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84 Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.


85 By Herodotus, who mentions the ancient Libyan people.

86 Dr. Juan Martinez Cruzado, a geneticist from the University of Puerto Rico Mayaguez.

87 The Rights of Indigenous Peoples, University of Minnesota, Human Rights Library

(http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/studyguides/indigenous.html)



88 Magenta Polylexicon, All languages Dictionary, English< - >Greek

89 The Rights of Indigenous Peoples, University of Minnesota, Human Rights Library

(http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/studyguides/indigenous.html)



90 Key Concepts-Indigenous Peoples,

http://web.worldbank.org/wbsite/external/topics



91 Indigenous People of Europe, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wikiIndigenous_Peoples_of _Europe

92www.wikipedia.com

93 ibid

94 Wikipedia, The free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Indigenous_peoples_of_Central_America

95Indigenous Peoples in Brazil, General table of the Indigenous peoples in Brazil http://www.socioambiental.org/pib/english/whwhhow/table.asp

96 List of Indigenous Peoples, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_of_Africa

97 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indigenous_peoples_of_Asia#Asia

98 Indigenous Peoples: Oceania, www.colorado.edu/geography/class_homepages/geog_1982_200_sum07/lectures/Lecture_16.ppt

99 IWGIA, International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs, http://www.iwgia.org/sw228.asp

100 United Nations cyberschoolbus, http://cyberschoolbus.un.org/

101 The EU’s Human rights & Democratization Policy http://ec.europa.eu/external_relations/human_rights/ip/index.htm

102 http://geography.about.com/cs/politicalgeog/a/statenation.htm, Matt Rosenberg, Country, State and Nation

103 Colonialism and its aftermath, http://colonial.arts.utas.edu.au/ Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colonialism

104 United Nations cyberschoolbus, http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/indigenous/advocate_2.asp

105 “Apology to Australia’s Indigenous Peoples’, Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, Feb 13 2008.

106 ERIC, Education Resources Information Center, http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal

18Indigenous Community-based education, Steven May, University of Bristol, http://books.google.com/books/education+for+indigenous

107


108 The Dag Hammarskjold Library, http://www.un.org/depts/dhl/indigenous/

109 Triandis, 1972. supra note 1, at 2, 12, 28, 34-35, 43-44; see also Hofstede, supra note 1, at 50-51; Brishkai Lund et al., Conflict and Culture: Report of the Multiculturalism and Dispute Resolution Project 4 (1994). For a discussion of collectivism and collectivists in Japan, see Robert C. Christopher, The Japanese Mind 38-58 (1st Tuttle Co., Inc. ed. 1987).

110 Macfarlane, A. (1978). The origins of English Individualism: The family, property and social transition. New York: Cambridge University Press.

111Gudykunst, (1979). The Thematic Analysis of Intergroup Communication Over Time.

Intercultural Communication Studies VI:2 1996-7 S.L. Guerrero & W.B. Gudykurst.



112 Durkheim, E. (Orig. 1893; retransl. 1984). The division of Labor in society. London Macmillan.

113 Triandis, H.C. Individualism and collectivism 2,12, 28, 34-35, 43-44 (1995) see also Geert Hofstede, Culture and Organizations: Software of the Mind 50-51 (rev ed. 1997). For a brief discussion of Individualism and individualists in the United States, see Edward C. Steward & Milton J. Bennett, American Cultural Patterns: A cross-Cultural Perspective 94-96, 110, 133-38, 142-47 (rev. ed. 1987).

114 Triandis, supra note 1, at 2, 12, 28, 34-35, 43-44; see also Hofstede, supra note 1, at 50-51; Brishkai Lund et al., conflict and Culture: Report of the Multiculturalism and Dispute Resolution Project 4 (1994). For a discussion of a collectivism and collectivists in Japan, see Robert C. Christopher, the Japanese Mind 38-58 (1st Tuttle Co., Inc. ed. 1987)

115 Thomas Jefferson: Legal Argument, 1770.

116 Wink, P. (1997). Beyond ethnic differences: Contextualizing the influence of ethnicity on individualism and collectivism. Journal of social issues, 53, 329 – 349.

117 Kiyayama, S., Markus, H.R., & Lieberman, C. (1995).The collective construction of self-esteem: Implications for culture, self, and emotion. In J. Russell, J. Fernandez-Dols, T. Manstead, & J. Wellenkamp (Eds.), Everyday conceptions of emotion: An introduction to the psychology, anthropology, and linguistics of emotion (pp.523-550). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic.

