The crusades: 1095-1291



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THE CRUSADES: 1095-1291


  • European Christians regularly traveled to the Holy Land (Israel) on pilgrimages to visit the Holy Sites of Jesus’ life, especially those in Jerusalem.

  • Muslims won control of Jerusalem by 638 CE, but Christians allowed to continue visiting.

  • Seljuk Turks (an Islamic Empire that controlled the Abbasid caliphs), expanded against the Byzantine Empire, an Orthodox Christian civilization.


Motivations for the Crusades:

  • Seljuk expansion blocked European Christians from traveling to Jerusalem.

  • Byzantine Emperor asked Pope Urban II for help fighting the Seljuk Turks (1095 CE)

    • Pope Urban II called on Europe’s nobility & knights

      • Desire to bring Christian control over Jerusalem.

  • Defeat Islamic enemies of Christ

  • Pope sees chance to increase his/the Church’s power and glory.

  • Christian knights have opportunity to gain wealth, glory, and God’s grace by fighting Muslims!

    • “God Wills It!”


The 8 Crusades:


BUT, the Crusades had a tremendous long-term impact on Europe despite the humiliating losses.http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/crusades_map.gif


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