The Citizen-Soldier



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The American Rebellion: Sir Henry Clinton's Narratives of His Campaign, 1775-1782. William B. Willcox, ed. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954, 441.

cclxvi John R. Alden. A History of the American Revolution. New York: Knopf, 1969, 87. Alden claimed that, in fact, in 1780 only 5415 loyalists were serving in the British army.

cclxvii Charles M. Clode. The Military Forces of the Crown: Their Administra­tion and Government. 2 vols. London: H. M. Stationary Office, 1869.

cclxviii William O. Raymond, "Rolls of Officers of the British American or Loyalist Corps," Collections of the New Brunswick Historical Society, 5 [1904]: 224-72; William O. Raymond, "Loyalists in Arms," Ibid., 5 [1904]: 189-223.

cclxix There is a broad difference of opinion among the British and Canadian writers as to the actual value of these operations in New York. One writer says the irregulars achieved more success than the regulars, while another believes their only success, with the assistance of Indians, was at Oriskany. Lorenzo Sabine. The American Loyalists. Boston, 1847; William V. Wallace. The United Empire Loyalists. Toronto, 1914; A. C. Flick. Loyalism in New York. New York, 1901; James H. Stark. Loyalists of Massachusetts and the Other Side of the American Revolution. Boston, 1910; W. H. Wilkin. Some British Soldiers in America. London, 1914; Journal of Alexander Chesney. Columbus, 1921; Public Papers of George Clinton. Albany, N. Y., 1899, 4: 333.

cclxx Edward E. Curtis. The Organization of the British Army in the American Revolution. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1926, chs. 1, 2.

cclxxi John Almon and John Debrett, eds. The Parliamentary Register, or, History of the Proceedings and Debates of the House of Commons. 62 vols. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1775-96, 13: 273-94, 322.

cclxxii Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats, 60-62.

cclxxiii Lord George Sackvill Germain to Lords of the Treasury, 5 August 1776, Colonial Office, Papers, Public Records Office, London, Reel 5/7, 419-30.

cclxxiv Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats, 62-64.

cclxxv Alexander Innes to General Clinton, 9 November 1779, British Headquarters Papers.

cclxxvi "Instructions to Major Ferguson," 22 May 1780, in Clinton, American Rebellion, 441. See also Robert W. Barnwell, Jr. "Loyalism in South Carolina, 1765-1785," Ph. D. dissertation, Duke University, 1941, ch. 9.

cclxxvii Raymond, "Rolls of Officers," 5: 190.

cclxxviii C. T. Atkinson, "British Forces in America, 1774-1781: Their Distribu­tion and Strength," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 14 [1937]: 3-22; 19 [1940], 163-66; 20 [1941]: 190-92.

cclxxix Interestingly, on 27 January 1776, Captain Alexander McDonald, in Maclean's Regiment, reported to General Gage that in Nova Scotia, "there is not 2500 [men] fit to bear arms and the two-thirds of them notorious rebells in their heart." in "Letter Book of Captain Alexander McDonald of the Royal Highland Emigrants, 1775-1779," Collections of the New York Historical Society, 14 [1882]: 240-42.

cclxxx Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats, 79.

cclxxxi For the overall impact of French entry upon British policy see William B. Willcox, "British Strategy in America, 1778," Journal of Modern History, 19 [1947]: 97-121.

cclxxxii Smith, Loyalists and Redcoats, 78.

cclxxxiii Troyer S. Anderson. The Command of the Howe Brothers during the American Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1936.

cclxxxiv George III expressed relief at Germain's resignation, believing him a "heavy load" with "so many enemies." George III to Lord North, 3 March 1778, John W. Fortescue, ed. The Correspondence of King George III from 1760 to December 1783. 6 vols. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1927-28, 4: 2022.

cclxxxv Germain to Clinton, 4 November 1778; Clinton to German, 25 February 1779, Clinton Papers, Clements Library Ann Arbor, Michigan.

cclxxxvi Germain to Clinton, 23 January 1779, Clinton Papers, Clement Library.

cclxxxvii Clinton to Germain, 15 December 1779, Clinton Papers.

cclxxxviii William Cobbett. The Parliamentary History of England from the Earliest Period to the Year 1803. 36 vols. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1806-20, 19: 85, 400; Dora Mae Clark. British Opinion and the American Revolution. New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press, 1930, 136-67.

cclxxxix George III to Lord North, 12 August 1778, in John W. Fortescue, ed. The Correspon­dence of George III from 1760 to December 1783. 6 vols. London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1927-28, 4: 2405.

ccxc Parliamentary Register of England, 13: 1-539.

ccxci See Duane Meyer. The Highland Scots of North Carolina. Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1957; Ian C. C. Graham. Colonists from Scotland. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1956.

ccxcii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 521.

ccxciii James H. Stark. The Loyalists of Massachusetts. Boston: Brown, 1910; E. A. Jones. The Loyalists of Massachusetts. London, 1930; Wilbur H. Siebert, "Loyalist Troops of New England," New England Quarterly, 4 [1931]: 108-47; William B. Willcox, "Rhode Island in British Strategy," Journal of Modern History, 17 [1945]: 304-31.

