The cold war era

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N O T E B O O K #19

AP European History
Mr. Konecke



Project #19 – My Favorite Part of European History
Directions: As we near the end of the year, this will most likely be the last project you complete in this class. So I thought it would be a good idea to have you do something I know you will like. Your assignment is simple – pick the one topic that we’ve talked about this year that you find the most interesting and demonstrate your knowledge of that topic in some way. Here are some ideas for how you can demonstrate your knowledge:

  • Poster of battle, person, event, etc.

  • Postcard featuring a battle(s), person(s), event(s), etc.

  • Build a model of battle, event, etc.

  • Write a biography of person

  • Collage of a person (showing them throughout different times of their life)

  • Scrapbook

  • Poem/song

  • Write a play about a famous event

  • Diary of a soldier, a pope, a king/queen, a peasant, etc.

  • Create a tombstone & write epitaph for a famous person

  • Create a giant flag featuring your favorite person, idea, theme from history

  • WANTED poster for a famous person

  • Or anything else you can think of – be as creative as you want

Rules: 1. Your project must be done neatly & demonstrate significant effort

2. You must illustrate your topic with pictures AND writing

3. Name of your topic must be shown clearly

4. Other than that, you can create your project in any way you like
Grade: 1. Through writing, pictures, or a combination of the two, you demonstrated a detailed, thorough understanding of your individual topic and illustrated it clearly – 100 points

2. You demonstrated significant effort & neatness in your entire illustration– 50 points

3. Creativity – if it is clear you took the time to craft an original & creative representation of your favorite topic – 50 points
Due Date: ________________________________________________


1. The Emergence of the Cold War

United States vs. Soviet Union

    • Some people think it was because Truman replaced more sympathetic Roosevelt

    • Others think it was because U.S. now had the atomic bomb

Containment in American Foreign Policy

    • Trying to resist Soviet expansion and influence in hopes that eventually Soviet Union would collapse from internal pressure & its foreign oppression

        • Led U.S. to enter into overseas alliances, make commitments to perceived anticommunist regimes, spend billions on military, & send huge amounts of money abroad

          • This was unprecedented in American foreign policy

The Truman Doctrine

  • Since 1944, civil war raged in Greece b/t royalist government (restored by Britain) & insurgents (supported by communist countries)

    • 1947, Britain told U.S. it could not help (financially) its Greek allies anymore

    • So President Truman asked Congress for money to do so (and help Turkey) – Congress agreed

The Marshall Plan

  • America sent military equipment and advisers to Turkey & Greece

      • Provided economic aid to European states – as long as they work together

  • Marshall Plan brought prosperity back to Western Europe – postwar economic growth

    • Christian Democratic movement in Italy, France, & West Germany kept communist influence out

Soviet Domination of Eastern Europe

  • Stalin might have presumed containment was a way for West to isolate Soviet Union

    • In Eastern Europe, Stalin found many supporters

    • 1947, he called meeting in Warsaw of all communist parties

        • The time of communist and noncommunist groups cooperating was over

    • In Prague, communists kicked out democratic members of government and killed Jan Masaryk (son of founder of Czechoslovakia)

    • President forced to resign and Czech. brought under Soviet control

  • Late 1940s, Soviets required other Eastern European governments to impose Stalin policies (one-party systems, military cooperation with Soviets, collectivization of farming, communist education, and attacks on church)

    • Longtime Communist officials were condemned and put on show trials

    • Why –

      • Stalin wanted to prevent other countries from doing same

The Postwar Division of Germany

Disagreements over Germany

  • During war, Allies could not decide how to treat Germany after the war

    • By Yalta Conference, Churchill opposed idea (worried about motives of Stalin)

  • Also disagreed on economic policy

    • Russians destroyed German industry in east

      • So tried to make Germany self-sufficient by restoring German industry

        • This scared Russians

Berlin Blockade

    • Western powers then issued new currency in their zone

      • Soviets did not want new currency – it was in Berlin & more valuable than its currency

  • West responded to Berlin blockade by airlifting supplies to the city for a year