118 Azima, R.D. (1994)”Group Psychotherapy with Personal Disorders”. In Kaplan & Shaddock, (eds.)

119 Bellah et al., (1988) Habits of the Heart.

120. Davidson, Jacquard, J.J., Triandis, H.C., Morales, M.L., & Diaz-Guerrero, R. (1976). Cross-cultural model testing: Toward a solution of the etic-emic dilemma. International Journal of Psychology 11, 1-13.

121 Fiske, Kitayama, Markus, and Nesbit, 1998

122 Markus, H.R. and Kitayama, S. (1991b). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion and motivation. Psychological Review 98, 224-253.

123 Matsumoto, D. (1989). Cultural differences in the perception of emotion. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 20, 92-105.

124 Miller, K.S. (1994) “Public Relations, the Community, and Newspaper Coverage of a local Steel Strike, 1946”. American Journalism Historians Association; Roanoke, Virginia; October.

125 Earley, P.C. (1989). Social loafing and collectivism: A comparison of the US and the People’s Republic of China. Administrative Science Quarterly in italics 34, 565 - 581

126 Wager, J.A., III, (1992). Individualism-collectivism and free riding: A study of main and moderator effects. Paper presented at the Las Vegas, Nevada, meetings of the Academy of Management, August.

127 Yamagishi, T.(1988) The Provision of a sanction system in the United States and Japan.

Social Psychology Quarterly, 51, 32-42.



128 Eckensberger, L.H. (1994). Moral development and its measurement across cultures. In W.J.Lonner & R. Malpass (eds.). Psychology and culture (pp. 71-78).


129 Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences. Beverly Hills: Sage.

130 1997 Samovar , L.A., Porter, R.E. & Stefani, L.A.(1997). Communication and cultures.

Washington: Wadsworth.




131 Hofstede, Geert (1976), p867. XIII. Individualism versus collectivism.

″Cultures and Organizations – Intercultural Cooperation and its importance for survival”.



132 ibid pg 61

133 www.unausa.org

134 Draft Convention for the Establishment of a United Nations War Crime Court, UN War Crimes Commission, Doc.C.50(1), 30 September 1944.

135 www.globapolicy.org.

136 The Statute of the International Criminal Court; A Documentary History, Ardsley, NY; Transnational Publishers, 1998.



137 Report of the Preparatory Committee on the Establishment of an International Criminal Court, UN Doc.A/51/22

138 Report of the Inter-sessional Meeting from 19 to 30 January 1998 in Zutphen, the Netherlands, UN Doc. A/AC.249/1998/L.13.

139 See Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, First Session, New York, 3-10 September2002, Official Records,Doc.ICC-ASP/1/3.

140 www.icc-cpi.int.

141 ibid.

142 An Introduction to the International Criminal Court, Third Edition, William A. Schabas, Cambridge University Press.

143 On Art.12(3),see Carsten Stahn, Mohamed El Zeidy and Hector Olasolo, The International Criminal Court’s Ad Hoc Jurisdiction Revised, (2005)99 American Journal of International Law 421.

144 Raphael Lemkin, Axis Rule in Occupied Europe: Laws of Occupation, analysis of Government, proposals for Redress, Washington DC: Carnegie Endowment for World peace, 1994.

145 GA Resolution 96(1).

146 Lesline C. Green, International Regulation of Armed conflict:; in M. Cherif Bassiouni,ed., International Criminal Law,2nd edn, Ardsely, NY; Transnational Publishers,2003,vol.1,p.355-91

147 Terraviva, 13 July 1998, NO. 21,p .2;UN Press Release L/ROM/16, 13 July 1998.

148 Rome Statute, Art.70; Rules of Procedures and Evidence, Rules 162-169and 172.

149 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, UN Doc. A/CONF.183/9 (Here-in after “Rome Statute”), Art.62; Rules and Evidence,Doc.ICC-ASP/1/3,PP.10-107, Rule100.

150 Strategic Plan of the International Criminal Court,Doc.ICC-ASP/5/6, Para.34.

151 US under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Marc Grossman, American Foreign Policy and the International Criminal Court, Remarks to the Center for Strategic and International Studies; 6 May 2002, available at www.state.gov/p/9949pf.htm.

