The Effects of the Burgeoning Field of Psychology on Literature”



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  1. The Effects of the Burgeoning Field of Psychology on Literature”

Hudgens, Joshua L. “The Effects of the Burgeoning Field of Psychology on Literature”. (accesed on: March 11, 2008)

In “The Effects of the Burgeoning Field of Psychology on Literature”, we can find some psychology theories from Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Wundt, William James, and other psychologists. The theories of these psychologists may help us to understand more about the psychology of characters in story. However, the most important thing about this paper is that in this paper, Hudgens put some examples of his psychological analysis in literature.




  1. "Skuchnaia istoriia" as Coda: Isolation and Chekhov's Prose of the 1880s - Mark Conliffe”

Conliffe, Mark. “"Skuchnaia istoriia" as Coda: Isolation and Chekhov's Prose of the 1880s - Mark Conliffe”. (accesed on: April 2, 2008)

Mark Conliffe in this paper tries to study about Chekhov’s topic of loneliness in his "Skuchnaia istoriia". In this 16-page long paper, Conliffe explaines some theories about loneliness and historical backgrounds of Chekhov’s life. He relates them and makes his approach toward "Skuchnaia istoriia". This paper can be a guide to help us understand Chekkhov’s works and his historical background either.




  1. Biography of A.P. Chekhov”

My_Chekhov. “Biography of A.P. Chekhov”. (accesed on: April 2, 2008)

In this biography, Chekhov’s life is described completely with simple language that can be easily understood. This biography explains the life-journey of Chekhov from his birth to his death. In this biography the writer also explains about all Chekhov’s work and awards he got. The writer also explains some influence of Chekhov in world literature.




  1. Russia The 19th century”

Britannica article. Russia The 19th Century. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-38634/Russia?query=belkin (accessed on 8 April 2008)

In the 1840s the axis of Russian literature shifted decisively from the personal and Romantic to the civic and realistic. The proposal was written in 1889, after 1840s, in the time of realistic era. In The Proposal, Chekhov wrote realistic play, tells about everyday life. He broke the romantic idea of marriage or relationship between man and woman. He revealed the idea that married is not the highest purpose of life. He also explained that love is not the only reason for people to get married as in romantic era.




  1. American Theater Guide: Anton [Pavlovich] Chekhov http://www.answers.com/topic/anton-chekhov?cat=entertainment

In 1860s and 1870s, many writers such as Turgenev, Tolstoy, and Chekhov had depicted the weakened social structure of the 1860s and 1870s. Anton Chekhov, however, was the first to depict a world essentially without heroes and villains. It is clearly seen in his play The Proposal which tells about the marriage of aristocrats to maintenance their social class because as cited in http://www.answers.com/topic/anton-chekhov?cat=entertainment that during the last half of the 19th century the old order in Russia was crumbling. Political institutions were out of line with actual developments, and the agrarian, aristocratic society was increasingly yielding to an urban bourgeoisie and a new capitalist class. Marriage is a political way to maintain aristocratic.


  1. Langland, Elizabeth. Society on the Novel. London: The University of North California Press, 1984

Langland mentions that society remains everything we have been seen it to be; norms, conventions, codes, background, places, peoples, institutions; but its particular manifestations in a novel will be determined by its role within the work (1984: 6-7). In The Proposal, the story happen in Russia where aristocratic society was increase so the main character, Lomov, wants to marry Natasha, a woman who has same class with him although he does not love her. He considers Natasha as an ideal woman.


  1. Wellek, Rene and Austin Warren. Theory of Literature. New York: Harcourt, Drace and Company, 1956

An author is a part of society since he or she lives in a certain group. The work of an author, consequently, will be inspired or influenced by social, cultural, political, historical, and economic aspects around him or her. One of these aspects will appear in his or her work whether he or she realizes it or not. Wellek and Warren explain that literature at any given time mirrors the current social institution correctly, it means that that literature depicts some aspects of social reality. In The Proposal, the history background depicted the real history in Russia in 1960s and 1970s where aristocrats, bourgeoisies, and new capitalist increase.


  1. Seton-Watson, Hugh. The Decline of Imperial Russia. New York: Frederic A. Preager, Inc., 1986

Russia in the middle of 19th century was an overwhelmingly agricultural country (1986:5). In The Proposal, we can see that Chekhov use the characters Chobukov and Lomov as the landowners. It proved that the reality in The Proposal similar with the reality in Russia in the 19 century.


  1. X.J Kennedy & Dana Gioia. Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama. 1999

The author’s life can help readers to understand more about the author’s work (1999: 1937). Chekhov presented the major characters as well as the real condition of aristocrat’s life because he came from an aristocrat family.


  1. Kalish, Richard A. The Psychology of Human Behavior. California: A Division of Wordsworth Publishing Company, 1985

Motivation is considered as the basic reason for everyone in deciding to accept or obey a thing such as decision to do something or avoid in action (1985:30) in The Proposal, Lomov’s basic reason to marry was not about love but he was 35 years old and he had to get marry at that age. He also had found an ideal woman who had same social status with him.
„X Plot

¡§A Marriage Proposal is about the tendency of wealthy families to seek other

wealthy families, to increase their estates by encouraging marriages that made

good economic sense, and the problems that arise in marriage. In the play, Ivan

Vassilevich Lomov, long time wealthy neighbor of Stepan Stepanovich Chubukov, also

wealthy, has come to seek marriage of Chubukov's twenty-five year-old daughter,

Natalia Stepanovna. After asking and receiving permission to marry Natalia, she is

invited into the room and he tries to get across the proposal. He fails. Lomov is

a hypochondriac and whilst trying to make clear his reasons for being there he

gets into arguments with Natalia and ends up having "palpitations" and a dead leg.

