The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760–1851



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Chapter 22

The Early Industrial Revolution, 1760–1851

Use the following to answer questions 1-16:

Key Terms

1. Industrial Revolution

2. agricultural revolution

3. mass production

4. Josiah Wedgwood

5. division of labor

6. mechanization

7. Richard Arkwright

8. Crystal Palace

9. steam engine

10. James Watt

11. electric telegraph

12. business cycle

13. laissez faire

14. mercantilism

15. positivism

16. utopian socialism

17. Why did the Industrial Revolution take place first in Britain rather than in another country?



Ans:  Although the British were innovative, they were no more innovative than some other nations; however, they made practical applications of their innovations much more quickly. Furthermore, they were the world's leading exporters of tools, guns, hardware, and other craft goods. British engineers tried new approaches to problems. Britain also had many skilled refugees, who brought important skills with them. In addition, British society was a factor in promoting the Industrial Revolution. The British monarchy was less powerful and oppressive than those in other countries, and political power was less centralized. Because class lines were less sharply drawn, moving up through the classes was more feasible in England. British superiority in shipping and water transportation played a crucial part in the era before railroads, when land transportation was prohibitively expensive. Finally, British financial institutions were most aptly suited to the Industrial Revolution. Examples can be seen in the writings of Adam Smith, as well as in joint-stock companies and the insurance system.
18. Explain the effects of the agricultural revolution and the Industrial Revolution.

New crops from the Americas, by improving the diet of Europeans and therefore their health, led to a population boom and a large number of young people, whose vitality contributed to the Industrial Revolution. In order to grow these crops, rich landowners enclosed the land, thus driving peasants into the cities; this increased urban population also contributed to the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution increased productivity, making factory owners immensely rich and making products cheaper for the average consumer; at the same time, life was miserable for many factory workers. The mechanization of cotton production had many long-term effects; for example, it made cotton the most valuable crop in the United States. Advances in iron and steam engines made possible railroads, which increased transportation, and the invention of the telegraph increased communication. Both the agricultural and industrial revolutions radically changed the average farmer's life and also the rural.landscape.

19. What five revolutionary innovations made possible the Industrial Revolution? Give one example of each of these innovations, and describe how each was adapted.



Ans:  The five innovations were (a) mass production through the division of labor; (b) new machines and mechanization; (c) an increase in the supply of iron; (d) the steam engine; and (e) the electric telegraph. Josiah Wedgwood and the porcelain industry were one example of applying mass production techniques originally developed by the Chinese. Wedgwood broke down the work into individual steps, maximizing the use of labor and other resources within each step. The cotton industry exemplified the role of machines in the Industrial Revolution. Machines such as the spinning jenny, the mule, and the power loom produced cotton textiles at lower costs. Watermills improved both production and quality. As for the enormous increase in iron production, it allowed great expansion and improvement of transportation through the building of bridges, railroads, and steamships. More iron also meant that more machinery could be built more cheaply, and larger factories were constructed to accommodate those machines. Iron production was boosted by the innovation in removing impurities from both iron and coal. Coke production allowed Britain to produce iron without depending on dwindling charcoal supplies, as other nations did. The most important innovation, however, was in energy. James Watt's improvement of the steam engine made available cheap and portable energy sources—and insufficient energy seemed to have been the only constraint on rampant industrialism. Power for pumping water from mines, operating mills, and driving ships and trains let the Industrial Revolution careen forward. Finally, the telegraph significantly advanced communication and aided the operation of such things as railroads. The development of the electric telegraph after 1837 greatly improved global communications, first along railway lines and, after 1851, across oceans.

20. How do you account for the spread of industrialization outside of England in the nineteenth century?



Ans:  Students should note the beginnings of industrialization in Europe after the Napoleonic wars ended in 1815. Generally speaking, the nations closest to England industrialized most quickly. Belgium and France stole industrial secrets and smuggled skilled workers and machinery out of Britain. Nations farthest from England, such as Russia and Sweden, industrialized much more slowly. Many countries also waited until the British had solved the problems they had encountered. Nations eliminated internal tariffs and tolls, and joint-stock companies and banks secured the capital necessary for industrial expansion. In the United States, a high standard of living and a growing urban population created a demand for manufactured goods. High tariffs helped ensure that they would be produced in the United States, where large distances encouraged the development of the railroad, telegraph, and steamboat. American cotton growing spurred the development of the cloth and clothing industry.