152 Daniel D. Ntanda Nsereko,” The International Criminal Court: Jurisdiction and Related Issues; (1999) 10 Criminal Law Forum87 at 109.

153 Paola Gaeta, “Is the Practice of “‘self-Referral”“ a Sound Start for the ICC? , (2004) 2 Journal of International Criminal Justice 949

154 www.weltpolitik.net.

155 See Holmes, Complementarity; National Courts versus the ICC supra note 11, at 677.

156 See Rome Statute, supra note 11, preamble. (Recalling the duty of every State to exercise its criminal jurisdiction over those responsible for international crimes……..)

157 Pursuant to Article 123(1) of the Rome Statute, a Review Conference will be held seven years after the Statute’s entry into force, at which amendments and changes to the Statute can be proposed and considered. See id.art.123 (1).

158 For the background to the conflict, see Mohamed El Zeidy, “The Ugandan Government Triggers the First Test of the Complementarity Principle: AN Assessment of the First State’s Party Referral to the ICC ;( 2005)5 International Criminal Law 83.

159 "C.E”. throughout the paper stands for Christian Era (A.D.).

160 According to Dr. Jamal A. Badawi


161 The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., 1911, Vol. 28, p. 782.

162 In Mace, David and Vera, marriage East and west. Dolphin Books, Doubleday and Co., Inc., N.Y., 1960.

163 Allen, E.A., history of Civilization, Vol. 3, P.444.

164 ibid., p. 443

165 ibid., p. 550.

166 The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., 1911, op.cit., Vol. 28, P.782

167 ibid., p.783.

168 Encyclopedia American international (edition), Vol. 29, p. 108.

169 Encyclopedia Britannica, 1968, Vol. 23, P. 624.

170 Quoted in Mace, marriage east and West, op.cit., p. 81.

171 ibid., pp. 82-83.

172 Encyclopedia Biblical, 1902, Vol. 3, p. 2942.

173 ibid., p.2942.

174 ibid., p. 2947

175 The Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed., op.cit., p. 782.

176 Verses (2:35-36); 7:19, 27; 20:117-123).

177 (Quran, 49:13; cf. 4:1).

178 (Quran 3:195; cf 9:71;33:35-36;66:19-21).

179 (Quran, 58:1-4; 60:10-12)

180 (16:57-59, 62; 42:47-59; 43:15-19; 53:21-23).

181 Quran, 4:11-14, 176

182 Quran 31:14-15;46:15

183 Quran, 24:30-31.

184 Amnesty International , Abuse of Women in Custody, Sexual Misconduct and the Shackling of Pregnant Women in 50 States of USA

185 According to Amnesty International

186 The Schengen Group and the Justice and home affairs European groups.

187 In the other countries bordering candidate states, Austria and Italy - both countries with far-right, anti-immigration parties in government - the migration flows that will arise from enlargement have led to threats about the national veto being wielded on EU enlargement.

188 Figures through the 1990s show that net immigration from the 10 countries in Central and Eastern Europe to the European Union fell considerably through the decade. According to the University of Kent, while 330,000 made the move in 1990, by 1997 the total was under 14,000.

189 The country has one of the largest populations of Muslims in Western Europe — about 1 million, roughly 6 percent of the population, second only to France. The largest groups are people with origins in Morocco or Turkey.


190 The Commissioner said the EU had to use «the most advanced technology to reach the highest level of security» to stop visitors overstaying their welcome in Europe and to prevent terrorists from entering.

191 The official statistics compiled by the US Border Patrol consistently undercount the actual number of deaths in Arizona and elsewhere along the US-Mexico border. But various academic and government studies estimate that the bodies of between 2,000 and 3,000 men, women, and children have been found along the entire southwest border since 1995, including at least 1,000 in the inhospitable terrain of southern Arizona

192 According to the International Organization for migration (IOM) migrants "are more and more targeted as the scapegoats for all manner of domestic problems facing societies today, particularly unemployment, crime, drugs, even terrorism”.