After her father notices they are arguing he joins in and then sends him out of

his house. He then lets slip to her that he was about to propose and she

immediately starts "dying" and screams for her father to get him back. He does and

they get into their

second big argument about the dogs. Ivan then collapses and they all fear him dead.

Then after a few minutes he regains consciousness and Chubukov all but forces them

to get married. The second after he forces them to kiss, they get into another

argument. The play then ends.¡¨



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Marriage_Proposal

By seeing the plot, we can understand the series that happen in the story. It is

easier for us to understand it.

„X Russia¡¦s Agriculture

¡§Russia has more farmland than any other country. Its farmland covers more than 2

1/4 million square miles¡Xover a fourth of all Russia. More than half of Russia¡¦s

farmland consists of about 9,000 sovkhozy (state farms). These farms average about

75,000 acres in size. Barley, rye, and wheat are the main crops and Russia leads

all countries in their production. Wheat, the most important crop, is grown in the

Ukraine, Southwestern Siberia, and Northern Kazakhstan. Barley is grown in many

regions. Rye is produced in the less fertile, wetter part of northwestern European

Russia. The Soviet Union also leads all countries in the production of flax,

potatoes, and sugar beets. Potatoes, the basic food of most of the people, are

grown throughout most of Russia¡K ¡¨

The World Book Encyclopedia, volume 16. USA: Field Enterprises Educational

Corporation, 1971. p. 513-514.

As we can see in The Proposal, Choobukov and Lomov are land owners and by knowing

the Russia¡¦s agriculture, we can get more information related to Choobukov¡¦s

land. How the agriculture system works there and what kind of the plants grow in

Russia.

„h Setting of the proposal

At the beginning of the present century nearly 80% of the Russian were peasants or

villagers who like were almost completely dominated by that of the peasants. Even

in the cities the majority of the people lived in almost the same way as the

peasants.

Habit : in central Russia, there was formerly little for the men to do because the

ground is frozen to six months. (October ¡V April).

Temperature in 1881-1890

Archangel : -0.29

Leningrad : +0.08

Moscow : -0.03

Sverdlovsk : -0.15

Average : -0.08

„h Genre


Chekhov¡¦s work is characterized by its subtle blending of naturalism and

symbolism, by its sympathetic, humanly, but acutely observed portraits of a

threatened upper class stifled by in activity ennui and a above all by its unique

combination of comedy, tragedy and pathos and the sensitivity of its movement from

one mode to another.

Edited by drable, margaret and jenny stringer.oxford concise companion to English

literature.oford university press.new york.2003

„h Form of drama

The play belongs to a comedy drama. Comedy is based on some exaggerated or

eccentric occurrence or behavior. This departure from the normal must not threaten

the normal characters, who have he audiences¡¦ sympathy. Comedy can be both

critical and playful, and it tries to arouse responses that range between scorn

and joy. Comedy seldom raises the moral or philosophical issues in tragedy, but

shows man in social relationship. Sometimes farce is consider a distinct dramatic

form, but it is essentially a type of comedy. Farce uses ridiculous situation and

broad physical clowning for its humorous effects.


The world book encyclopaedia vol.16 p.521 1971 usa. By field enterprises education

corporation usa.

„h Government¡¦s system of 1889

Alxander III

Alexander¡¦s son became czar and soon begun a program of harsh rule. Alexander III

limited the freedom of the press and of the universities, and sharply reduced the

power of local self governments. He set up a special bank to help the aristocrats

increase their property. He also appointed land captains from among the

aristocrats and gave them much political power over the peasants. Alexander

started some programs to help the peasants and industrial workers. But their

living and working condition improved very little.


The world book encyclopaedia vol.16 p.521 1971 usa. By field enterprises education

corporation usa.

„h Language style

Anton Chekhov has a unique writing style. He went to the extreme to prove a point,

in his play, The Proposal. In the story he told abut the true condition of woman

character in usual. In the story he pressed his idea on the woman character in

financial problem. His writing style in the play was considered that what woman

need included money, but he wrote it indirectly. He raised his idea by showing

Natalyia¡¦s, the woman character in the play, act. He also wrote the story by some

courtesies, e.g. dear friend, dearest chap, dear boy, etc. And in the story he

also used a funny act by Natalyia¡¦s act that was be reluctant to grant favor with

Lomov. In the story he wrote in funny way by add some funnies acts or courtesies

conversation.

Taken from: http://www.directessays.com/viewpaper/105352.html

All papers and essays are for research and reference purposes only!

Copyright 2002-2008 Direct Essays , LLC. All Rights Reserved.

