The end of easy everything



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#3. THE END OF EASY EVERYTHING,


MICHAEL T. KLARE

ARTICLE SUMMARY

As easily obtained supplies of world resources are drying up, companies that deal in such resources must turn to the more difficult to extract sources of oil, natural gas, and various minerals. This has led to controversial methods such as deep-water oil wells, hydrofracking for natural gas and other energy sources, and acid fracking for copper. Some environmentalists maintain that these methods cause environmental damage and should not be permitted. Michael Klare explores these contentious issues.

#4. CHINA’S SEARCH FOR A GRAND STRATEGY,


WANG JISI

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The author, who is dean of the School of International Studies at Peking University, discusses China’s growing influence in global affairs. Devising an effective foreign policy will not be easy for China as it simultaneously protects its core interests while pursuing rapid economic development.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



CCP -- Chinese Communist Party.
Tao Guang Yang Hui -- a policy of keeping a low profile in international affairs.
BRIC -- an informal group consisting of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and, recently, South Africa.

#5. WHY THE WORLD NEEDS AMERICA,


ROBERT KAGAN

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The author argues that there is little reason to believe that a return to multipolarity will bring greater peace than in the past. The era of American predominance has shown there is no better recipe for great-power peace.

#6. THE NEW POPULATION BOMB: THE FOUR MEGATRENDS THAT
WILL CHANGE THE WORLD,


JACK A. GOLDSTONE

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Contrary to twentieth-century doomsday predictions about future overpopulation draining the world’s resources and resulting in mass starvation and other global disasters, the UN Population Division now projects that the global population growth will nearly halt by 2050. The problem in the twenty-first century will not be overpopulation, but the composition and distribution of the population, resulting in power shifts that, if not mitigated, could endanger global security.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Medium Growth Projection -- the United Nations forecast that assumes that the fertility rate of developing countries will decline while those of developed countries will increase.
EU -- European Union.

#7. POPULATION & SUSTAINABILITY,


ROBERT ENGELMAN

ARTICLE SUMMARY


Population and consumption go hand in hand and contribute to the environmental crisis that the world is now facing, but talk of “population control” has always been unpopular, and most politicians—and even humanitarian organizations—avoid the topic entirely. The author says that population and environmental needs can be balanced without the unpopular concept of population control. All it will take is giving women control over their bodies and their lives.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



E.U. -- European Union.
Consumption -- the way each person behaves.
Stabilization Wedges -- emission savings.

#8. AFRICAN CHILD MORTALITY: THE BEST STORY IN DEVELOPMENT


ARTICLE SUMMARY


This case study of Africa describes the biggest decline in child mortality ever recorded. A major factor contributing to this decline is the increased use of treated bed nets in areas where malaria is endemic.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



ITN -- Insecticide-Treated (Bed) Nets.
MDG -- Millennium Development Goal.

#9. VIRUS HUNTER,


BRYAN WALSH

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Many major infectious diseases in humans begin in primates. In a world where airlines act like bloodlines, global health faces new challenges. The use of new technology is described, along with efforts to identify deadly animal pathogens before they migrate to humans.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



CDC -- Centers for Disease Control (and Prevention).
GVF -- Global Viral Forecasting.
SFV -- Simian Foamy Virus.
SIV -- Simian Immunodeficiency Virus.

#10. THE BLUE FOOD REVOLUTION,


SARAH SIMPSON
ARTICLE SUMMARY
Offshore fish farming and cleaner near-shore operations could provide the world with an adequate supply of protein-rich food, according to the author. Global meat consumption is rising as wild fisheries decline. Meat production, however, has significant pollution problems. A comparison of the sustainability and cost effectiveness of offshore aquaculture with meat production is provided.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Compound Feed Pellets -- food for fish that includes ground anchovies, soybean meal, and chicken oil.
DHA -- an omega-3 fatty acid.
By-Catch -- marine life caught by traditional fishing methods, such as trawling or dredging, that is deemed too small or unwanted.