193 Adrienne Millbank, Social Policy Group «Boat People, Illegal Migration and Asylum Seekers: in Perspective» 14 December 1999

194 OECD, SOPEMI 1999.

195 http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/fs18.htm

196 http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/fs18.htm#*24

197 Clive Baldwin, Chris Chapman and Zoë Gray: Minority Rights: The Key to Conflict Prevention

198 United Nations document E/CN.4/52, Section V

199 http://www.minorityrights.org/?lid=555

200 http://www.minorityrights.org/?lid=758


201 http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/fs18.htm#*17

202 http://www.unhchr.ch/minorities/group.htm

203 ibid

204 http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu6/2/fs18.htm

205 http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/IRIN/1fcd6ccdee02e908439b846384cf9487.htm

206 Walmsley, R. (2003) World Prison Population List. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r188.pdf.

207 Walmsley, R. (2003) World Prison Population List. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs2/r188.pdf.

208 Mitchell, N.J. & McCormack, J.M. (1988) World Politics, 40(4), 476.

209 Coutsoukis, P. (2006) Federal State Prisoners. http://allcountries.org/uscensus/369_federal_and_state_prisoners.html.

210 Coutsoukis, P. (2006) Federal State Prisoners. http://allcountries.org/uscensus/369_federal_and_state_prisoners.html.

211 World Mapper (No date) Prisoners. http://www.sasi.group.shef.ac.uk/worldmapper/display.php?selected=293.

212 US Department of Justice (2008) Bureau of Justice Statistics. http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/prisons.htm.

213 NOMS (2008) Prison population & accommodation briefing for 23rd May 2008. www.hmprisonservice.gov.uk/resourcecentre/publicationsdocuments/index.asp?cat=85.

214 Mitchell, N.J. & McCormack, J.M. (1988) World Politics, 40(4), 476.

215 Ward, D.A. & Werlich, T.G. (2003) Punishment & Society, 5(1), 53.

216 Liberty (2007) The Basic Rights of Prisoners. http://www.yourrights.org.uk/your-rights/chapters/the-rights-of-prisoners/basic-rights-of-prisoners/basic-rights-of-prisoners.shtml.

217 These agencies include most notable Amnesty International, the UN Commission on Human Rights and Human Rights Watch.

218 Strutin, K. (2006) Features – Criminal justice resources: Prisoners’ rights and resources on the web. http://www.llrx.com/features/prisonersrights.htm.

219 Baker, E. (1992) Modern Law Review, 56, 528.

220 Jacobs, J.B. (1980) Crime & Justice, 2, 429.

221 Freudenberg, N. (2002) American Journal of Public Health, 92(12), 1895.

222 Mitchell, N.J. & McCormack, J.M. (1988) World Politics, 40(4), 476.

223 Examples of this may include the publications of agencies such as Christus Rex (http://www.christusrex.org/www1/sdc/hr_facts.html) and Amnesty International (http://www.amnesty.org.uk/news_details.asp?NewsID=17393).

224 Sarkin, J. (2008) Human Rights in African Prisons.

225 Daly, K. & Immarigeon, R. (1998) The Contemporary Justice Review, 1(1), 21.

226 Ward, D.A. & Werlich, T.G. (2003) Punishment & Society, 5(1), 53.

227 Ward, D.A. & Werlich, T.G. (2003) Punishment & Society, 5(1), 53.

228 Freudenberg, N. (2002) American Journal of Public Health, 92(12), 1895.

229 Heliperm, D.M. (1998) Fear or Favour: Sexual assault of young prisoners.

230 Robertson, J.E. (2003) AIDS, Patient Care and STDs, 17, 423.

231 Blank, S., Sternberg, M., Neylans, L.L., et al. (1999) Journal of Infectious Diseases, 180, 1159.

232 Ditton, P.M. (1999) Mental Health and Treatment of Inmates and Probationers.

233 Robertson, J.E. (2003) AIDS, Patient Care and STDs, 17, 423.

234 Brown, A.W. (1998) Human Rights Watch, 10(2), 2.

235 Ryan, G.H. (2001) Human Rights, 28, 2.

236 Amnesty International (2008) Death Penalty. http://thereport.amnesty.org/global-themes/death-penalty.

237 Home Office (No date) Terrorism and the law. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/security/terrorism-and-the-law/?view=Standard.