„X The Author¡¦s Anton Pavlovich Chekhov

¡§He was born in the Russian seaport town of Taganrog, near the Black Sea,

southern Russia, on 29 January 1860, and died of tuberculosis at the health spa of

Badenweiler, Germany, on 15 July 1904. Anton Pavlovich Chekhov considered the

father of the modern short story and of the modern play. Son of a grocer and

grandson of a serf who had bought his family's freedom before emancipation,

Chekhov was well-acquainted with the realities of nineteenth- century

lower-middle-class and peasant life, an acquaintance that was reflected

objectively and unsentimentally in his mature writings. Chekhov's mother was an

excellent storyteller, and Chekhov is supposed to have acquired his own gift for

narrative and to have learned to read and write from her. He enjoyed playing in

amateur theatricals and often attended performances at the provincial theater. By

1886, however, Chekhov was becoming a well-known writer in St. Petersburg. The

years 1886 to 1887 were the most productive of

Chekhov's career. Chekhov is truly innovative contribution to modern drama. From

1888 to 1890 Chekhov continued to write for the theater. One of his works is

Predlozheniye (The Proposal-1889) that quite successful.¡¨

http//people.brandeis.edu/~teuber/chekhovbio.html.

Biography of the author helps us to know the purpose of his writing related to his

background. As we know that the way of life style can influence people¡¦s mind and

behavior on his writing.

„X Culture

¡§In traditional Russia, marriage was a mean of economic stability for most

people. They marry to gain wealth and possessions. In this particular play, the

concept of marriage is being satirized to show the real purpose of marriage.

Marriage is portrayed as a materialistic gain and not for the reason of true

love.¡¨


http//wikipedia.org/A_Marriage_Proposal

Information says that in early Russia, a class¡¦s society exists. It means society

with neither rich nor poor people. The classes that had special rights based on

inherited rank and wealth have appeared under the Soviet system. In other hand,

for great majority of Russians, living condition is poor.

The World Book Encyclopedia, volume 16. USA: Field Enterprises Educational

Corporation, 1971. p. 498.

Based on this information, we have relation to the drama that Natasha and Lomov

married because both of them are wealth. The author also wants to criticize

traditional Russia¡¦s culture. As we know that at that time, Russians think about

two classes of society.

„h Character of Russia¡¦s civilization

In many other ways Russian women in the early years of the revolutionary era were

widely reported to be more competent than women. The reason for the women¡¦s

relative efficiency seems to be that they were not continually depressed both

physically and mentally by alternations between idleness and overwork. Cooking,

caring children and other household task prevent them from being idle in winter,

but in summer even in the harvest field their labor has not been exhausting and so

deadening to mental effort as that of the men.

Group members:

1. Hari W 014214

2. Anastasia TYA 044214128

3. Elis Wahyu I 064214060

4. Jovita Raina T 064214067

5. Indah SHR 064214073


ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

THE PROPOSAL” by Anton Chekhov


- GROUP 1 -

Titis Rasari 03 4214 101

Marsella Olivia 04 125

Hario Adi Nugroho 06 030

Gabriella Nugraheni A. 06 038

R. S. Kristian Guntur 06 046

Ellysa Gusniati S. 06 074

Minaev, Dmitri. ”Russian History 55 Part 2.Classes.Landlords and peasants”. De Rebus Antiquis Et Novis: Articles About History. Articles About Rusia. Sometimes Both. 2008. http://minaev.blogspot.com/2008/01/russian-history-55-part-2-classes.html

From the information Minaev has posted on his blog, we know that Landlords were not the highest and not the most powerful community back then, there were kenyazes who firstly gave them the land to be owned. That’s why both Choobukov and Lomov hardly gave up on the Volovyi meadows. Both of them would feel the same responsibility if they lost their own part of land, it’s their ancestor’s, part of their pride, their identity as landlords.


Minaev, Dmitri. "Russian History 55. Classes. Landlords and peasants". De Rebus Antiquis Et Novis: Articles About History. Articles About Rusia. Sometimes Both. 2008. http://minaev.blogspot.com/2008/01/russian-history-55-classes-landlords.html

By reading the article Minaev posted, we can see on every land the landlords owned, there were peasants who worked for them and paid the tallage or some kind of noted bill or debt which should be paid to their master. So if Choobukov or Lomov decided to give up on the meadows, they decided to give up on the tallage that should be their own.


Thomas, Steve. The University of Adelaide Library Electronic Texts Collection.12 December 13 15:09:37 CST 2002. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.an/c/c51zf.zip.

Doctor of Medicine writer of Literature.

Anton Chekhov is a kind of genius literary worker. Besides he wrote many of literature arts, actually he was also a Doctor of Medicine. It is amazing when someone could work in two kind of different concentration. Science of Medicine (Doctor) and writer of literary works is very contrast and difficult to be done together.


Strokes, John. “Anton Chekhov : A Tragic Man Despite Himself The Complete Short Play”. Green Integer .6022 Wilshire Boulevard, Suite 202C, Los Angeles, CA 90036. http:// Green Integer Books.htm

Based on Russian version, to judge Chekhov's contribution, it has much more to do with despair, demoralization and the blues. This is truly another country, populated by bored bachelors, woeful widows and perennial drunks, where violence and greed are never far from the surface. So the dramatic trigger is anger itself. In "The Proposal", rows about ownership of a meadow almost lead to the end of an engagement. Characters, male and female alike, collapse in hysterics, are overcome with choleric fury, suffer palpitations, and dissolve into tears.


Kaiser, Robert G. Russia, The People And The Power. New York : Pocket Books. 1976.

