A desire to escape restrictions on their religious practices
The Puritans who immigrated to New England were part of what is known as the Great English Migration that numbered some 70,000 people. It is interesting to note that over twice as many Puritans migrated to the West Indies as to New England
MIGRATION TO APPALACHIA
The Proclamation of 1763 set a boundary along the crest of the Appalachians beyond which the colonists could not cross. The ban was an ill-considered attempt to prevent costly conflicts with Trans-Appalachian Indians
As American Indians were defeated, Scotch-Irish, German, and English immigrants moved into Appalachia
TEST TIPS: American settlers ignored the Proclamation of 1763, and so do many APUSH test writers, however, have not ignored the Proclamation of 1763. They have written a surprising number of questions to see if APUSH students remember the purpose of this often forgotten boundary.
THE EARLY 19th CENTURY: 1800-1850
Ireland supplied the largest number of immigrants to the U.S. during the first half of the 19th century
The Irish fled the devastating effects of the potato famine
Prior to 1880, most immigrants to the U.S. came from the British Isles and Western Europe
Beginning in the 1880s, a new wave of immigrants left Europe for America. The so-called New Immigrants came from small towns and villages in Eastern and Southern Europe. The majority immigrated from Italy, Russia, Poland, and Austria-Hungary
Very few New Immigrants settled in the South
THE CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT OF 1882
This was the first law in American history to exclude a group because of ethnic background
The act prohibited the immigration of Chinese to America
The New Immigrants were willing to work for lower wages than native-born workers (remember: this wave of immigration coincides with the Industrial Revolution)
The New Immigrants were not familiar with the American political system
THE NATIONAL ORIGINS ACT OF 1924
The primary purpose of the National Origins Act was to use quotas to restrict the flow of newcomers from Southern and Eastern Europe
The quotas favored immigration from Northern and Western Europe
The quotas established by the National Origins Act discriminated against immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. These quotas were the primary reason for the decrease in the numbers of Europeans immigrating to the U.S. in the 1920s
The number of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans immigrating to the U.S. increased because neither group was affected by the restrictive immigration acts of 1921 and 1924.
Latinos now make up nearly 33% of the population in Texas, Arizona, and California; they make up 40% of New Mexico
TEST TIP: Most APUSH exams have very few questions on the period since 1980. When APUSH test writers do cover the last three decades, they often ask questions about the population shifts and demographic trends discussed in this section.