21. What was the environmental effect of the Industrial Revolution?



Ans:  Students can choose from an extensive list of environmental effects. Deforestation for construction and fuel was readily apparent in Europe, but much less so in America. Europeans then adopted coal, and almost immediately suffered from breathing the harmful coal emissions. As cities grew larger and population density increased, public water and sanitation became problems. On the other hand, industrialization had some positive environmental effects. In Britain, underground resources such as coal replaced wood, and overseas cotton replaced domestic wool. As land diminished and feed for horses became expensive, less land-hungry mechanical transport spread. Shipbuilding, which had traditionally consumed enormous quantities of wood, switched to iron.

22. Describe the working conditions encountered by women and men during the Industrial Revolution.



Ans:  Students should recognize both positive and negative effects for industrial workers. On the positive side, many new opportunities opened up for those with particular skills, such as machinists and metalworkers. Wages for these specialties and others also increased. For other workers, the Industrial Revolution seemed like a nightmare. Most work was boring. Repetitive motions mandated by the mass-production system made workers feel disassociated from their work. Employers added new machines and ran them faster and longer. Health conditions deteriorated, causing infant mortality rates to soar and average life expectancies to plummet. Many factories sought women and children as laborers. National and international mass migrations of workers began, as workers moved from rural areas to industrializing cities. Industrial accidents were commonplace, and workers were allowed little say in controlling their workplace. The workday routinely lasted fourteen to sixteen hours.

23. Why was transportation such a critical feature of the Industrial Revolution?



Ans:  The steam engine is credited as being one of the most significant inventions of the Industrial Revolution, and one that differentiated it from earlier periods of technological progress. Through the use of steam engines, goods could be transported over waterways, not only in Europe (particularly Britain) but also in the United States. Canals linked cities and rural areas for manufacturing and trade purposes and facilitated access to the oceans, previously held only by coastal states. With the steam engine's use in railroads, towns and cities were linked with more rural areas for the transportation of goods and services, not only over larger distances but also with greater speed and efficiency. In the United States, the development of railroads facilitated expansion across the country through the Midwest and connected the East and West Coasts. The infrastructure of railroad tracks also contributed to the stringing of telegraph lines, facilitating long-distance communication.

24. How were colonialism and European imperialism related to industrialization?



Ans:  The economic relationship of Europe with the rest of the world during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries profoundly influenced global society. Whereas the previous economic models dominating European trade were those of mercantilism or trade with other areas such as China and India, the Industrial Revolution made manufacturing the principle form of economic activity in Europe, a commercialism that depended on raw goods to fuel mechanized industry. Thus Europeans began to emphasize colonialism and imperialism to promote an economic growth that was based on production rather than trade, at the expense of the countries from which they derived their raw materials. For example, the British flooded the global market with manufactured textiles at cheap prices, effectively nullifying the domestic industry of non-European countries. The deliberate suppression of industry in non-Western areas made those areas dependent on European goods and therefore put them in a subordinate position. However, industrialization did not occur at the same rate throughout Europe, and the inequitable balance in both trade and colonialism was a critical factor in shaping the liberalism and nationalism of the nineteenth century, and ultimately promoting war in the early twentieth century.

25. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, the population grew because of



Ans:  reliable food supplies and widespread resistance to disease.

26. Enclosure was

A) closing factory doors at working time and not opening them again until closing.

B) a closed emigration policy.

C) restriction of common agricultural land.

D) maintaining private garden plots for personal use.

E) a process of closing off rivers for waterpower in factories.

Ans:  C Page:  621-622

27. What new crop contributed to the agricultural revolution?

A) The potato

B) Wheat


C) Rice

D) The soybean

E) The tomato

Ans:  A Page:  621

28. The agricultural revolution was a change in farming methods and crops that resulted in

A) the creation of a large class of landless farm laborers.

B) wealthy landowners taking over communal lands.

C) European population growth as a result of new crops such as potatoes and corn.

D) the introduction of better livestock, soil improvement, and crop rotation.

E) all of these.

