The Emergence of

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Name: _________________________________________________________________ Mr. Shalaby

Date: __________________________________________________________________ Anthropology

Period: ________________________________________________________________ Collier High

The Emergence of Homo

First Tools

  • Earliest tools found in ____________ Africa.

  • About 2.6 million years old.

  • Each __________ was his with another to create a sharp _____________.

  • One unsharpened side could be used as a handle.

  • Around 2 million years ago hominids were cutting up animal _______________ for meat.

      • Microscopic analysis show cut marks on animal bones created by stone flakes.

Expansion of the Brain

  • The australopithecines had relatively small ____________ capacities (About 380-530

cubic centimeters (cc) – not much larger than that of chimpanzees.

some hominids show evidence of ________________ brain capacity.

      • Early Homo, had cranial capacities averaging about 630-640 cc, which is about

__________ of the brain capacity of modern humans (which average slightly

more than 1,300 cc).

Reduction of the Face, Teeth, and Jaws

  • Australopithecines all have cheek ____________ that are very large relative to their

estimated body weight, perhaps because their diet was high in plant foods.

  • The expansion of the brain and reduction of the face occurred at about the same time,

and were probably related.

Homo Habilis and Homo Rudolfensis

  • Hominids with a brain larger than that of the australopithecines appeared about _______

million years ago.

  • These hominids, classified into our genus, Homo, are divided into two species:

      • Homo habilis

      • Homo _____________.

  • Both are known from the western parts of Kenya and _______________, but remains

have been found elsewhere in eastern and southern Africa including ________________

and South Africa.

  • Both lived in the same place and time as the _______________ australopithecine and

australopithecine ______________, and may have lived at the same time as Homo erectus.

  • Homo habilis appears to be the earlier of these two species about 2.3 m.y.a.

  • 630-640 cc.

  • Similar to australopithecines.

  • Presence of powerful hands and long arms suggest partial ________________.

  • Sexually dimorphic.

Homo Habilis

  • aka: _____________ Man

  • Discovered in Africa, by a husband-wife team Louis and Mary ________________.

  • The Leakeys named their discovery Homo Habilis, or Handy Man because the

_________________ they discovered that looked like tools.

  • Handy Man also had a combination of human and ape features.

  • They were bipeds but they were taller than Lucy with slightly more _________________


  • Handy Man’s brain was ______________ the size of Lucy’s.

  • Handy Man lived in _______________, this allowed them to work together to:

      • gather food

      • protect themselves

Handy Man: The Toolmaker

They used:

      • rocks as chopping tools

      • sharp pieces of stone for _______________

      • animal bones as digging sticks

  • Making a tool takes some _______________. They had to imagine the tool, then plan

how to craft it and then make it. They may have passed this knowledge down.

  • These tools allowed Handy Man to lead a better life than Lucy. With their tools they


Homo erectus

  • Homo erectus evolved shortly after Homo _______________.

  • The first hominid species to be widely distributed in the ____________ World.

      • Found in Java, China, Africa, and _________________.

  • Most paleoanthropologists agree that some human ancestor moved from Africa to

______________ at some point.

  • There is also the question of whether there is only one species of H. erectus or contains

several distinct species

  • aka: _______________ Man

  • A third type of hominid was discovered in 1891 by Eugene _____________. It was found

on the island of ____________ off the coast of Asia. He was found before Lucy or Handy


  • Upright Man was around much longer than any hominid group.

  • Upright Man was taller and ______________ than earlier hominids. Their bones were

strong and they were good walkers and _________________.

  • The face was much more like Modern ______________. Their foreheads were round and

smooth, but they still had a jaw and brow that stuck out.

  • Upright Man still had Handy Man’s tools, plus he had a bigger brain. So, Upright Man

was able to improve Handy Man’s tools and invent better ones.


  • Upright Man built ____________ and used fire and animal skins to keep warm and


  • Building ______________ gave Upright Man protection from the weather and any

animals that might want to hurt them.

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