The Economic Integration of Immigrants and Regional Resilience



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Tables and Figures

Table 1. Distribution of Occupation by Immigrant Status, 2000 and 2010




Native-born

Immigrants

Mexican Immigrants

Occupational Group

2000

2010

2000

2010

2000

2010

Management

14.6%

15.3%

10.1%

10.5%

3.7%

4.0%

Professional, Technical and protective services

23.4%

24.4%

18.9%

18.6%

4.8%

4.6%

Sales and office

28.6%

27.8%

20.3%

18.6%

13.0%

12.8%

Low wage services

11.6%

13.3%

19.1%

22.7%

25.4%

29.4%

Agriculture

0.3%

0.2%

1.7%

1.6%

5.4%

4.7%

Construction

4.9%

4.7%

7.3%

9.4%

15.2%

18.5%

Other blue collar

9.6%

8.9%

9.8%

9.7%

13.6%

12.9%

Production/Manufacturing

6.7%

5.0%

12.6%

8.8%

18.8%

13.1%

Military or Unclassified

0.2%

0.4%

0.1%

0.1%

0.0%

0.1%

Source: Author’s analysis of Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) U.S. Census Bureau data from the 2000 5% PUMS Sample and the 2010 American Community Survey 5% Sample.

Table 2. Ranking of Ten Most/Least Occupationally Diverse Regions in 2000, All Immigrants




Region

Diversity Index

Region

Index of Spec.

Most Diverse

1

Modesto, CA

0.866

San Diego-Carlsbad-San Marcos, CA

0.044

2

Stockton, CA

0.866

Sacramento--Roseville, CA

0.048

3

Chico, CA

0.865

New Orleans-Metairie-Kenner, LA

0.048

4

Lakeland, FL

0.864

Hartford, CT

0.051

5

Oxnard-Ventura, CA

0.863

Tampa-St. Petersburg-Clearwater, FL

0.053

6

Boise City-Nampa, ID

0.863

New York CBSA, NY-NJ-PA

0.061

7

Beaumont-Port Arthur, TX

0.863

Kansas City, MO-KS

0.064

8

McAllen-Edinburg-Mission, TX

0.863

Nashville-Davidson--Murfreesboro, TN

0.070

9

Santa Barbara-Santa Maria, CA

0.859

Indianapolis-Carmel, IN

0.072

10

Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA

0.859

Portland-Vancouver, OR-WA

0.075

Least Diverse

1

Champaign-Urbana, IL

0.612

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC

0.432

2

Gainesville, FL

0.650

El Paso, TX

0.431

3

El Paso, TX

0.682

Yakima, WA

0.422

4

Ann Arbor, MI

0.696

Visalia-Porterville, CA

0.417

5

Hickory-Lenoir-Morganton, NC

0.713

Champaign-Urbana, IL

0.410

6

Atlantic City, NJ

0.742

Gainesville, FL

0.355

7

Pittsburgh, PA

0.757

Bakersfield, CA

0.352

8

Madison, WI

0.764

Ann Arbor, MI

0.338

9

Baton Rouge, LA

0.770

Fayetteville-Springdale, AR-MO

0.313

10

Visalia-Porterville, CA

0.771

Merced, CA

0.312

Source: Authors analysis of IPUMS Census data from 2000.

Table 3. Predicting Occupational Diversity in 2000

Variable

Diversity Index, All Immigrants

[1]

Diversity Index, Mexican Immigrants

[2]

Human Capital










Share of immigrants with a BA or higher, 2000

-0.235***

-0.041







(0.031)

(0.081)
















CBSA pre-1980 immigrant population (millions), 2000,

-0.006

-0.007







(0.041)

(0.080)
















CBSA percent households linguistically isolated, 2000

-0.389**

-0.078







(0.194)

(0.261)

Context of Reception










Central city has a pro-immigrant policy stance, 2013

0.008

0.004







(0.006)

(0.011)
















Number of immigrant service NGOs/immigrant, 2000

-3.261

-85.2**







(19.308)

(36.421)
















Revenue of immigrant service NGOs/immigran($1,000s), 2000

-0.022

0.034







(0.026)

(0.051)

Ethnic Enclaves










Share of foreign-born living in ethnic enclaves, 2000

-0.013

0.002







(0.036)

(0.049)
















Dissimilarity index of the foreign-born, 2000

-0.001*

0.001







(0.001)

(0.001)

Spatial Mismatch











Suburban share of regional jobs, 2000

0.019

-0.026







(0.018)

(0.036)

Industry Structure










Industry diversity index (employment based), 2000

0.256***

0.128







(0.067)

(0.134)
















Percent of employment in manufacturing, 2000

-0.133**

-0.130







(0.052)

(0.102)

Regional Controls










Total CBSA population, (millions), 2000

0.003

0.004







(0.003)

(0.001)
















CBSA, median age, all, 2000

-0.001

0.0003







(0.001)

(0.002)
















CBSA percent home owners, 2000

0.075

0.064







(0.065)

(0.124)
















Median household income, 1999 (in 2000 $s)

0.002***

0.000







(0.000)

(0.000)
















CBSA 90-10 income ratio, 2000

0.007***

-0.002







(0.002)

(0.004)
















CBSA unemployment rate, 2000

-0.002

0.003







(0.002)

(0.004)
















Adjusted R-squared

0.4424

0.1325

Notes: All regressions include regions with at least 200,000 total population in 2000 and at least 10,000 immigrants in 2000. Sample size equals 128 for all three models. Standard errors in parentheses. * significant at 10% level; ** significant at 5% level; *** significant at 1% level
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