The Citizen-Soldier



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Minutes of the Provincial Congress and Council of Safety, 25-26.

cccxcii Minutes of the Provincial Congress, 75, 88.

cccxciii Minutes of the Provincial Congress, 309, 337, 347, 381, 407-08, 486, 561; Laws of the State of New Jersey, 1776.

cccxciv John C. Fitzpatrick and others, eds. The Writings of George Washington. 39 vols. Washington: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1931-44, 6: 397-98.

cccxcv Laws of New Jersey, 1777; superseded and amended by "A Supplemental Act to an Act entitled, An Act to Punish Traitors and Disaffected Persons," enacted 3 October 1782, affecting all persons involved in proscribed activities after 4 October 1776. This ex post facto was not repealed until 24 November 1791. Laws of the State of New Jersey.

cccxcvi Minutes of the Council of Safety, 1: 70.

cccxcvii Wallace Brown. The King's Friends. Providence, R. I.: Brown University Press, 1965, 111-27.

cccxcviii William Franklin was the last royal governor of New Jersey, serving from August 1762 through 24 June 1776, when Colonel Heard's militia arrested him. Franklin was initially imprisoned in Connecticut along with other "especially dangerous" tories. Donald L. Kemmerer. Path to Freedom. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1940, 345

cccxcix Juston Windsor. Narrative and Critical History of America. 8 vols. Boston, 1888-89, 7: 195.

cd E. A. Jones, "The Loyalists of New Jersey," Collections of the New Jersey Historical Society, 10 [1927]; Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 378; Adrian C. Leiby. The Revolutionary War in the Hackensack Valley, the New Jersey Dutch and the Neutral Ground, 1775-1783. New Brunswick, N. J.: Rutgers University Press, 1962; Ruth M. Keesey, "Loyalism in Bergen County, New Jersey," William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, 18 [1961]: 558-71.

cdi Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 334, 337.

cdii Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 387.

cdiii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 204.

cdiv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 358.

cdv George Germain to Henry Clinton, 23 January 1779, in Henry Clinton. The American Rebellion: Sir Henry Clinton's Narrative of his Campaigns, 1775-1782. William B. Wilcox, ed. New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press, 1954, 397-99.

cdvi See Robert Gough, "Can a Rich Man Favor Revolution? The Case of Philadelphia in 1776," Pennsylvania History, 48 [1981]: 235-50.

cdvii See Robert P. Falk, "Thomas Paine and the Attitude of the Quakers to the American Revolution," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 62 [1939]: 302-10.

cdviii Galloway was probably the best known, most important, persuasive and influential loyalist. From 1766 through 1775 he was Speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly and was a delegate to the First Continental Congress. His proposed scheme to allow the colonists to govern themselves while remaining loyal to Britain having failed to win support from either side, Galloway assisted the tories in creating a militia and a political organization. He returned England in 1778, never to return to the colonies. Anderson, American Political Theory, 140-41, 205; John Ferling. The Loyalist Mind: Joseph Galloway and the American Revolution. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1977.

cdix The text of Galloway's plan may be found in Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. edited by Worthington C. Ford. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904, 1: 49-51. See also, Julian P. Boyd. Anglo-American Union: Joseph Galloway's Plans to Preserve the British Empire, 1774-1788. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1941; and Benjamin H. Newcomb. Franklin and Galloway: A Political Partner­ship. New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press, 1972.

cdx Benjamin F. Stevens. Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European Archives Relating to America, 1773-1783. 24 vols. London: H. M. Stationary Office, 1889-95, 24: numbers 2096-97; The Examination of Joseph Galloway . . . before the House of Commons. London: Mudge, 1779. Ernest H. Baldwin. Joseph Galloway: Loyalist Politician. Philadelphia: E. P. Judd, 1902; Oliver G. Kuntzelman. "Joseph Galloway: Loyalist." Ph. D. dissertation, Temple University, 1938.

cdxi Kyte, "Loyalist Literature"; William B. Willcox, "British Strategy in America, 1778," Journal of Modern History, 19 [1947]: 97-121; Examina­tion of Joseph Galloway, 24, 42-45.

cdxii Boyd, Simon Girty, 84-94.

cdxiii John Smyth [or Smith]'s Journal was published in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 39 [1915]: 143-69.

cdxiv John Smyth, "Sketch of a System by Which the Rebellious Colonies in America Might be Reduced to Obedience . . . ." in Germain Papers, 12: cited in Kyte, Simon Girty, 185-87.

cdxv Carlos E. Godfrey, "Muster Rolls of Three Troops of Loyalist Light Dragoons Raised in Pennsylvania, 1777-1778," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 34 [1910]: 1-8; William H. Siebert, The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. Columbus, Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1920.