    • 1949, Russians reopened the city

    • This incident, however, sped up the separation of Germany into two states

NATO and the Warsaw Pact

  • Meanwhile, Western European nations were getting closer

      • 1948, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg, France, Britain signed Treaty of Brussels – cooperated in economic & military matters

      • 1949, these nations joined Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland to sign treaty with Canada & U.S. –

          • West Germany, Greece, and Turkey joined few years later

  • 1949, Eastern Europe & Soviet Union formed Council of Mutual Assistance (COMECON) to cooperate economically

    • Soviets dominated this organization, however

      • 1955, Warsaw Pact

        • Europe was now divided – but Cold War would not be isolated to Europe

The Creation of the State of Israel

  • One area of Cold War rivalry was Middle East

    • After WWII, Zionist movement (goal was setting up independent Jewish state) and Arab nationalists challenged British for authority in region

British Balfour Declaration

    • 1917, Arthur Balfour – British Foreign Secretary – declared Britain wanted to set up home for Jews in Palestine

      • The Yishuv – Jewish community in Palestine – developed political parties, press, unions, & education

    • Many felt it was morally right to do something for Jewish refugees who survived

The U.N. Resolution

  • 1947, British turned problem of Arab-Jewish relations in Palestine over to UN

    • UN passed resolution – divided Palestine into 2 territories: one Jewish, one Arab

Israel Declares Independence

  • 1948, British officially left Palestine

      • U.S. soon recognized the new country

  • Almost immediately, Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Egypt, and Iraq invaded Israel

      • But peace was only temporary

  • Arab-Israeli conflict drew in the superpowers

    • Both U.S. & Soviet Union had economic & strategic interests in area

    • Gradually, Soviet Union started helping Arab nations

The Korean War

  • U.S. also faced armed aggression in Asia

  • 1910-1945, Japan occupied & exploited Korea

    • But at end of WWII, U.S. & Soviet Union kicked Japanese out and divided Korea in two at 38th parallel

      • North –

      • South –

  • 1950, North Korea invaded South Korea

    • U.S. intervened (Britain, Turkey, Australia, & others also sent troops) to stop spread of communism

    • American forces forced to retreat

      • Actually, Mao hated Stalin

    • The Cold War was now a global affair

  • Stalin’s death & end of Korean War 1953 brought hopes of an easing of tension

The Korean War

Directions: When deciding what to believe in history, you must take into account the sources of your information. Below are two textbook accounts of the Korean War. Read them both carefully. Then after summarizing how each explains the start of the Korean War, explain which book you felt was more trustworthy. Then, based on the excerpts and the citations, decide which textbook goes with which account. Worth 30 points.

Textbook A

Upset by the fast and astonishing growth of the power of the Republic, the American invaders hastened the preparation of an aggressive war in order to destroy it in its infancy....The American imperialists furiously carried out the war project in 1950....The American invaders who had been preparing the war for a long time, alongside their puppets, finally initiated the war on June 25th of the 39th year of the Juche calendar. That dawn, the enemies unexpectedly attacked the North half of the Republic, and the war clouds hung over the once peaceful country, accompanied by the echoing roar of cannons.

Having passed the 38th parallel, the enemies crawled deeper and deeper into the North half of the Republic...the invading forces of the enemies had to be eliminated and the threatened fate of our country and our people had to be saved.

Textbook B

When the overthrow of the South Korean government through social confusion became too difficult, the North Korean communists switched to a stick-and-carrot strategy: seeming to offer peaceful negotiations, they were instead analyzing the right moment of attack and preparing themselves for it. The North Korean communists prepared themselves for war. Kim Il-sung secretly visited the Soviet Union and was promised the alliance of the Soviets and China in case of war. Finally, at dawn on June 25th, 1950 the North began their southward aggression along the 38th parallel. Taken by surprise at these unexpected attacks, the army of the Republic of Korea (South Korea) fought courageously to defend the liberty of the country....The armed provocation of the North Korean communists brought the UN Security Council around the table. A decree denounced the North Korean military action as illegal and as a threat to peace, and a decision was made to help the South. The UN army constituted the armies of 16 countries—among them, the United States, Great Britain and France—joined the South Korean forces in the battle against the North.

1) According to each textbook, how did the Korean War start?



2) Which of these textbooks do you find more trustworthy? Why? (Use specific examples from each text to support your answer).