Ans:  E Page:  621

29. In rural areas manufacture was carried out through cottage industries, where

A) a factory owner “put out” his workers to work in other factories.

B) merchants delivered raw materials to craftspeople and picked up the finished product.

C) merchants and factory owners collaborated to “cottage” a lower wage.

D) silk and cotton textiles were manufactured together.2

E) workers led an idyllic working life.

Ans:  B Page:  622

30. Which of the following is not one of the factors that gave Britain a “head start” on the Industrial Revolution?

A) It recovered from the plague more quickly than the rest of Europe.

B) It had the largest merchant marine.

C) It was highly commercial, and many people were involved in production and trade.

D) It enjoyed a high standard of living and a “fluid” society.

E) It was the world's leading exporter of tools, guns, hardware, and other crafts.

Ans:  A Page:  622-623

31. Britain's manufacturing depended on the importation of raw goods from its colonies (as well as enforced trade). Which of the following was not an area of colonization for Britain?

A) North America

B) India


C) Africa

D) Near East

E) Japan

Ans:  E Page:  623

32. New forms of energy were important for industrialization, such as

A) horse power.

B) wind and water energy.

C) the steam engine and electricity.

D) hydroelectric power.

E) gas turbine engines.

Ans:  C Page:  626

33. Why was industrialization of continental Europe more difficult than in Britain?

A) Ongoing wars slowed the diffusion of British technologies and discouraged investment in industrial production.

B) Nationalism prohibited trade with other countries.

C) Tariffs (taxes on goods between countries) made transportation very expensive.

D) Europe lacked rivers.

E) Continental Europe had no colonies from which to get raw goods.

Ans:  A Page:  623

34. “Division of labor” in manufacturing means

A) dividing the work force into capitalists and communists.

B) dividing work into specialized and repetitive tasks.

C) using “division” as well as other mathematical functions.

D) having the worker make the entire product.

E) dividing the labor unions in order to weaken them.

Ans:  B Page:  626

35. England began importing raw cotton

A) because the English Parliament banned importation of cotton cloth.

B) because there was no other source of cheap clothing.

C) because it badly needed the raw material for its mills.

D) because its export was stopped by other countries.

E) in order to support the southern states during the American Civil War.

Ans:  A Page:  627

36. Among the new inventions developed to weave cotton textiles was (were)

A) the steam engine.

B) the spinning jenny and the water frame.

C) the power loom and the thread “genie.”

D) the fulling press and the iron “foot.”

E) the rotary weaving engine.

Ans:  B Page:  627

37. According to the chapter, what was not one of the five major contributors to industrialization?

A) Electricity

B) The steam engine

C) The division of labor

D) Increased production of iron

E) Innovation in biochemistry

Ans:  E Page:  642

38. Iron production was transformed by Abraham Darby's discovery that

A) machines could do the work of hammering iron better than humans.

B) mills operated with hydroelectric power produced stronger iron.

C) coke could be used in the place of charcoal in the smelting process.

D) taconite was a more valuable byproduct than the iron itself.

E) people worked better for higher wages.

Ans:  C Page:  628

39. A significant contribution to the mass manufacture of cheap metal items was the development of

A) interchangeable parts.

B) lost wax casting of iron.

C) individual fitting together of parts by hand.

D) molded metal.

E) amalgamations of metal known as pig iron.

Ans:  A Page:  628

40. The most revolutionary invention of the Industrial Revolution was James Watt's

A) cotton gin.

B) steam engine.

C) saddle.

D) bicycle.

E) light bulb.

Ans:  B Page:  631

41. The United States was the first country to create commercially viable steamships. This was because

A) Europe had insufficient coal to power steamships.

B) steamships were illegal in other parts of the world.

C) the United States was the only nation with steamship technology.

D) the vast size of the United States made river-based steamships necessary and profitable.

E) the British navy had a policy of attacking steamships in Europe.

Ans:  D Page:  630

42. In continental Europe, industries such as iron, construction, and machinery were greatly stimulated by

A) railroads.

B) the Crimean War.

C) the use of slave labor.

D) the increase in literacy.

E) American banking advances.