#11. CLIMATE CHANGE,


BILL MCKIBBEN

ARTICLE SUMMARY


Well-known environmental activist Bill McKibben dispels some environmental myths while describing the current climate-change situation and reinforcing the urgency of acting now.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



IPCC -- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

#12. THE OTHER CLIMATE CHANGERS,


JESSICA SEDDON WALLACK AND VEERABHADRAN RAMANATHAN

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Carbon dioxide is the most talked-about cause of global warming, as well as the most expensive and difficult to eradicate. But in the carbon dioxide debate, two other major pollutants that are affecting the environment are far less expensive to deal with, and their elimination would make an immediate impact on climate change. The authors discuss the importance of focusing on black carbon and ozone.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Black Carbon -- a widespread form of particulate air pollution.

Ozone -- a potent greenhouse gas.
Ozone Precursors -- gases that form ozone.
Green Revolution -- the remarkable growth in agricultural productivity that occurred in the second half of the twentieth century.

#13. THE MELTING NORTH


ARTICLE SUMMARY


In the past few years, the arctic has emerged as a powerful symbol of the challenges in reconciling economic opportunities and ecological changes. The cause of the melting ice is global pollution, and the risks it carries are also global.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



IPCC -- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
NSR -- Northern Sea Route.

#14. ASIAN CARP, OTHER INVASIVE SPECIES MAKE A SPLASH,


DAVID HARRISON

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Invasive species are a major environmental problem. This case study explores the threat to the Great Lakes that the feared Asian carp poses as it migrates to within six miles of Lake Michigan. The problems of developing public policy to deal with the threat are also described.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Invasive Species -- non-native species that come into an area and crowd out native species.

#15. GO GLOCAL,


RANA FOROOHAR

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Globalization used to be a one-way street that led manufacturing jobs away from the United States. High energy prices, political risk, and technological shifts are bringing opportunity back home. Welcome to the era of localnomics.

#16. INNOVATION’S LONG MARCH,


JOSHUA KURLANTZICK

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The rise of innovative state capitalists presents a formidable challenge to U.S. and European businesses. It could push multinational corporations out of some markets. In oil and gas, state companies already control most of the world’s reserves. Unlike Brazil and China, aging, indebted nations are in no position to pour resources into companies.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



State Capitalism -- a system in which the government either owns companies or plays a major role in supporting or directing them.

#17. WHY THE WORLD ISN’T FLAT,


PANKAJ GHEMAWAT

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The concept of globalization has defined much of the debate about international economic activity for the past 20 years. The author critically examines the basic assumptions of those that argue that this trend is dominant and concludes that “the champions of globalization are describing a world that doesn’t exist.”

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



FDI -- Foreign Direct Investment.
GDP -- Gross Domestic Product.
TCS -- Tata Consultancy Services, India’s largest software firm.
NAFTA -- North American Free Trade Association.

#18. GLOBALIZATION AND ITS CONTENTS,


PETER MARBER

ARTICLE SUMMARY


The term globalization has different meanings for different

people, often depending on their political perspective. The

author reviews the debate about the positive and negative

impacts of the globalization process from a broad historical

perspective and concludes that human prosperity improves as

national boundaries become more fluid.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS

Globalization -- cross-border interactions, whether economic,

political, or cultural.



#19. THE FUTURE OF HISTORY: CAN LIBERAL DEMOCRACY SURVIVE THE DECLINE OF THE MIDDLE CLASS?,


FRANCIS FUKUYAMA

ARTICLE SUMMARY

These are times of change. There are competing models of change to traditional liberal democracy such as the Chinese model of top-down control. How the competition between these and other models will play out in the future is discussed here.

#20. WHO WILL RULE THE WORLD?,


DARON ACEMOGLU AND JAMES A. ROBINSON

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The authors assess political and economic institutions in China and the United States to determine which country is likely to dominate the global economy in the coming decades.