238 Steyn, J. (2007) International & Comparative Law Quarterly, 53, 1.

239 Burns, A.C. (2007) Journal of Law & Policy, 15, 1225.

240 Baker, E. (1993) Modern Law Review, 56, 528.

241 Shapiro, A.L. (1993) The Yale Law Journal, 103(2), 537.

242 Cheney, D. (2008) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 47(2), 134.

243 Cheney, D. (2008) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 47(2), 134.

244 Pizarro, J. & Stenius, V.M.K. (2004) The Prison Journal, 84(2), 249.

245 O’Grady, J.C. (2007) Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 35(4): 439.

246 Podmore, J. (2007) Criminal Justice Matters, 67(1), 44.

247 Baker, E. (1993) Modern Law Review, 56, 528.

248 Cunningham, M.D. & Reidy, T.J. (1999) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 26(1), 20.

249 Ramsbotham, D. (2003) Prisongate: The shocking state of British prisons and the need for visionary change, 66.

250 Eady, D. (2007) The Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 46(3), 264.

251 Smith, P.S. (2006) Crime and Justice, 34, 441.

252 Smith, P.S. (2006) Crime and Justice, 34, 441.

253 Cunningham, M.D. & Reidy, T.J. (1999) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 26(1), 20.

254 Flanagan, T.J. & McGarell, E.F. (1986), cited in Cunningham, M.D. & Reidy, T.J. (1999) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 26(1), 23.

255 Sorenson, J. & Wrinkle, R.D. (1996) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 23, 542.

256 Cunningham, M.D. & Reidy, T.J. (1999) Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 26(1), 23.

257 Heliperm, D.M. (1998) Fear or Favour: Sexual assault of young prisoners.

258 Robertson, J.E. (2003) AIDS, Patient Care and STDs, 17, 423.

259 Boston, J. (2006) Journal of Law and Policy, 22, 155.

260 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966, in force 1976) International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force March 23, 1976.

261 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N.GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force January 3, 1976.

262 Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, G.A. res. 39/46, [annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984)], entered into force June 26, 1987

263 Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, adopted Aug. 30, 1955 by the First United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, U.N. Doc. A/CONF/611, annex I, E.S.C. res. 663C, 24 U.N. ESCOR Supp. (No. 1) at 11, U.N. Doc. E/3048 (1957), amended E.S.C. res. 2076, 62 U.N. ESCOR Supp. (No. 1) at 35, U.N. Doc. E/5988 (1977).

264 United Nations Mechanisms regarding the treatment of prisoners. Barbara Nazareth Andrade de Oliveira, Legal Expert http://www.legislationline.org/?tid=160&jid=57&less=false

265 ibid

266 ibid

267 The UN Human Rights Commission Special Procedures. United Nations University Centre

http://www.unu.edu/pg/rights/specialProcedures.html



268 ibid 4

269 World Report 2002-Prisons. http://www.hrw.org/wr2k2/prisons.html

270 ibid

271 Analyzing prison sex: Reconciling self-expression with safety. Brenda Smith www.spr.org/pdf/Analyzing%20Prison%20Sex.pdf

272 Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and syphilis among prison inmates and officers at Nsawam and Accra, Ghana. Adjei, A. A., Armah, H. B., Gbagbo, F., Ampofo, W. K., Quaye, I. K. E., Hesse, I. F. A. & Mensah, G. (2006). J Med Microbiol 55, 593–597.

273 ibid 10

274 http://www.worldpress.org/Africa/2674.cfm

275 www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=events.event_summary&event_id=107719

276 www.ciaonet.org/wps/icg427/icg427.pdf

277 Indonesia Country report on Human Rights Practices. Us Department of State.

http://www.fas.org/irp/world/indonesia/indonesia-1998.htm



278 ibid 10

279 Overcrowding of prisons and non-institutional treatment of offenders. Dr. Khalid Ranjha, 1999. Seventh ACPF World Conference on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice. New Delhi.http://www.acpf.org/WC7th/PapersItem3/PpSriLanka.htm

280 ibid

281 Definition of Bail. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bail

282 ibid 20

283Increased coordination and scale up of HIV prevention and treatment programmes needed urgently to turn the tide on AIDS in Africa, says UNAIDS Executive Director at Africa’s 14th International Conference on AIDS. Dominique De Santis http://www.aidsmedia.org/content/news/detail/1289

284Women confront AIDS in Africa. http://www.i-sis.org.uk/Women_Confront_Aids_in_Africa.php

285 Bulmer.Martin, 2004 p1.

286 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p27.

287 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p5.