Ans:  A Page:  630

43. What invention revolutionized communication during the Industrial Revolution?

A) The phonograph

B) Radar


C) The electric telegraph

D) The battery

E) The telephone

Ans:  C Page:  632

44. One profound effect that industrialization had on the world was that

A) Europe and North America were empowered at the expense of the rest of the world.

B) the raw material of Africa made it the center of industrialization.

C) the availability of cheap labor in Asia caused its markets to expand rapidly.

D) Europe went into a slow decline due to worldwide competition.

E) workers' wages and quality of living rose quickly.

Ans:  A Page:  632

45. Urbanization had the greatest impact on

A) the elite, who came to the cities to attend fashionable events.

B) the bourgeoisie, who developed a professional class.

C) the factory owners, who came to the cities to keep an eye on their businesses.

D) the poor, who came to the city from rural areas for work.

E) children, who attended schools in cities.

Ans:  D Page:  632

46. Which of the following was not true of poor urban neighborhoods?

A) They were often filled with overcrowded tenements.

B) There was an atmosphere of filth, pollution, and sewage.

C) The danger of typhus, smallpox, dysentery, and tuberculosis was very high.

D) Most poor urbanites lived in factory-owned apartment buildings.

E) Houses were often mixed in with factories.

Ans:  D Page:  632-633

47. The most obvious change in rural life during the Industrial Revolution was

A) electrical power.

B) the appearance of new roads, canals, and railroads.

C) an increase in leisure time.

D) a population shift to rural areas.

E) the increase of political power of rural residents at the expense of industrial centers.

Ans:  B Page:  634

48. Factory work represented a radical difference from traditional rural work because

A) women worked outside the home.

B) children worked at simple tasks in factories.

C) husbands worked separately from wives.

D) the family did not work together as a unit.

E) All of these

Ans:  E Page:  634-635

49. Industrial work had an enormous effect on the family because

A) it provided a steady income for families.

B) work was now removed from the home and family members were separated all day.

C) children were happier in factories than on farms.

D) factory work was safer than farm work.

E) the move to the city made families happier and more stable.

Ans:  B Page:  636

50. Women typically earned

A) as much as men.

B) one-third to one-half as much as men.

C) 10 percent of what men made.

D) twice as much as men.

E) nothing, as their service was “tenure” service to the owner.

Ans:  B Page:  636

51. Single women and married women both did factory work but for different reasons:

A) Married women worked if their husbands were unable to support their families.

B) Married women worked if their husbands worked in a dangerous job.

C) Married women worked to put their children through school.

D) Single women worked to make friends and be social.

E) Single women worked for excitement and fun.

Ans:  A Page:  636

52. When child labor laws began to pass in England,

A) children were required to be paid minimum wage.

B) children were required to go to school for a minimum of four years before they could work.

C) factories were subject to regular inspection for health and safety codes.

D) factory owners simply replaced child workers with Irish immigrants, who were cheaper.

E) factory owners refused to hire children or women.

Ans:  D Page:  636

53. In the United States, many factory owners opened their factories with a commitment to decent wages and housing

A) but soon converted to machine-driven looms.

B) but soon rejected female workers in favor of child laborers.

C) but eventually lowered wages and imposed longer hours.

D) and continued to improve the lot of workers.

E) but did none of these.

Ans:  C Page:  637

54. The cotton boom enriched planters as well as manufacturers and

A) led to the decline of American slavery.

B) encouraged the growth of a domestic textile industry in India.

C) made many sharecroppers rich.

D) created a high demand for mulch.

E) created a high demand for slaves.

Ans:  E Page:  637

55. “Business cycles” meant that

A) workers would save their money, invest, and improve their status by owning their own business as entrepreneurs.

B) the rich industrialists would buy all phases of production, from manufacturing to sales.

C) the process of piecemeal work was replaced by the division of labor started by Wedgwood.

D) workers’ incomes and employment fluctuated wildly with the rise and fall in demand for commercial products.

E) workers’ livelihoods were protected by a “social safety net”.

Ans:  D Page:  637

56. The early Industrial Revolution’s real beneficiaries were the

A) the working class.

B) the serfs.

C) wealthy merchants.

D) the landowning gentry.

E) the middle class.

Ans:  E Page:  637

57. With industrialization, the role of middle-class women became management of the home, children, and servants. This was known as

A) the “factory at home.”

