The Developing Nation: 1801-1823 Domestic Turmoil 1801



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The Developing Nation: 1801-1823
Domestic Turmoil
1801

- Thomas Jefferson Elected (House of Representatives)

- Federalists back “less dangerous” Burr;

- Hamiltonian Federalists (esp. Alexander Hamilton trash talk Burr)

- Most Republicans back Jefferson

- Midnight Appointments

- Federalists fear “too much democracy” under Republicans

-_________________________________________________________________

- Lame duck President Adams and Congress take action

- ________________________________ and appointed Federalist judges

- appointed more Supreme Court Justices including __________________
1803

- Louisiana Purchase

- Jefferson wanted access to mouth of Mississippi River (New Orleans) for trade

- ________________________________________________________________

- Slave revolt in Haiti; French Navy sent, most die

- Haiti becomes independent

- Napoleon becomes increasingly frustrated with North American colonies

- ____________________________________________ (3 cents per acre)

- Jefferson really wants to buy

- Problem

- Republicans always wanted strict interpretation of Constitution

- Nowhere does it say president can make land purchases without Congressional approval

- To try to get around this, ________________________________

- Very loose interpretation

- Federalists argue for strict interpretation

- _____________________________________ out of convenience

- For $15 million Jefferson doubled the size of the U.S.

  Explored by __________________ and ___________________ from 1804 1806

  Traveled from St. Louis (the last western city) to the ______________ and back

  _______________________________________________________________



_1807

- Transportation developments

- 1807: Robert Fulton invents the _____________________________

- Rail and road begin to connect East and West

- __________________________ becomes an economic hub

- The Leopard and Chesapeake Incident

- British warship Leopard stops American frigate Chesapeake off the VA coast

- Claimed four crew members were British deserters

- American commander said crew was all American, refused to comply

- _________________________________________________

- Three killed; 18 wounded

- American public responds with outrage and demands war with Britain

- __________________________________ from Atlantic; knows he cannot fight Britain

- Embargo Act

- ________________________________________________________________

- Trying to protect U.S. and hurt British: totally ineffective

- __________________________ (new trading partners, less competition)

- American exports fell 80%; American imports dropped by 50%

-____________________________________, especially in New England

- _______________________________________________

- U.S. gov. could not effectively patrol the Atlantic Coast or Canadian border; martial law declared in NY to prevent smuggling

- Fighting broke out between civilians and government agents

- Federalist Northeast became extremely violent

- Connecticut governor says he can use his power to protect his state from unjust federal laws (similar to Virginia/Kentucky Resolutions)



1808

- _____________________________________ in the election

- James Madison (Republican) elected president; James Monroe named Secretary of State
1809

- ____________________________________ under new Federalist influenced Congress


1810

- _____________________: authorized president to reopen trade with France and Britain

- ________________________________________________________________

- Napoleon said he would not interfere

- Britain continued impressment and confiscation of goods

1811

- Charter of the First National Bank expires


1812 - 1814

- War of 1812 Begins

- ____________________ (Republicans e.g. Henry Clay) encourage war because:

  Poorly defended British settlements

  British refusal to surrender forts promised in Treaty of Paris

  Royal Navy seizing merchant ships and ____________________ sailors

  British believed to be _________________________________________

- Britain at war with France; moment of weakness

- ___________________________________________________________

- Course of the War

- U.S. forces ___________________; Britain effectively blockades New England

- U.S. forces have early success, but are then repelled

- ___________________________________________________________

- Occupy much of the Northeast

- __________________________________________ - August 24th, 1814

- __________________________________(war threatened wealth/power of upper class)

- _________________________________________ (war created jobs for working class)

- ______________________________

- Republicans attacked a Federalist newspaper; Federalists defended it with grapeshot

- Federalists jailed; Republicans raided jail and beat prisoners to death


- Hartford Convention (December 1814)

- ________________________________________________________________

- Proposed seven amendments to protect states’ rights, but nothing came of it

- __________________________________________________________

- __________________________________ (December 24th, 1814)

- Ends War of 1812

- War rarely touched lives of Americans outside New England

- _______________________________________

- Did not deal with impressment, blockades, or protection for U.S. ships

- Britain agreed to evacuate western forts

- Ended conflict: included prisoner exchange and restoration of U.S. territory lost during the war


1815

- Battle of New Orleans (January 8th, 1815)

- After war was legally over, but nobody knew; U.S. defeated attacking British

- ________________________________________________________________

- Jeffersonian Republicans sole remaining party
The Era of Good Feeling
1816

- Second National Bank (charter of the first had expired in 1811)


1817

- James Monroe becomes president

- Begins a strong economic period for U.S.

- ________________________________________________________________

- High foreign demand for cotton, grain, tobacco, and manufactured goods

- _________________________________________________, but not mandated


1820

- The Missouri Compromise

  Regional differences (____________________________________)

  North: industry, no slavery (as of 1804), more education

  South: agriculture, slavery, less education

  Missouri Compromise

  ____________ of slave and free states in Senate by adding states in pairs

  ___________________________________ territories at the 36E 30' line


1823

- Monroe Doctrine

- ________________________________________________________________

- _____________________________________ (Washington’s Farewell Address)



- ________________________________________________________________


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