3) Where else would you look in order to figure out how the Korean War started?

4) Which of these sources is for Textbook A and which is for Textbook B?

Kim, Doojin. Korean History: Senior High. (Seoul, South Korea: Dae HanTextbook Co.), 2001.

Textbook _______

Provide language from the textbook excerpt to support your answer:

History of the Revolution of our Great Leader Kim Il-sun: High School. (Pongyang, North Korea: Textbook Publishing Co., 1999).

Textbook _______

Provide language from the textbook excerpt to support your answer:

2. The Khrushchev Era in the Soviet Union

Goodbye Stalin

  • After Stalin’s death 1953, presidium (renamed Politboro) took control

      • But he would never achieve same power as Stalin

Khrushchev’s Domestic Policies

  • Khrushchev era lasted until 1964

      • Intellectuals were freer to express their opinions

        • Boris Pasternak, author of Dr. Zhivago, was not allowed to accept Nobel prize 1958

        • But Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn could publish One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (about life in Soviet labor camp under Stalin)

      • In farming, he removed many laws against private farming & tried to expand areas of grain production

        • Caused huge rise in grain at first – but bad farming techniques soon reduced amount of grain

The Secret Speech of 1956

  • 1956, Khrushchev directly attacked policies of Stalin

    • At 20th Congress of Communist Party, he gave secret speech

        • Many people were shocked – but it opened way for genuine criticism of government & many changes in intellectual & economic life

  • Communist leaders in E. Europe took this as sign that they should govern more as they saw fit (not as Soviet Union wanted them to)

The Three Crises of 1956

The Suez Intervention

    • Britain & France had controlled canal – worried this would close it to their supplies of oil in Middle East

      • British & French intervened militarily – but no one else supported them

      • They had to withdraw –

  • Suez incident proved that without U.S. help, Western Europe was powerless

Polish Efforts Toward Independent Action

  • When Prime Minister of Poland died, Polish Communist Party leaders refused to replace him with Moscow’s nominee

    • Wladyslaw Gomulka became new Communist leader of Poland

      • He was choice of Poles (also acceptable to Soviets b/c he promised continued cooperation in economic & military affairs)

The Hungarian Uprising

    • Hungarian communists put in new ministry led by former premier Imre Nagy

      • Nagy wanted more independence from Soviets

      • Even appealed to noncommunist groups in Hungary for political support

      • Called for removal of Soviet troops & neutralization of Hungary & withdrawal from Warsaw Pact

3. Later Cold War Confrontations

“Peaceful Coexistence”

  • After 1956, Soviets talked of “peaceful coexistence” with U.S.

    • Soviets now seemed superior to West technologically

    • 1959, tensions were relaxed – Khrushchev visited U.S. and Western leaders visited Moscow

    • May 1960, President Eisenhower was scheduled to go to Moscow

    • Khrushchev demanded apology from Eisenhower – he refused

    • Khrushchev then refused to take part in Paris Conference

    • Conference & Eisenhower’s trip to Moscow were cancelled

  • Soviets had bigger reasons to cancel meeting

    • Sabotaging conference was Soviet way of telling world they were dedicated communists against capitalism

The Berlin Wall

    • Throughout the year, 1000s of refugees from East Germany crossed border into West Germany

      • This embarrassed East Germany, hurt its economy, & highlighted Soviet inability to control E. Europe

The Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Most dangerous days of Cold War occurred during Cuban Missile Crisis 1962

    • U.S. had dominated Cuba since Spanish-American War in 1898

      • Castro then set up communist government –

    • In response, Kennedy ordered blockade of Cuba, stopping shipment of new missiles, and demanding removal of existing missiles

      • As evidence, U.S. showed the world photographs of missile equipment

  • This radical behavior weakened Khrushchev in the Party & other communist countries questioned Soviet actions

    • As such, influence of China over communist circles increased

Directions: For this assignment, you will take on the role of President Kennedy during the Cuban Missile Crisis. Kennedy’s advisors all had their own ideas. You must decide what is good and bad about each option. Then you must decide what you are going to do. Worth 20 points.
Options Presented to Kennedy:

  1. Do nothing; ignore the missiles in Cuba.

  1. Good –

  1. Bad –

2. Talk to Khrushchev and ask him to take the missiles out.

  1. Good –

  1. Bad –

3. Blockade Cuba until the missiles are removed.

  1. Good –

  1. Bad –

4. Send a warning to Castro & Khrushchev. If missile sites are not taken down in 24 hours, an air strike will be ordered.