288 Waller.James, 1998 p47.

289 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p27.

290 Reisigl.Maryin, 2001 p2.

291 Waller.James, 1998 p47.

292 Page. Helan Enoch, 1999.

293 Students. Pomona College, 2002.

294 d´souza.Dinesh, 1995p2.

295 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p30.

296 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p40.

297 d´Souza.Dinesh, 1995 p48.

298 Berghe.Pierre L.Van Den, 1967p79.

299 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p51.

300 Fredrickson. George M, 2002. p2.

301 George , Francis Cardinal, 2001.

302 Waller.James, 1998 p49.

303 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p109.

304 Bowling, Benjamin 1999.p3.

305 Waller.James, 1998 p99.

306 Fredrickson. George M, 2002 p3.

307 Feagin.Joe.R, 2001p1.

308 Bulmer.Martin.2004 p173.

309http://www.un.org/News/ossg/sg/stories/statments_search_full.asp?statID=28. Secretary-General’s address to the 54th G.A. on 20 September 1999

310 Statement of the Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs at the open meeting of the Security Council on the Protection of Civilians in Armed Conflict. 28 June 2006

311 Intervention, Sovereignty and the Responsibility to Protect: Experience from ICIS. Ramesh Thakur, in SAGE Publications, sagepub.com. 2002, International Peace Research Institute.

312 ibid, pg. 330

313 ibid, pg.331

314 Ulrich Beck, War Is Peace: On Post-National War, Journal of Political Peace, 2005, pg.14

315 ibid, pg. 15

316 A/RES/60/1. 2005 World Summit Outcome

317 Guidance Note of the Secretary-General. UN Approach to Rule of Law Assistance. April 2008

318 Summary of “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility”

319 Conflict prevention is also an activity best undertaken under Chapter VI of the Charter.

320 Human Security and the New Diplomacy: Protecting People, Promoting Peace By Robert Grant McRae, Rob McRae, Don

321 S/PV.5898 (Resumption 1)

322 High Commissioner addresses Dublin’s Trinity College on Responsibility to Protect, November 23, 2007

323 Responsibility to Protect brochure

http://www.responsibilitytoprotect.org/index.php/features/556?theme=alt



324 wiki.answers.com/Q/How_many_people_died_in_World_War_20

325 www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/unintro/unintro.asp

326 www.pdhre.org/conventionsum/covsum.html

327 www.un.org/Overview/rights.html

328 www.cpj.org/attacks07/africa07/africa_analysis_07.html

329 www.globalissues.org/HumanRights/Abuses/China.asp#

Chinaslackofpoliticalfreedoms



330 www.edition.cnn.com/2000/WORLD/africa/03/07/africa.floods.03/index.html

331 www.cesr.org/work/instruments; UDHR art.23

332 www.cesr.org/work/instruments ; Art. 6 ICESCR

333 www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2008/may/06/immigrationpolicy.immigration

334 www.news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/4603985.stm

335 www.hrea.org/index.php?base_id=148

336 www.amnestyusa.org/our-priorities/economic-social-cultural-rights

337 www.commondreams.org/headlines05/1130-01.htm

338 www.dw-world.de/dw/Article/0,2144,2934405,00.html

339 www.news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4736910.stm

340 www.hrweb.org/legal/cpr.html

341 www.unpo.org/content/view/4957/72/

342 www.jia.sipa.columbia.edu/pdf/Governance_capstone.pdf

343 www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/2005-03/21/content_426718.htm

344www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/Article/2007/01/29/AR2007012901686.html

345www.foreignaffairs.org/20040301fareviewessay83212a/g-john-ikenberry/illusions-of-empire-defining-the-new-american-order.html

346 www.eng.globalaffairs.ru/numbers/21/1150.htm

347 www.commondreams.org/archive/2007/12/13/5806/

348 www.voltairenet.org/Article149840.html

349 Lakoff (2006)

350 www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1990/BT.htm

351 www.usp.nus.edu.sg/post/poldiscourse/neocolonialism1.html

352 Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002 Microsoft Corporation.