#21. MAFIA STATES,


MOISÉS NAÍM

ARTICLE SUMMARY

In a disturbing development, organized crime in Europe and elsewhere is getting into the business of government. Government officials appear to be increasingly involved in drug trafficking and peddling nuclear secrets. Weak states and powerless national law-enforcement agencies face enormous difficulties in stopping crime when it is tied to government officials or is, in fact, committed by government officials.

#22. BOLIVIA AND ITS LITHIUM,


REBECCA HOLLENDER AND JIM SHULTZ

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Lithium is the battery material underlying the increased use of cell-phones, laptops, and electric automobiles. The raw material is found in large quantities in Bolivia, which has earned the title of the “Saudi Arabia of lithium.” This report focuses on the development paradox: countries with abundant natural resources often have less economic development than those with fewer resources. What are the challenges facing Bolivia as it attempts to avoid the development paradox?

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Resource Curse -- the paradox that countries and regions with an abundance of natural resources tend to have less economic growth and worse development outcomes than countries with fewer natural resources.
Salar de Uyuni -- a 3,860-square-mile expanse of salt-embedded minerals in Bolivia.
MAS -- the political party of Bolivia’s President Evo Morales.

#23. TECH’S TRAGIC SECRET,


CAM SIMPSON

ARTICLE SUMMARY

This case study illustrates the evolving political economy of scarce natural resources. The world’s most sophisticated smartphones and tablets start in the dangerous open-pit mines on the island of Bangka in Indonesia.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



ITRI -- a tin-industry trade group based in the United Kingdom.
WALHI -- an Indonesian environmental group.

#24. AFRICA’S HOPEFUL ECONOMIES: THE SUN SHINES BRIGHT


ARTICLE SUMMARY

This article provides a broad overview of the positive changes in the varied economies of the countries of Africa, along with a brief analysis of the political changes stimulating this growth.

#25. WOMEN AND WORK: HERE’S TO THE NEXT HALF-CENTURY


ARTICLE SUMMARY

The status of women in business and government is described along with the obstacles they face.

#26. IT’S STILL THE ONE,


DANIEL YERGIN

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Although the global world is getting nervous about an oil shortage and although many pundits insist that oil supplies have peaked and are headed downward, the author, an expert in the field of oil research, claims that there is enough available to serve the world’s needs for decades to come. The problem will be in the types of oil available and the expense and complexity of reaching it, as well as in the fact that globalization has ushered in a new age in which oil is no longer just a physical commodity, but also a financial asset potentially worth fighting for.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



WTI -- West Texas Intermediate, a desirable type of oil.
Paper Barrels -- crude oil futures.
NYMEX -- New York Mercantile Exchange.
Unconventional Oil” -- oil derived from new sources.

#27. SEVEN MYTHS ABOUT ALTERNATIVE ENERGY,


MICHAEL GRUNWALD

ARTICLE SUMMARY

As the threat of global warming increases and fossil fuel supplies threaten to become extinct, scientists and governments scramble to find alterative energy sources. But the author argues that there are more tales than truths in the current vision of a post-oil world, and he debunks seven prominent myths about alternative energy.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Renewable Fuels -- biofuels derived from corn, palm oil, and other crops.
Second-Generation Biofuels -- biofuels derived from switchgrass and other plants.
Efficiency -- wasting less energy, or doing more or the same with less.
Conservation -- doing less with less.
Negawatts -- watts saved by efficiency.

#28. KING COAL’S COMEBACK,


BRYAN WALSH

ARTICLE SUMMARY

This case study of the international political economy of American coal illustrates the cross pressures of environmental protection, economic growth, and politics at the local, national, and international levels.

#29. COMING SOON TO A TERMINAL NEAR YOU


ARTICLE SUMMARY

The article is a case study of the rapidly changing political economy of shale gas. Included is a discussion of the environmental impacts of this cleaner-burning fuel.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



LNG -- Liquefied Natural Gas.
Fracking -- the use of high-pressure fluids to crack up otherwise impenetrable shales to release natural gas.
TCM -- Trillion Cubic Meters.