The author is a Washington Post correspondent whose dispatches from Moscow were awarded the Overseas Press Club’s prize for the best foreign correspondence of 1974. In this book, he tells us about all aspect of Russian including their custom and culture. In page 60, for example, we know the rule related to a wife that exists in Russia since 16th century “In Russia, a good wife does not let her husband help her keep house. She keeps it clean herself, sews, and weaves for her husband and children. A good wife is always merry. She always smiles and makes her husband’s life easy and pleasant.” (Robert G. Kaiser.1976: 60)


Maginnis, Tara. “Russian Portraits from The Age of Chekhov”. The Costumer’s Manifesto. OnlineCostumeStore.com.2008. http://www.costumes.org/ETHNIC/1PAGES/rusportraits.htm

From this website, we know the fashion mode in Russia during 1888 until 1889. There are some pictures that show us the examples of clothes in Russia in early 19th century, especially during Chekhov’s The Proposal.


Paar, Anton. “Rheometer: Wide range of rheometers and viscometers for UK and Ireland- www.anton-paar.com.uk”. http://www.answers.com/topic/Anton-Chekov?cat=entertainment

On this site we know the biography of Anton Chekhov. We can identify the story through out his background of his real life. From this information, we can know about Chekhov habits and so we also can know about his style in his works.


Field Enterprises Educationa”l. The World Book Encyclopedia. U.S.A, 1971

Russian literature:

Russia, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is the largest country in the world, and the most powerful communist nation. The 1800’s were years of great literary activity in Russia. Outstanding writers of the period included Anton Chekhov, Fydor Dostoevsky, Alexander Pushkin, Leo Tolstoy, and Ivan Turgenev. Since 1917, Russian authors have used all literary forms, but are best known for their novels and poetry. History has had an important influence on Russian literature.



Www.kirjasto.sci.fi/tsehov.htm-24k

The author’s biography :

Chekhov is one of Russia’s many important literary figures, one of the greatest playwrights of modern times. He won the Pushkin prize and he is known for his short stories and his plays. His works often combine elements of both comedy and tragedy. Anton Pavlovich Chekov was born in small seaport of Taganrog, southern Russia, as the son of a grocer and grandson of serf who had bought his own freedom. His childhood had made him try to be useful for his family, so he starts to publish his comic short stories.


Barranger, Milly. Understanding Plays. Boston :Allyn and Bacon. 1994. Page 398-399

All plays written by Anton Chekhov are based on the people’s everyday life. He presents his type of Realism Drama by showing our daily activities for example: working, eating, drinking, talking, reading, falling in love, playing cards and so on. According to him, the ordinary moments reflect the reality of people’s life more accurately rather than the moments of wars, murders, ghost, and so on.


Altshuler, C., Marthe M. Mc Donough, Audrey J. Roth. Prose As Experience. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co. 1966

Soviet society commonly owns basic standard in viewing aesthetic. It is therefore reflected in the way of socialist realistic having method in literature. Besides, they are optimist and it is seen through how they see life in general is beautiful.


“Russia The 19th century”

Britannica article. Russia The 19th Century.



http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-38634/Russia?query=belkin (accessed on 8

April 2008)

In the 1840s the axis of Russian literature shifted decisively from the personal

and Romantic to the civic and realistic. The proposal was written in 1889, after

1840s, in the time of realistic era. In The Proposal, Chekhov wrote realistic

play, tells about everyday life. He broke the romantic idea of marriage or

relationship between man and woman. He revealed the idea that married is not the

highest purpose of life. He also explained that love is not the only reason for

people to get married as in romantic era.

American Theater Guide: Anton [Pavlovich] Chekhov



http://www.answers.com/topic/anton-chekhov?cat=entertainment

In 1860s and 1870s, many writers such as Turgenev, Tolstoy, and

Chekhov had depicted the weakened social structure of the 1860s and

1870s. Anton Chekhov, however, was the first to depict a world

essentially without heroes and villains. It is clearly seen in his

play The Proposal which tells about the marriage of aristocrats to

maintenance their social class because as cited in

http://www.answers.com/topic/anton-chekhov?cat=entertainment that

during the last half of the 19th century the old order in Russia was

crumbling. Political institutions were out of line with actual

developments, and the agrarian, aristocratic society was increasingly

yielding to an urban bourgeoisie and a new capitalist class. Marriage

is a political way to maintain aristocratic.

“The Effects of the Burgeoning Field of Psychology on Literature”

In “The Effects of the Burgeoning Field of Psychology on Literature”, we can find

some psychology theories from Sigmund Freud, Wilhelm Wundt, William James, and

other psychologists. The theories of these psychologists may help us to understand

more about the psychology of characters in story. However, the most important

thing about this paper is that in this paper, Hudgens put some examples of his

psychological analysis in literature.

Hudgens, Joshua L. “The Effects of the Burgeoning Field of Psychology on

Literature”.

<http://www.daltonstate.edu/faculty/bmurray/exemplar%202004/exemplar2004/exemplar04effectsofpsychology.html>

(accesed on: March 11, 2008)




DRAMA I

The Proposal”
By: Anton Chehov


GROUP 1:

Dyionysius Seto ( 01 – 001 )

Atika Dwi Anggraini ( 05 – 012 )

Rizky Dwi Febrianto ( 06 – 080 )

Nabila ( 06 – 091 )

Nur Hasan ( 06 – 100 )

Puput Trisanti ( 06 – 107 )


Jansz, J. (2003). Poor Relief. Psychology and Society: An Overview. p: 14-15

Jansz wrote that from the late eighteen century, groups of “enlightened” middle-class individuals in Western countries (Europe) philanthropic support. They were convinced that a large part of the working class suffered from serious social handicaps and would not be able to gain a solid position in society. She also told that support was individualized which mean that a poor individual or family was first scrutinized in order to determine whether they were decent enough to receive help and whether they would be able to support themselves in the future. If it is related with “The Prosal” written by Anton Chehov that setting of that play was in Russia (1888-1889), Lomov said that in the past time his aunt’s grandparents handed over those meadows to Natalya grandparent’s peasant without any paid and rent free. So, there was an agreement whose the meadows are.