cdxvi William O. Mishoff, "Business in Philadelphia During the British Occupation, 1777-1778," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 61 [1937]: 165-81.

cdxvii "Examination Relative to Tories," 11 July 1776 in 2 Pa. Arch. 1: 653-58.

cdxviii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 496.

cdxix Clerk in the chancery court. Ralph Adams Brown, "The Pennsylvania Ledger: Tory News Sheet," Pennsylvania History, 9 [1942]: 161-75.

cdxx Ralph Adams Brown, "The Pennsylvania Ledger: Tory News Sheet," Pennsylvania History, 9 [1942]: 161-75. Appeals for the recruitment of loyalist militiamen appeared in the Ledger on 29 October 1777; 26 November 1777 and 3 December 1777.

cdxxi Pennsylvania Ledger, 10 December 1777.

cdxxii Pennsylvania Ledger, 31 December 1777 and 7 January 1778.

cdxxiii Pennsylvania Ledger, 8 April 1778.

cdxxiv Pennsylvania Ledger, 15 and 29 April 1778.

cdxxv Pennsylvania Ledger, 21 and 25 February 1778.

cdxxvi Pennsylvania Ledger, 14 February 1778.

cdxxvii Henry J. Young, "Treason and Its Punishment in Revolutionary Pennsylvania," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 40 [1966]: 287-313; See the opinion of C. K. McKean in a letter to President Reed on 13 August 1779 in 1 Pa. Arch. 7: 644-46.

cdxxviii Pennsylvania Packet, 29 August, 26 September, 10 October and 29 October 1778.

cdxxix Anne M. Ousterhout. A State Divided: Opposition in Pennsylvania to the American Revolution. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987, 229-78; Walter R. Hoberg, "A Tory in the Northwest," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 59 [1935]: 32-41; Walter R. Hoberg, "Early History of Colonel Alexander McKee," Ibid., 58 [1934]: 26-36.

cdxxx When General Hand examined a number of captive conspirators at Redstone none implicated McKee. Facts notwithstanding, popular sentiment placed the blame on McKee and the Girtys. See Walter R. Hoberg, "Early History of Colonel Alexander McKee," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 58 [1934]: 26-36.

cdxxxi Consul W. Butterfield. History of the Girtys. Cincinnati, Ohio: Clark, 1890, 50ff; 1 Pa. Arch. 4: 445; Hanna, Wilderness Trail, 2: 82; "Fort Pitt Account Book," in Western Pennsylvania Historical Society Magazine [1946], 145.

cdxxxii Butterfield, History of the Girtys, 277.

cdxxxiii Edmunds, Shawnee Prophet, 10-11.

cdxxxiv 4 Amer. Arch. 1: 675.

cdxxxv Butterfield, History of the Girtys, 50.

cdxxxvi Thwaites and Kellogg, Frontier Documents, 53, 144, 156, 184-86, 201, 249-53, 255.

cdxxxvii Charles F. Hanna. The Wilderness Trail. 2 vols. New York: Putnam, 1911, 2: 80.

cdxxxviii John G. E. Heckewelder. A Narrative of the Mission of the United Brethren Among the Delaware and Mohegan Indians, 1740-1808. Philadel­phia: McCarty & Davis, 1820, 407.

cdxxxix In 1737 Simon Girty, Sr., was married in Paxtang Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. In 1744 he was a licensed trader, and in 1747 he was an unlicensed trader, working out of Donegal Township, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. In 1750 the Sheriff of Cumber­land County burned Girty's cabin because he had settled west of the demarcation line. In 1751 he was killed by an Indian named the Fish in a drunken brawl in what is now Perry County, Pennsylva­nia. Another account claimed that he was burned to death after killing Fish. Thomas A. Boyd. Simon Girty: The White Savage. New York: Minton-Balch, 1928; Consul W. Butterfield. History of the Girtys. Cincinnati, Ohio: Clarke, 1890; Consul W. Butterfield. An Historical Account of the Expedition Against Sandusky under Colonel William Crawford in 1782. Cincinnati, Ohio: Clarke, 1877; 1 Pa. Arch. 2: 14.

cdxl Thwaites and Kellogg, Frontier Documents, 172-73, 274-76; Butter­field, History of the Girtys, 34-60; 1 Pa. Arch. 9: 620.

cdxli Historical Magazine, new series, 7 [1870]: 103-07; Butterfield, History of the Girtys.

cdxlii Hildredth, Pioneer History, 129-30.

cdxliii Pa. Col. Rec. 11: 513-18.

cdxliv Hanna, Wilderness Trail, 2: 80.

cdxlv Kenneth P. Bailey, ed. Ohio Company Papers. Ann Arbor: Edwards Brothers, 1947, 160.

cdxlvi Butterfield, History of the Girtys, 39.