#30. NUCLEAR ENERGY: THE DREAM THAT FAILED,


OLIVER MORTON

ARTICLE SUMMARY

This article provides a broad overview of the history and future prospects of nuclear energy. Politics, not economics, likely will be the major factor in determining the future of this energy source.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



GW -- Gigawatt.
IEA -- International Energy Agency.

#31. THE REVENGE OF GEOGRAPHY,


ROBERT D. KAPLAN

ARTICLE SUMMARY

What determines the success or failure of a country, its strengths and weaknesses, and its power and position in the world? It is geography, claims the author, and it is beyond the control of any world power, including the United States. In addition, globalization is reinforcing, rather than eliminating, the relevance of geography, and unless we are able to acknowledge and deal with that fact, there could be trouble ahead, for both the weakest and the most powerful states.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Crisis of Room -- the concept of the disappearance of empty space in the world, which can become a force for instability.
Crowd Psychology -- the phenomenon of a mass of people abandoning their individuality for an intoxicating collective symbol.
Shatter Zones -- areas that are more prone to conflict than others.

#32. UNFINISHED MIDEAST REVOLTS,


JONATHAN BRODER

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The author provides a broad historical overview of the changing political order in the Middle East. He offers reasons for the region’s lag in economic development and considers prospects for the future.

#33. LIVING WITH A NUCLEAR IRAN,


ROBERT D. KAPLAN

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The prospect of Iran obtaining nuclear weapons is a central issue in the long-term stability of the Middle East. A course of action laid out in the 1950s by Henry Kissinger proposes that the U.S. check revolutionary powers with a credible willingness to engage them in limited war. Kaplan reviews this containment policy as developed in the context of the Cold War and its implications for the world’s major military powers as they deal with Iran.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Nuclear Weapons and Foreign Policy -- a book published in 1957 by Henry Kissinger, arguing that the United States should be prepared for a messy, limited war featuring congenital forces and a tactical nuclear exchange or two.

#34. AMERICA’S NUCLEAR MELTDOWN TOWARDS “GLOBAL ZERO,”


LAVINA LEE

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Russia and the United States recently agreed to further reductions of deployed nuclear warheads. It is not likely that India, Pakistan, and China will join in arms reductions talks any time soon. The strategic issues among these three nuclear powers are described within the context of both existing international agreements and the growing momentum for eliminating all nuclear weapons.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



START -- Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty.
NPR -- Nuclear Posture Review.
NPT -- Nuclear Proliferation Treaty.
CTBT -- Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.


#35. PEACEKEEPERS AT WAR,


CHRISTOPHER RHOADS

ARTICLE SUMMARY

A peacekeeping force of the United Nations is in the middle of one of the world’s bloodiest conflicts in Central Africa. This article describes the complex and often contradictory role of the UN forces.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



CNDP -- National Congress for the Defense of the People (of the Congo).
ICC -- International Criminal Court.

#36. WAR IN THE FIFTH DOMAIN


ARTICLE SUMMARY

While technology is increasingly involved in military actions, one of the biggest concerns for modern governments is cyberwar, which will require no guns, bombs, airplanes, or missiles. With the right plan, a cyberwar could disrupt the power grid, stop air traffic, cut off communications between individuals and countries, and bring the U.S. and global economies to a halt. A more likely scenario, however, is that cyber-weapons will not be used to bring about an electronic apocalypse, but as tools of limited warfare.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Logic Bomb -- tampering with the software of a computer-control system to bring about an explosion.
NSA -- National Security Agency.
Phishing -- computer attacks that seek to dupe recipients into giving out passwords and bank details.

Spear-Phishing -- personalized e-mails that a recipient is more likely to open and respond to.
Malware -- viruses, worms, and Trojans that infect computers to steal passwords and other data.
Botnet -- a network of computers that have been taken over by hackers.
DDoS -- Distributed Denial of Service.