Hutton, M. J. (1986). Russian and Soviet Women, 1897-1939. Dreams, Struggles, and Nightmares.
Classifying women into five separate classes and occupational group (peasants, industrial workers, domestic servants, mid-level service employees and professional workers), and using the 1897 Imperial Russian census and the 1926 and 1939 Soviet censuses as a primary basis of comparison, the author traces the socio-political and economic-educational development of women in pre-1917 Russia and the Soviet Union of the 1920s and 1930s, relating their situation to that of their female contemporaries in Germany, France and England. In contrast, “The Proposal” written by Anton Chehov shows that Natalya was an educated woman who could be the hard- worker, too. It was proved when Lomov want to propose her; he said to himself that Natalya Stepanovna is an excellent housekeeper, educated, and not bad-looking

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A Marriage Proposal

In traditional Russia marriage was a mean of economic stability for most people. They marry to gain wealth and possessions. In this particular play, the concept of marriage is being satirized to show the real porpose of marriage. Marriage is portrayed as a materialistic gain and not for the reason of true love. The satire is conveyed successfully by emphasizing the couple’s foolish arguments over small things. The main argument in the play revolve around “The Oxen Meadows” and two dogs called “Flyer and Tryer”.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russia_Reform and Their Limits, 1855-92

This site told that in 1855-1892, the 50,000 landlords who possessed estates of more than 110 hectares would thrive without serfs and would continue to provide loyal political and administrative leadership in the country side. The government also had expected that peasant would produce sufficient crops for their own consumption and for export sales, thereby helping to finance most of government’s expenses, import, and foreign debt. In Chehov play, “The Proposal”, shows that Chobukov had men that worked in his farm. It proved that landowner in that time held the leadership of the estate.



Robinson, G. T. (1970). Emancipation of The Russian Serf. The Peasant in The Last Decades of Serfdom, 7-18. Translated by Terence Emmons.

The author, research and travel in the Soviet Union in the mid-1920, remain to this day the best English language introduction to social and economic history of pre-revolutionary rural Russia. He wrote that until the second half of the nineteenth century, the peasantry that the majority of the population in Russia, lived in a state of servitude, bound either to noble landlords or to lands administered by state agencies. In contrast, “The Proposal” by Anton Chehov tells about The peasant because in that time the peasant was the problem in Russia.



Druzhinin, N. M. (1970). Emancipation of The Russian Serf. The Emancipation Legislation, 19-25. Translated by Terence Emmons.

The author research between studies of the Russian revolunitionary movement and work, on the social and economic history of nineteenth century of Russia. He wrote that in Februay 19, 1861 were: the personal emancipation of the peasants; the allotment and obligation of the emancipated peasant; and organization of peasant administration. In contrast, “The Proposal” by Anton Chehov told that the meadow of Lomov’s family be a matter of dispute who is the landowner of it, because in the past Lomov’s grandmother handed over the meadow to Natasya grandfater’s peasant, and then the settlement was made after the emancipation.



http://mockingbird.creighton.edu/new/chekhov.htm

As much as it is acknowledge that Anton Chekhov was indeed a key component in world literature. “In his mind, no Jew could ever fully enter into Russian life and no woman ever equal a male genius”. His stories often concern trivial people that tend to speak with a catch in their throats. As Tosloy observed, when Chekhov began writing this tale, “he, like Balaam, intended to curse. As a physician, Chekhov reportedly showed great sympathy to female patients; but as a lover had difficulties with women. Chekhov was troubled, until he was too ill to be aroused at all. Yet the same writer journeyed to a Siberian penal colony, and the trip made him a favorite of some radicals. He wrote almost exclusively about Russians, yet travelled perpetually throughout Europe.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Russian-Circassian_War

The Russia-Circassian war lasted 101 years, and was divided into three chronological periods based on the military activities of the Russian occupation forces. The Circassia of the time was divided into two geographic and ethnic regions, both occupied by a large number of warlike tribes and ruled by royal aristocracies. Eastern Circassia, also known as Kabardia, was inhabited by the Karbadians, a semi-nomadic eastern branch of what was once the Adyghe tribal fellowship that was the ethnic root of the majority of the Circassion population as a whole. The firs period of the conflict was concerned with the invasion and subjugation of this region, and took place from 1763 onwards. During the second period of the conflict, between the occupation of eastern Circassia and the year of 1822, Russian armies periodically raided western Circassia and eventually procured the loyalty of the tribes settling there.



Dostoyevsky, F. (1890). The Gambler.

The author’s researches use the data from the article prints out of The Gambler to conclude that the money is everything which can change human life to be better and raise human status to be higher, because by the money people can buy anything that they want, and the money that people have determines his or her future to be luck or worse, because the people look the other from it. In contrast, an earlier study by Anton Chekhov cited below shows the people status is determined by the money that they have.



Turgenev, I. (1861). Fathers and Sons.