B) the “female world of home.”

C) “home, sweet home.”

D) “children, kitchen, and church.”

E) the “cult of domesticity.”

Ans:  E Page:  638

58. In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith proposes that the government should

A) not interfere in business.

B) carefully regulate business.

C) leave business alone, except for enacting protective tariffs.

D) protect workers.

E) carefully allocate resources to ensure their best possible use.

Ans:  A Page:  638

59. Thomas Malthus's explanation of workers' misfortunes was that

A) the population was outgrowing the food supply.

B) workers were immoral and destined to fail.

C) the weak would perish and the strong would survive.

D) workers needed to work harder and longer hours.

E) the government was uncaring.

Ans:  A Page:  638

60. Friedrich List, the German economist, argued that

A) England was unfairly oppressing religious minorities into serfdom.

B) Germany could only effectively compete with Britain by erecting tariffs against British imports.

C) capitalism was doomed to fail in the wake of violent revolution between the haves and have-nots.

D) laissez-faire economics could not work in continental Europe because of nationalist interests.

E) Adam Smith was wrong, and mercantilism was the correct and best economic model.

Ans:  B Page:  639

61. To address the misery of the poor, French socialists proposed that workers form communities under the protection of business leaders; their views were known as

A) totalitarianism.

B) humanism.

C) positivism.

D) Darwinism.

E) communism.

Ans:  C Page:  639

62. Charles Fourier and other opponents of capitalism advocated

A) anarchy in the United Kingdom.

B) a return to manorialism.

C) the wisdom of the mercantile system.

D) a theocracy of Protestant ministers.

E) utopian socialism.

Ans:  E Page:  639

63. Which of the following was not one of the ways in which workers resisted harsh treatment?

A) Changing their jobs frequently

B) Frequently assassinating unpopular factory owners

C) Doing poor-quality work

D) Rioting and going on strike

E) Being absent on Mondays

Ans:  B Page:  639

64. The Factory Act of 1833

A) prohibited textile mills from employing workers under the age of nine.

B) increased wages for all workers of Great Britain and Scotland.

C) granted women equal pay for equal work.

D) created separate guilds for male and female workers.

E) enacted safety laws.

Ans:  A Page:  639

65. As a result of industrialization, the relationship between western Europe and the non-Western world

A) improved through increased communications.

B) worsened through the savagery of the slave trade.

C) remained the same.

D) became based on Western dominance.

E) became dominated by the non-Western world through their monopoly of raw materials.

Ans:  D Page:  641

66. How did industrialization change China's relationship with the West?

A) China's industrialization put it on an equal footing with the West.

B) Industrialization caused Chinese and Western workers to unite.

C) European steam-powered gunboats humiliated China's military.

D) European nations “shared the wealth” with China.

E) Europe demanded massive Chinese immigration for factory work.

Ans:  C Page:  641

67. Why did Britain discourage the efforts of Egypt to industrialize?

A) Britain didn't want Egypt to become powerful and interfere with Britain's empire.

B) To preserve Egypt's historical and cultural heritage

C) Egypt had become allied with Russia.

D) To prevent the spread of Islamic learning

E) Because many British citizens were trying to immigrate to Egypt

Ans:  A Page:  640

68. Britain's main strategy to eliminate competition in trade was to

A) flood the market with cheap goods and drive competitors out of business.

B) start a war, which Britain could win because of its superior navy.

C) suppress all unionist activity that might cause an interruption of productivity.

D) send all the Chartist reformers to Australia.

E) send in saboteurs to destroy other countries' factories.

Ans:  A Page:  640-641

Use the following to answer questions 69-71:

Geography Questions

69. Using Map 22.1, examine the locations of industrial development, population growth, railroads, and coal deposits. Explain why the Industrial Revolution began in England. What gave England a “head start”?



Page:  623

70. Using Map 22.1, explain the process of urbanization in England and how this correlates with the growth of industrialization. How did urbanization affect transportation development?



Page:  623

71. Examine Map 22.2, and analyze the interconnection between railroads and the growth of trade. Why was there comparatively little industrialization in southern France, Switzerland, Italy, or the Austrian Empire?



Page:  631

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