 Overcrowding of prisons and non-institutional treatment of offenders. Dr. Khalid Ranjha, 1999. Seventh ACPF World Conference on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. New Delhi.http://www.acpf.org/WC7th/PapersItem3/PpSriLanka.htm
281 Definition of Bail. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bail
282 ibid 20
283Increased coordination and scale up of HIV prevention and treatment programmes needed urgently to turn the tide on AIDS in Africa, says UNAIDS Executive Director at Africa’s 14th International Conference on AIDS. Dominique De Santis http://www.aidsmedia.org/content/news/detail/1289
284Women confront AIDS in Africa. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Women_Confront_Aids_in_Africa.php
285 Bulmer.Martin, 2004 p1.
286 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p27.
287 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p5.
288 Waller.James, 1998 p47.
289 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p27.
290 Reisigl.Maryin, 2001 p2.
291 Waller.James, 1998 p47.
292 Page. Helan Enoch, 1999.
293 Students. Pomona College, 2002.
294 d´souza.Dinesh, 1995p2.
295 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p30.
296 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p40.
297 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p48.
298 Berghe.Pierre L.Van Den, 1967p79.
299 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p51.
300 Fredrickson. George M, 2002. p2.
301 George , Francis Cardinal, 2001.
302 Waller.James, 1998 p49.
303 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p109.
304 Bowling, Benjamin 1999.p3.
305 Waller.James, 1998 p99.
306 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p3.
307 Feagin.Joe.R, 2001p1.
308 Bulmer.Martin.2004 p173.
309http://www.un.org/News/ossg/sg/stories/statments_search_full.asp?statID=28. Secretary-General’s address to the 54th G.A. on 20 September 1999
310 Statement of the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs at the open meeting of the Security Council on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict. 28 June 2006
311 Intervention, Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect: Experience from ICIS. Ramesh Thakur, in SAGE Publications, sagepub.com. 2002, International Peace Research Institute.
312 ibid, pg. 330
313 ibid, pg.331
314 Ulrich Beck, War Is Peace: On Post-National War, Journal of Political Peace, 2005, pg.14
315 ibid, pg. 15
316 A/RES/60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome
317 Guidance Note of the Secretary-General. UN Approach to Rule of Law Assistance. April 2008
318 Summary of “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility”
319 Conflict prevention is also an activity best undertaken under Chapter VI of the Charter.
320 Human Security and the New Diplomacy: Protecting People, Promoting Peace By Robert Grant McRae, Rob McRae, Don
321 S/PV.5898 (Resumption 1)
322 High Commissioner addresses Dublin’s Trinity College on Responsibility to Protect, November 23, 2007
353 Press Article IRNA 16 June 2008. Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei,
354 ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law. [Vol 11:443] Fall 2005 by Ghoshary Saby page 452
355 In pursuit of the Right to Self-Determination By Y.N. Kly, D Kly Clarity Press, 2000 pg 20
356 Decolonization: dismantling Empires and Building Independence. By Sheila Nelson Mason, Page 32 2007 Crest Publishers
357 The Charter of the United Nations: A commentary. Page 51 Volume I 2nd edition by Bruno Simma, H. Moslert, A.Randelzhofer, C.Tomuschat, and R.Wolfrum. Oxford University Press
358 War on America seen from the Indian Ocean by James R. Mancham page 44 Paragon House, St Paul Minnesota 1st Edition 2001
359 CFA – Currency Designed to Keep Francophone African Countries Poor? by Hinsley Njila Published 04/10/2008 http://business.africanpath.com
360 The Globalization of Poverty and the New World Order, page Michel Chossudovsky 2nd edition 2003 Global research
361 Inventing Human Rights, A history, by Lynn Hunt 213 2007 W.W.Norton & Company New York
362 The list of Non-Self-Governing Territories includes, Western Sahara in Africa; Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Montserrat, St. Helena, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands in the Atlantic and Caribbean; Gibraltar in Europe; and American Samoa, Guam, New Caledonia, Pitcairn, and Tokelau in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.
363 Press Release, 02 October 2006 GA GAlSPD/341 Statement by the Chairman of Fourth Committee Madju Raman Acharya.
364 Statement by Ms Michelle Joseph of St Lucia at the Closing of the 2008 Session of the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization June 23, 2008
365 Accomplishments and remaining challenges. http://www.somalilandgov.com/challenges.htm