The author’s researches use the data from the article prints out of Fathers and Sons to conclude that every father in this word always loves his child in whatever condition he/she is. Although father’s love to his child looked different from mother’s love, but father has a special feeling full of love for his child which cannot be measured with anything. Like father like the son. This is the mind reason for father becomes the first person thet every child wants to be. In contrast, an earlier study by Anton Chekhov cited below shows there is no father which does not love his child.


Drama I

Annotated Bibliography: The Proposal


Names : - Bob Morison (05 4214 103)

- Abram Widi W. (06 4214 084)

- Yenny Paruang (06 4214 093)

- Arina Krisnawati (06 4214 101)

- Elsa Maria O. (06 4214 108)


Fen, Elisaveta.(1959).Chehov Plays.1-18.

In the introduction of this book, the author said that all Chekhov’s plays were related to Chekhov’s life. His plays are full of action, not in their external but in their inner development. He wrote the plays that represent everyday life, the minute details of ordinary living. The two periods (1880-1900 and 1919-1939), unhappy interludes between wars and revolutions, are stamped with spiritual discouragement: the man and women who lived through them are haunted by the same emotions and thoughts. The Russian also could expressed their feelings more clearly than English. The plays, which are the work of Chekhov’s maturity, reflect the mood of the spiritual discouragement, helplessness before overwhelming, impersonal force of circumstances, and awareness of personal insignificance. Chekhov’s works speak of his cheerfulness and vitality, his enormous capacity for work his wide human sympathies, and the love of practical jokes which made him different from others. Chekhov’s brother, Alexander, gave him some advices that influenced his works. It was also had a purpose to add to the inadequate income of his family. He described The Proposal as a scabby little vaudeville.



www.fplib.org/literature/19century.html(opt,mozilla,pc,english,,new)

The 19th century in the Russian literature is known as Gold Age. The literature of this period is a unique, excellent, and incomparable phenomenon. It rushed into world literature and became a certain last world in literature fashion. The 19th century is also the period of Russian literature most familiar to Westerns readers. It was during this century that such literary giants as Aleksandr Pushkin, Mikhail Lermontov, Nikolay Gogol, Ivan Turgenev, Leo Tolstoy, and Anton Chekhov wrote most of their masterpieces. Before the 19th century, drama received little attention from Russian writers.



www.amrep.org/past/farces/farces1.html

Chekhov’s life related with the plays that he wrote. In 1886, he had became engaged to Dunya Efros but this engagement is in a few time. This liaison inspired a play written shortly thereafter: Ivanov. Another woman Chekhov dallied with was Lydia Mizinova, or Lika, a friend of Chekhov's sister Masha. Chekhov refused to profess love for this woman, and the dejected Lika took up with Potapenko, another writer and friend of Chekhov's. His vaudeville plays like The Bear and The Proposal proved commercially successful. Popular as they were, however, Chekhov's purpose for writing them was not simply providing light and lucrative entertainment. Though the works themselves were never intended to be taken seriously, Chekhov never lost sight of his goal of becoming a "serious writer." These plays represent studies in the craft of playwriting. Hard-hitting satires, the vaudevilles mock love but also revel in how fickle our hearts can be. He is laughing at us, but given his own amorous escapades, he is also laughing at himself. The genre of these vaudevilles is important to note. Chekhov classifies The Bear, The Proposal and The Wedding, as well as Swan Song, A Tragedian In Spite of Himself and On the Dangers of Tobacco as belonging to the same genre as The Seagull, Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard: comedy. Chekhov gives us an important clue in his deliberate association of these light-hearted sketches with his master drawings. The suggestion is clear: In the farces, sex is taken seriously. In the serious plays, sex is revealed as farce.




www.online-literature.com/anton_chekhov.html

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was born in the small seaport of Taganrog, Ukraine on January 17th in the year 1860. He was the son of a grocer and the grandson of a serf who had bought his freedom, that and that his sons, 19 years earlier. Chekhov attended a school for Greek boys in his hometown from 1867-1868 and later he attended the local grammar school from 1868-1876 when his father went bankrupt and moved the family to Moscow. Chekhov, only 16 at the time, decided to remain in his hometown and supported himself by tutoring as he continued his schooling for 3 more years. After he finished grammar school Chekhov enrolled in the Moscow University Medical School, where he would eventually become a doctor. Chekhov's medical and science experience is evident in much of his work as evidenced by the apathy many of his characters show towards tragic events. While attending medical school Chekhov began to publish comic short stories and used the money to support himself and his family and by 1886 he had gained wide fame as a writer. Chekhov's works were published in various St. Petersburg papers, including Peterburskaia gazeta from 1885, and Novoe vremia from 1886. Chekhov graduated from medical school in 1884 and he practiced medicine until 1892. In 1901 Chekhov finally married to an actress, Olga Knipper, who had performed in his plays. Their bliss would be short lived, Chekhov died on July 15, 1904, in Badenweiler, Germany. He is buried in the cemetery of the Novodeviche Monastery in Moscow.



Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2005

Chekhov’s stories of the 1890s also present a panorama of Russian society on the eve of the 20th century, describing with sociological precision the lives of peasants, intellectuals, business people, clergymen, women, and children in situations that are universal and timeless. In his dramatic works, Chekhov sought to convey the texture of everyday life, moving away from traditional ideas of plot and conventions of dramatic speech. Dialogue in his plays is not smooth or continuous: Characters interrupt each other, several different conversations often take place at the same time, and lengthy pauses occur when no one speaks at all. The plays depart from the customary practice of focusing the action on one central character. Through the use of devices such as undercutting (interrupting a solemn speech or situation with a comic remark or farcical incident), he ensured that an audience did not respond to a play with just a single emotion.