  1. Good –

  1. Bad –

5. Order an air strike against the missile sites without a warning.

  1. Good –

  1. Bad –

Mr. President, what is your final decision?

Mr. President, why did you make that decision?
4. The Brezhnev Era

Leonid Brezhnev

    • October, he was forced to resign

      • Brezhnev eventually became the more dominant figure

1968: The Invasion of Czechoslovakia

  • 1968, government of Czechoslovakia began experimenting with more liberal communism

      • Summer, Soviet Union & members of Warsaw Pact sent troops into Czech. & replaced leader with more communist official

    • This showed that any attempt at liberalization would not be tolerated

The United States and Détente

    • Although Soviets sided with North Vietnam in its war against America, Soviet support was small

      • Two countries made agreements on trade and relaxed strategic arms

      • Nevertheless, Soviet spending on defense (especially navy) grew

      • By 1980s, Soviets had achieved nuclear parity with U.S.

  • During Gerald Ford’s presidency, U.S., Soviet Union, and other European countries signed Helsinki Accords

      • Every government had to protect them

The Invasion of Afghanistan

    • Also embargoed grain shipments to Soviet Union, boycotted 1980 summer Olympics in Moscow, and sent aid to Afghan rebels

    • China also helped rebels

  • Eventually, Soviets could not defeat the Afghan guerrillas

    • Morale of Soviet army fell, weakening country for 10 years

Communism and Solidarity in Poland

  • 1956 on, economic ineptness and food shortages plagued Poland for 25 years

      • New pope was outspoken critic of communism – now he had high-profile position of authority

  • 1980, Polish government raised meat prices = protests & strikes

    • Strikers, led by Lech Walesa, refused to negotiate with government

      • Head of Polish Communist Party then replaced

      • Roman Catholic mass was broadcast by government radio for 1st time in 30 years

    • Single party continued to rule – but actually started having debates

    • Army imposed martial law, leaders of Solidarity were arrested

Relations with the Reagan Administration

  • Early in President Ronal Reagan’s era, U.S. relaxed grain embargo on Soviets & placed less emphasis on human rights violations

    • Reagan also increased military spending, slowed arms limitation negotiations, started new missile system, & proposed Strategic Defense Initiative (

      • This forced Soviet Union to increase defense spending –

5. Decolonization: The European Retreat from Empire

Freeing Asia & Africa

    • Since that time, more than 80 of those colonies have been admitted to UN as independent countries

  • Decolonization was result of WWII & rise of nationalist movements in Africa, Asia, and Middle East

    • Economic collapse after war meant Europe could no longer afford to run their colonies

  • War itself undermined colonialism – hard to fight against tyranny while you engaged in it in colonies

    • Both U.S. & Soviet Union opposed old colonial empires

Major Areas of Colonial Withdrawal

  • Belgium left Congo 1960

  • Mozambique & Angola freed from Portugal 1974-1975

  • Two largest colonial empires were that of Britain & France


    • British actually made Indians pay for British rule

      • Supplies raw materials for British cotton mills

  • 1885, Hindu Indians formed Indian National Congress – to modernize India and liberalize British policies

    • Muslims organized Muslim League 1887 (eventually wanted free Muslim nation)

      • After WWI, Indian nationalist movement grew mostly because of great leaders

    • Lawyer in Britain – then worked in South Africa for 20 years to work on behalf of Indian immigrants

    • Gandhi returned to India 1915 & became leader of Indian nationalism with his insistence on religious toleration

    • 1930, he led march to break British salt monopoly by collecting salt from sea

    • During these arrests, he made long protest fasts (to gain attention for his cause and embarrass the British)

    • Muslim League wanted a Muslim state

      • Gandhi himself was assassinated by Hindu extremist 1948

    • Pakistan was originally one country in two parts – separated by India

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