#37. THE HEALING FIELDS,


MARK JENKINS

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Millions of land mines are buried in nearly 80 countries and regions of the world. Land mines once crippled a war-ravaged Cambodia. Today the nation is a model for how to recover from this scourge as a result of cooperative efforts between governments and nonprofit organizations.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



GNI -- Gross National Income.
IED -- Improvised Explosive Device.
MAG -- Mines Advisory Group.

#38. GENEVA CONVENTIONS,


STEVEN R. RATNER

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The Geneva Conventions are the backbone of civilian and soldier protection in war zones, but today, they are being largely ignored by both terrorists and governments. The author presents a series of myths about the Geneva Conventions and then debunks each myth.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Geneva Conventions -- an international “bill of rights” that governs the handling of casualties, prisoners of war, and civilians in war zones.
POW -- Prisoner of War.
Principle Of Distinction -- a Geneva Conventions principle that bans all deliberate targeting of civilians.
Guantánamo -- a military prison.

#39. AFRICA: MCC AND COCA-COLA’S SHARED COMMITMENT TO WATER


ARTICLE SUMMARY

This case study illustrates collaboration between the corporate, government, and non-profit sectors of the global economy to address the crucial needs of clean water and improved sanitation and hygiene.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



MCC -- Millennium Challenge Corporation.
WASH -- Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, MCC’s fundamental pillars to improving the livelihoods and well-being of the poor.
RAIN -- Replenish Africa Initiative, Coca-Cola’s response to Africa’s water crisis; aims to provide at least 2 million people in Africa with sustainable access to clean water by 2015.

#40. HUMANITARIAN WORKERS: COMPREHENSIVE RESPONSE,


MARC DUBOIS AND VICKIE HAWKINS

ARTICLE SUMMARY

The authors, officials in Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), respond to criticisms that the neutrality of humanitarian aid organizations has been co-opted by the political agendas of military combatants. They describe the strategy of MSF to maintain its neutrality and contrast their approach with the so-called comprehensive approach of governments.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



MSF -- Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders).

Comprehensive Approach -- an approach to delivering not only emergency humanitarian aid but also services designed to build the legitimacy of governments, win hearts and minds in a conflict zone, and contribute to stabilization efforts.

#41. GENE SHARP: A DICTATOR’S WORST NIGHTMARE,


MAIRI MACKAY

ARTICLE SUMMARY

This article profiles Gene Sharp, a proponent of nonviolent action to overthrow dictators. His work has been translated into many languages, and his nonviolent strategies have been successfully used around the world.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



The Frontline Club -- London’s journalism hub.

#42. POWER OF THE IMOB,


ANDREW MARSHALL

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Dot-orgs are now global players, mobilizing millions and changing political debate through tech-savvy marketing techniques. The author analyzes their rise, impact, and future prospects.

#43. UN WOMEN’S HEAD MICHELLE BACHELET: A NEW SUPERHERO?,


JANE MARTINSON

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Michelle Bachelet was Chile’s first woman president. This article provides a profile of her career, including her new UN leadership role, which focuses on the empowerment of women.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



WHO -- World Health Organization, the UN health organization.

Unicef -- the UN children’s organization.

#44. THE END OF MEN,


HANNA ROSIN

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Rosin argues that patriarchy has always been civilization’s basic organizing principle with only a few exceptions. For the first time in human history, this is now rapidly changing, for the modern economy is becoming the place where women have a distinct advantage over men.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



MicroSort -- a process for sperm selection that allows couples to select the sex of their baby.

#45. HUMANITY'S COMMON VALUES: SEEKING A POSITIVE FUTURE,


WENDELL BELL

ARTICLE SUMMARY

Countering Samuel Huntington's theory of "the clash of

civilizations," the author argues that there is, indeed, "an

emerging global ethic, a set of shared values." These have

evolved over time and now shape and constrain human behavior.

The author describes specific moral principles and the

behavioral patterns that support the development of legal and

ethical norms necessary for a constructive global future.

KEY TERMS AND TOPICS



Global Culture -- a new culture that contains elements from many

cultures of world, Western and non-Western.


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