Kirchner,Walther.1950.History of Russia.Barnes & Noble,Inc.New York

In the ninety century, the peasants were bitterly disappointed. Since they had not followed the proceedings, despite all publicity, the mistaken feeling grew among them that they were being deceived by greedy landowners and that true intentions of the government were being thwarted. They resented not receiving all the land formerly tilled by them, they objected to the burdens, and they felt encumbered by a mir which was often under the undue influence of a village priest or rich peasant (kulak).The landowners were not lass dissatisfied. Only the more progressive among them succeeded in adjusting themselves to the new conditions by reasonable arrangements with their former serfs. The majority found great difficulties and lived by selling instead of cultivating their estates.

A Marriage Proposal”.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Marriage_Proposal

In traditional Russia, marriage was a mean of economic stability for most people. They marry to gain wealth and possessions. In this particular play, the concept of marriage is being satirized to show the real purpose of marriage. Marriage is portrayed as a materialistic gain and not for the reason of true love. Chekhov’s “The Proposal’ celebrates the frantic carnival that is wedding proposal, finding a cascade of fainting spells; real estate swindles and misunderstood love.


Avdeev, Alexandre, Alain Blum, and Irina Troirskaia. “Peasant Marriage in Nineteeth Century Russia”. http://www.cairn.info/article.php?ID_ARTICLE=POPE_406_0721.

In 19th century, marriage remained subject to the patriarchal rules of rural communities. Wives generally went to live with their husband’s family, and contributed to its wealth. The fact that marriage was not linked to the need to amass a patrimony beforehand partly explains its early and universal nature. The average age at first marriage fluctuates between 20 years and 22.9 years for men, and 19.3 years and 20.7 years for women, depending on the period.

Russian marriage before the reform, however, follows a very different model. Taking first marriage, whatever the husband’s age at marriage, the average age of his wife is the same, around 19 years. It is almost the same from the wife’s perspective. Before 1861, whatever her age at marriage, the husband’s average age at marriage scarcely changes. However, the opening of the recruitment areas for spouses modified the pattern for wives, revealing a more complex competition between never married men and widowers as well as a diversification of marriage strategies.

Anton Chekhov and A Marriage Proposal”.http://www.lotsofessays.com/viewpaper


In the short play "A Marriage Proposal," Anton Chekhov describes the odd courtship of Lomov, who seeks a marriage with his neighbor's daughter. The man and the woman he wants to marry fight before he can make his proposal, fight while he proposes, and fight after she agrees to marry him. They tend toward a fight every time they speak to one another, and while this alarms her father at first, he decides that the two just like to fight with each other. In the end, the father calls this last fight the "launching of marital bliss," though it is doubtful that a couple can fight all the time and achieve anything like bliss.

The idea expressed in this play is echoed in part in other examples from world literature. The idea expressed by Lysander in A Midsummer Night's Dream that "the course of true love never did run smooth" (I.i.134) represents this theme. The statement itself embodies several ideas. First, it assumes that there is such a thing as true love and that it is a conception based on the idea that two people are literally meant for each other. Second, it states that these two people, though meant for each other, may have to endure a good deal before they can actually achieve the love they feel. This differs from what Chekhov shows in "A Marriage Proposal," however, in that Shakespeare shows two people who may fight yet learn they love each other, while Chekhov presents two people who love each other by fighting--at least, that is what Choobookov believes.

    1. The History of the Plot. www.online-literature.com/anton_chekhov/


  1. In traditional Russia, marriage was a mean of economic stability for most people. They marry to gain wealth and possessions. In this particular play, the concept of marriage is being satirized to show the real purpose of marriage. Marriage is portrayed as a materialistic gain and not for the reason of true love. The satire is conveyed successfully by emphasizing the couple's foolish arguments over small things. The main arguments in the play revolve around "The Oxen Meadows" and two dogs called "Ugadi and Otkatai".

Group II

The Proposal

Bayu Prabowo Sigit (044214067)

Arshanti Bimalia (064214005)

Luciana Marlin Soriton (064214012)

Lucia Arumsihingtyas (064214019)

Marcellina Yuliana (064214026)

Tigana Marbun (064214092)

Bayu Prabowo Sigit

http://wikipedia.com

In traditional Russia, marriage was a mean of economic stability for most people.

They marry to gain wealth and possessions. In this particular play, the concept of

marriage is being satirized to show the real purpose of marriage. Marriage is

portrayed as a materialistic gain and not for the reason of true love. The satire is

conveyed successfully by emphasizing the couple's foolish arguments over small

things.

http://lotsofessay.com

In 1890, Chekhov left for a trip to Sakhalin Island where the government established

a penal colony. He stayed there for three months, documenting the lives of the

inmates. In 1892, Chekhov purchased the estate, Melikhovo and became the first

landowner in his family.