353 Press Article IRNA 16 June 2008. Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Seyyed Ali Khamenei,

354 ILSA Journal of International & Comparative Law. [Vol 11:443] Fall 2005 by Ghoshary Saby page 452

355 In pursuit of the Right to Self-Determination By Y.N. Kly, D Kly Clarity Press, 2000 pg 20

356 Decolonization: dismantling Empires and Building Independence. By Sheila Nelson Mason, Page 32 2007 Crest Publishers

357 The Charter of the United Nations: A commentary. Page 51 Volume I 2nd edition by Bruno Simma, H. Moslert, A.Randelzhofer, C.Tomuschat, and R.Wolfrum. Oxford University Press

358 War on America seen from the Indian Ocean by James R. Mancham page 44 Paragon House, St Paul Minnesota 1st Edition 2001

359 CFA – Currency Designed to Keep Francophone African Countries Poor? by Hinsley Njila Published 04/10/2008 http://business.africanpath.com

360 The Globalization of Poverty and the New World Order, page Michel Chossudovsky 2nd edition 2003 Global research

361 Inventing Human Rights, A history, by Lynn Hunt 213 2007 W.W.Norton & Company New York

362 The list of Non-Self-Governing Territories includes, Western Sahara in Africa; Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands (Malvinas), Montserrat, St. Helena, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States Virgin Islands in the Atlantic and Caribbean; Gibraltar in Europe; and American Samoa, Guam, New Caledonia, Pitcairn, and Tokelau in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

363 Press Release, 02 October 2006 GA GAlSPD/341 Statement by the Chairman of Fourth Committee Madju Raman Acharya.

364 Statement by Ms Michelle Joseph of St Lucia at the Closing of the 2008 Session of the United Nations Special Committee on Decolonization June 23, 2008

365 Accomplishments and remaining challenges. http://www.somalilandgov.com/challenges.htm

366 http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/issues/indindx.htm

367 http://www.flashpoints.info/countries-conflicts/Kashmir-India_vs_Pakistan

368 Decolonization, Dismantling Empires and building Independence by Sheila Nelson pg 72 Mason Crest Publishers

369 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery#Etymology.

370 Slavery Convention of 1926.

371 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.

372 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Slavery.

373 Kevin Bales, Understanding Global Slavery: A Reader, 2005, p43.


374 http://www.britannica.com/blackhistory/Article-9109538.

375 http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ac41.

376 http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741501460_4/Ancient_Greece.html.

377 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery.

378http://insidetv.blogspot.com/2007/01/ancient-egypt.html.

379 ibid

380 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery.

381 ibid

382 ibid

383 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery.

384 ibid

385 ibid

386 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery

387 ibid

388 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery.

389 ibid

390 ibid

391 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_slavery.

392 ibid

393 ibid

394 ibid

395 Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

396 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

397 The Declaration of World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance.

398 General Assembly resolution No. 61/19.

399 David Weissbrodt and Anti-Slavery International, Abolishing Slavery and its Contemporary Forms, OHCHR, 2002, P5.

400 ibid

401 ibid

402 http://www.fatdawg.com/slavery2.html.

403 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-178714254.html.

404 Agape In The Ethics Of Martin Luther King, Jr.

http://www.academon.ca/lib/essay/agape-ethics-martin-luther-king-jr.html



405 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O999-tolerance.html

406 http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=sjH3emOkC1MC&dq=William+Ury

407 http://www.unesco.org/webworld/peace_library/UNESCO/HRIGHTS/124-129.HTM

408 http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/ev.php

409 http://www.iranchamber.com/history/cyrus

410 http://www.nndb.com/people/504/000094222

411 http://books.google.com/books?id=MXnlwrbL5UICJohn+Locke

412 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O48-TolerationAct.html

413 http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/399808

414 http://books.google.com/books?id=MXnlwrbL5UICJohn+Locke

415 http://www.freedomforum.org/templates/document.asp?documentID=3979

416 http://orient.bowdoin.edu/orient/article.php

417 ibid.

418 ibid.

419 http://www.bartleby.com/65/fr/Freud-Si.html

420 http://www.answers.com/topic/toleration

421 books.google.com/books/Mark+Cohen+Medieval+Islam+and+Medieval+Christianity

422 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper/

423 http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/rawls/

424 ibid.

425 http://www.fpri.org/ww/0502.200405.hay.isthereawest.html

426 http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/tolerance/

427 ibid.

428 www.seedsofpeace.org/

429 ibid.

430 Graziano, Walter “Hitler Ganó la Guerra” (Hitler Won the War), Edit. Debolsillo. 2007
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