cdxlvii 1 Pa. Arch. 4: 445.

cdxlviii Butterfield, History of the Girtys, 165.

cdxlix 1 Pa. Arch. 9: 620.

cdl Butterfield, History of the Girtys, 233, 241.

cdli Louise P. Kellogg, editor. Frontier Advance on the Upper Ohio. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 1916, 33-34; Ousterhout, State Divided, 260-62.

cdlii 1 Pa. Arch. 6: 507; Thwaites and Kellogg, Frontier Defense, 278-79; Kellogg, Frontier Advance, 49-50, 383-86.

cdliii Strassburger and Hinke, Pennsylvania German Pioneers, 4: 66-71.

cdliv A. H. Rineer, "A House Divided: The Rein Family of Earl Township," Journal of the Lancaster County Historical Society, 87: 1 [1983]: 10-43. See also, F. R. Diffenderfer, "Lancaster County Loyalists," Lancaster County Historical Papers, 12 [1908]: 243-78; also F. R. Diffenderfer, "The Loyalist in the Revolution," Ibid., 23 [1919]: 155-66.

cdlv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 516.

cdlvi Harold Bell Hancock. The Delaware Loyalists. Wilmingto­n, De.: New Series, Papers of the Delaware Historical Society, 1940; Harold Bell Hancock. The Loyalists of Revolutionary Delaware. Newark, De.: University of Delaware, 1977; Leon de Valinger, Jr. Colonial Military Organization in Delaware, 1638-1776. Wilmington, De.: Delaware Tercente­nary Commission, 1938.

cdlvii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 496.

cdlviii Ryden, Rodney Papers, 266-68.

cdlix Freeborn Garretson. The Experience and Travels of Mr Freeborn Garretson. Philadelphia, 1791.

cdlx Brown, King's Friends, 157-62; Hancock, "Kent County Loyalists," 17-20; Ryden, Rodney Letters, 259-63.

cdlxi See George W. Kyte, "A Projected Attack Upon Philadelphia in 1781," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 76 [1952]: 379-93. The Clinton Papers contain the draft of "A Plan proposed by W R for subduing the Rebellion in the Provinces of Pennsylvania, Maryland and three Lower Countys on the Delaware," dated 27 April 1781. Presumably "W R" was William Rankin. See also Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats, 157-59.

cdlxii Brown, King's Friends, 165.

cdlxiii Philip A. Crowl. Maryland during and after the Revolution. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1943; Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 301.

cdlxiv Isaac S. Harrell. Loyalism in Virginia. Durham: Duke University Press, 1926, 62; Charles R. Lingley. The Transition in Virginia from Colony to Commonwealth. New York, 1910, 115-19.

cdlxv Ousterhout, State Divided, 264-66; Kellogg, Frontier Retreat, 388-89; 1 Pa. Arch. 9: 102; 4 Amer. Arch. 4: 615-17; William Wirt Henry, ed. Patrick Henry: Life, Correspondence and Speeches. 3 vols. New York: Scribner's, 1891, 1: 324-25; Percy B. Caley, "The Life and Adventures of Lieutenant-colonel John Connolly: The Story of a Tory," Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine, 11 [1928]: 10-49, 76-111, 144-79, 225-59; F. R. Diffenderffer, "Colonel John Connolly: Loyalist," Lancaster County Historical Papers, 7 [1903]: 109-139; Clarence M. Burton, "John Connolly," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 20 [1910]: 70-105; "A Narrative of the Transactions, Imprisonment and Sufferings of John Connolly, an American Loyalists and Lieutenant-colonel in His Majesty's Service," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 12 [1888]; 13 [1889].

cdlxvi Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats, 168-74.

cdlxvii William B. Willcox, "The British Road to Yorktown," American Historical Review, 52 [1946]: 13-33; Benjamin F. Stevens, comp. The Campaign in Virginia, 1781: An Exact Reprint of Six Rare Pamphlets on the Clinton-Cornwallis Controversy . . . . 2 volumes. London: Macmillan, 1890, 2: 33-38, 50-54, 57-58.

cdlxviii Eric Robson, "The Expedition to the Southern Colonies, 1775-1776," English Historical Review, 66 [1951]: 535-60.

cdlxix John Almon and John Debrett, eds. The Parliamentary Register, or, the History of the Proceedings and Debates of the House of Commons. 62 vols. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1775-96, 11: 394, 462; William B. Willcox, "British Strategy in America, 1778," Journal of Modern History, 19 [1947]: 97-121.

cdlxx "Letters from Governor James Wright to the . . . Secretaries of State for America," Collections of the Georgia Historical Society, 3 [1873]: 180-378.

cdlxxi Homer Bast, "Creek Indian Affairs, 1775-1778," Georgia Historical Quarterly, 33 [1949]: 1-25.