Arshanti Bimalia



http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html

Alexander II's reforms, particularly the lifting of state censorship, fostered the

expression of political and social thought. The regime relied on journals and

newspapers to gain support for its domestic and foreign policies. But liberal,

nationalist, and radical writers also helped to mold public opinion that was opposed

to tsarism, private property, and the imperial state. Because many intellectuals,

professionals, peasants, and workers shared these opposition sentiments, the regime

regarded the publications and the radical organizations as dangerous. From the 1860s

through the 1880s, Russian radicals, collectively known as народники

(Narodnikis), focused chiefly on the peasantry, whom they identified as народ

(narod, the people).

Luciana Marlin



http://www.arco-iris.com/George/19thC_Russian.htmp

The beginning of the 19th century in Russia coincides with the beginning of a new

stardom and, simultaneously, with the beginning of a long-lived struggle with

Napoleon. The influence of the French on Russian edged weapons reached its zenith in

the beginning of the reign of Emperor Nicholas I. Toward the mid 19th century, from

the alloying of these two influences - the French and the Caucasian, there developed

a basic type of Russian edged weapon - the Russian shashka.

http://www.wsu.edu/~brians/hum_303/russian.html

Of the other Russian writers of the 19th Century, the only other one to make much of

an impression abroad was Anton Chekhov (1860-1904), whose short stories and plays

used Realism in a much more understated way. His four great plays written just

before and after the turn of the century--The Sea Gull, Uncle Vanya, Three Sisters,

and The Cherry Orchard, along with the Realist masterworks of the Norwegian Henrik

Ibsen--helped to rescue the theater from the dismal state into which it had plunged

after the time of the German Romantics. The theatrical genius of the 19th century

seems to have gone into opera rather than stage plays; few of the plays written

between Schiller and Chekhov are remembered or performed today, but his works are

seldom absent from the stage for long. Chekhov's works are often seen as the last

echo of a fading tradition before Stalinism made "socialist realism" into a

suffocating orthodoxy.

Lucia Arumsihingtyas



http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/tsehov.htm

Anton Chekhov was a Russian playwright and one of the great masters of modern short

story. In his work, Chekhov combined the dispassionate attitude of a scientist and

doctor with the sensitivity and psychological understanding of an artist. Chekhov's

fame today rests primarily on his plays. He used ordinary conversations, pauses,

noncommunication, nonhappening, incomplete thoughts, to reveal the truth behind

trivial words and daily life. His characters belong often to the provincial middle

class, petty aristocracy, or landowners of prerevolutionary Russia. They contemplate

their unsatisfactory lives unable to make decisions and help themselves when a

crisis breaks out.



http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Nordic_Exhibition_of_1888_(1888)

What was this industrial art about? Simply put it consisted of reminiscences of

romantic thoughts, combined with a critic attitude towards the modern times. The

concept included a belief in a certain ‘spirit’ of the ethnic, which in short

meant that individual groups upheld certain characteristics. And that these

characteristic was somehow manifest in the products created by the people.



http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=18717

A person who has hypochondria, a disorder characterized by a preoccupation with body

functions and the interpretation of normal body sensations (such as sweating) or

minor abnormalities (such as minor aches and pains) as portending problems of major

medical moment. Reassurance by physicians and others only serves to increase the

hypochondriac's persistent anxiety about their health.

Marcellina Yuliana

Shanin, Teodore. The Peasant Commune in Russia. Russia As a ‘ Developing

Society’.1985: 73-74.

The author, researches the society in Russia, He found that from the 1860s a typical

Russian peasant commune was a self governing territorial community and the main

legal owner of land held by its household. The primary extra farm social

organization of the Russian peasantry was thereby not a village or parish but

commune: a local authority, an economic entity, a collective landowner, a jury-like

court and a policing organ, all in one. Its membership consisted not only of those

in actual residence but of all those born or accepted into it and thereby rightful

claimant on its services and land. Both the right and the duty to belong to a

commune were restricted to peasant alone, thus making it an essential element of

membership of the peasant ’social estate’. Shanin tells that functions of the

peasant commune at that time as lowest rung of administrative authority included

maintenance of roads bridges, care for the welfare of the orphans, the lonely

aged and the handicapped, the provision of education facilities, the accommodation

of traveling official, help in drafting of recruits and so on..

Pares, Bernard. The Russian and Others. Russia History…People…Politics. 1948 :

21-22

The author found that a conversation in Russian is less a give and take of argument



than a series of dramatized expressions of individual opinion. They are

extraordinarily good at this. Pares said that it is like a succession of

presentations of different points of view, often very picturesque.

Shanin, Teodore. Peasantry : Models and History. Russia As a ‘ Developing

Society’.1985:81-86

Agriculture is the most important industry of Russia. Since 1860s the membership in

peasant ‘estate’ has not only defined a variety of exclusive duties and rights

but also meant belonging to and meeting within officially recognized groups which

consisted of peasant only: a commune, an electoral college. Shanin tells that a

peasant can be defined as a small producers on land who, with help of simple

equipment and the labor of their families, produce mainly for their own consumption

and for meeting obligations to the holders of political and economic status.

Pares, Bernard. The country. The Russian and Others. Russia

History…People…Politics.1948: 11

The Russian climate is a stern one, with long months of the winter and, in the

north, of darkness, when no agricultural work can be done. Yet the frosty sky is

bright and blue and the hard, powdered snows make a merry road to anywhere. Then

comes sudden spring, The Russian peasant it can seem no mere fiction that death is



followed by resurrection and Easter, like so many saint’s days that mark in his

calendar the changes of the seasons, seems indeed also great feast of nature.


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