cdlxxii George Germain to Henry Clinton, 21 March 1778 and "Secret Instructions to General Sir Henry Clinton," 21 March 1778, B. F. Stevens, ed. Facsimiles of Manuscripts in European Archives Relating to America, 1773-1783. 25 vols. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1889-95, Nos. 1068, 1069.

cdlxxiii Mabel L. Webber, "South Carolina Loyalists," South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 14 [1913]: 36-43; Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 242.

cdlxxiv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 368-69.

cdlxxv Charles Stedman. The History of the Origin, Progress and Termination of the American War. 2 vols. London, 1794, 2: 103-20; David Ramsay. The History of the American Revolution. 2 vols. Dublin, 1795, 2: 420-31.

cdlxxvi Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 86-88.

cdlxxvii Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 352.

cdlxxviii Robert S. Lambert, "The Confiscation of Loyalist Property in Georgia, 1782-1786," William and Mary Quarterly, third series, 20 [1963]: 80-94.

cdlxxix Charles Olmstead, "The Battles of Kettle Creek and Brier Creek," Georgia Historical Quarterly, 10 [1926]: 85-125.

cdlxxx Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 220.

cdlxxxi Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats, 106.

cdlxxxii Thomas Jones. History of New York during the American Revolutionary War. 2 vols. New York, 1879, 1: 177-78.

cdlxxxiii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 532.

cdlxxxiv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 184-85.

cdlxxxv Robert O. DeMond. The Loyalists in North Carolina during the Revolution. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1940.

cdlxxxvi Robert O. Demond. The Loyalists in North Carolina during the Revolution. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1940, vii.

cdlxxxvii Isaac S. Harrell, "North Carolina Loyalists," North Carolina Historical Review, 3 [1926]: 590.

cdlxxxviii Brown, King's Friends, 195-212.

cdlxxxix Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 100.

cdxc Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 511-12.

cdxci W. H. Siebert, "The Refugee Loyalists of Connecticut," Royal Society of Canada Transactions, series three, 10 [1929]: 78-79.

cdxcii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 190.

cdxciii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 59.

cdxciv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 539.

cdxcv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 520.

cdxcvi Mabel L. Webber, "South Carolina Loyalists," South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, 14 [1913]: 36-43; Robert W. Barnwell, Jr. "Loyalism in South Carolina," Ph. D. dissertation, Duke University, 1941.

cdxcvii Ella P. Levett, "Loyalism in Charleston, 1776-1784," Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Society, [1936], 12.

cdxcviii Brown, King's Friends, 215-28.

cdxcix Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 74.

d Wilkin, Some British Soldiers, 160.

di Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 64-65.

dii Barnwell, South Carolina Loyalists, chapter 15.

diii Barnwell, South Carolina Loyalists, 407-09.

div Edward McCrady. South Carolina in the Revolution. 3 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1901-02, I: 579-86

dv McCrady, South Carolina in the Revolution, 1: 586-63.

dvi Suggested by G. S. Rowe. Thomas McKean: The Shaping of an American Republican­ism. Boulder: Colorado Associated University Press, 1978, 70. See also, Peter Brock. Pacifism in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968.

dvii Colonial Records of Pennsylvania. edited by W. H. Egle and J. H. Linn. Harrisburg, Pa., 1852-60. 16 vols. 7: 744ff. Hereinafter cited as Pa. Col. Rec., with volume number given first and page number second.

dviii Arthur J. Mekeel. The Relation of the Quakers to the American Revolution. Washington, D.C.: University Press of America, 1979; Hermann Wellen­reuther, "The Political Dilemma of the Quakers in Pennsylvania, 1681-1748" Pennsylva­nia Magazine of History and Biography, 94 [1970]: 135-72.

dix quoted in Jack S. Radabaugh, "The Militia of Colonial Massachusetts," Military Affairs, 18 [1954]: 1-18.

dx quoted in Radabaugh, "Massachusetts," 16.

dxi Jacob Cushing, A Sermon Preached at Lexington, April 20th 1778. Boston: Powars & Willis, 1776.

dxii Richard Price, A Discourse on the Love of Our Country . . . Commem­o­rating the Revolution in Great Britain. London: Edward E. Powars, 1789.

dxiii Peter Thatcher, A Sermon Preached Before the Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company. Boston: Manning & Loring, 1793.

dxiv A Moderate Whig [Stephen Case], Defensive Arms Vindicated and the Lawfulness of the American War Made Manifest. N.P.: printed for the author, 1783.

dxv New York Colonial Documents, I: 272-73.

dxvi Md. Arch., 27: 103-04, 120.

dxvii John Archdale, "A New Description of that Fertile and Pleasant Province of Carolina," [1707] in A. S. Salley, Jr., ed.
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