ccxciv Philip M. Hamer, "John Stuart's Indian Policy during the Early Months of the American Revolution," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 17 [1930]: 351-66; John R. Alden. John Stuart and the Southern Colonial Frontier. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1944.

ccxcv Guy Johnson married a daughter of Sir William Johnson and became Superintendent of Indian Affairs after William's death in 1774. Lorenzo Sabine. The American Loyalists, or, Biographical Sketches of Adherents to the British Crown in the War of the Revolution. 2 vols. Boston: Little & Brown, 1847, 1: 585-87.

ccxcvi Walter H. Mohr. Federal Indian Relations, 1774-1788. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1933, 50ff.

ccxcvii Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 386.

ccxcviii See North Callahan. Royal Raiders: The Tories of the American Revolution. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1963, ch. 4, "Where the Tories Held Sway."

ccxcix Lorenzo Sabine. The American Loyalists, or, Biographi­cal Sketches of Adherents to the British Crown in the War of the Revolu­tion. 2 vols. Boston: Little & Brown, 1847, 1: 350-52.

ccc Isaac S. Harrell, Loyalism in Virginia. Durham, N. C.: Duke University Press, 1926; Richard O. Curry, "Loyalism in Western Virginia during the American Revolution," West Virginia History, 14 [1953]: 265-74; William B. McGroarty, "Loyalism in Alexandria, Virginia" Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 102 [1944]: 35-44.

ccci Wilbur W. Abbot. The Royal Governors of Georgia, 1754-1775. Chapel Hill, N. C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1959, pp. 229-31; Kenneth Coleman. The American Revolution in Georgia. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1958; Sabine, op. cit., I, 500, 595, 598; Robert S. Lambert, "The Confiscation of Loyalist Property in Georgia," William and Mary Quarterly, Series 3, 20 [1963]: 90-94.

cccii London Daily Advertiser, 27 February 1776.

ccciii Hugh F. Rankin, "Cowpens: Prelude to Yorktown," North Carolina Historical Review, 31 [1954], 336-69.

ccciv Robert C. Pugh, "The Revolutionary Militia in the Southern Campaign," William and Mary Quarterly, 3d series, 14 [1957]: 154-75.

cccv A. Van Doren Honeyman, "Concerning the New Jersey Loyalists in the Revolution," Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, 51 [1933]: 117-33; Cornelius Vermeule, "The Active Loyalists of New Jersey," Ibid., 52 [1934]: 87-95; E. A. Cruik­shank, "The King's Regiment of New York," Papers and Records of the Ontario Historical Society, 27 [1931]: 193-323; Alexander C. Flick. Loyalism in New York during the American Revolution. New York, 1901.

cccvi Alexander C. Flick. Loyalism in New York during the American Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press, 1901.

cccvii Callahan, Tory Raiders, 148-71.

cccviii Sabine, American Loyalist, 2: 318.

cccix Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 324-25.

cccx Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 267.

cccxi John R. Cuneo, "The Early Days of the Queen's Rangers, August 1776-February 1777," Military Affairs, 22 [1958]: 65-74.

cccxii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 301, 350, 508. See also, Claude H. Van Tyne, "The Wyoming Valley and Union Sentiment in the American Revolution," Wyoming Commemorative Association Proceedings [1909], 9-20; and Louis E. Thompson, "An Introduction to the Loyalists of Bucks County and Some Queries Concern­ing Them," Bucks County [Pennsylvania] Historical Society Papers, [1937]: 204-34.

cccxiii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 29.

cccxiv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 477.

cccxv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 489.

cccxvi Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 546.

cccxvii Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 569.

cccxviii Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 415.

cccxix Ruth M. Keesey, "Loyalism in Bergen County, New Jersey," William and Mary Quarterly, third series, 18 [1961]: 558-71.

cccxx Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 76.

cccxxi Germain to Clinton, 23 January 1779, Sir Henry Clinton Papers, Clements Library, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

cccxxii Banastre Tarleton. A History of the Campaigns of 1780 and 1781 in the Southern Provinces of North America. London: Cadell, 1787.

cccxxiii George W. Kyte, "An Introduction to the Periodical Literature Bearing Upon Loyalist Activities in the Middle Atlantic States, 1775-1783," Pennsylvania History, 18, [April 1951]: 104-18.

cccxxiv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 59.

cccxxv A letter from America, Lloyd's Evening Post and British Chronicle, 29 April 1776.

cccxxvi Letter from Philadelphia, 12 March 1776, London Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser, 16 May 1776.

cccxxvii Pennsylvania Ledger, 29 October 1777.

cccxxviii Pennsylvania Ledger, 3 December 177, quoting the Royal Gazette.

cccxxix Clinton Papers, Clements Library, dated 8 November 1777.

cccxxx Clinton Papers, Lements Library, 20 October 1780.

cccxxxi Wertenbaker, Father Knickerbocker Rebels, 228.

cccxxxii Rivington's New York Gazette, 17 August 1782.

cccxxxiii Robert A. East. Business Enterprise in the American Revolutionary Era. New York: Columbia University Press, 1938; Virginia D. Harrington. The New York Merchants on the Eve of the American Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press, 1935.

cccxxxiv Wallace Brown. The King's Friends. Providence, R. I.: Brown University Press, 1965, 77-110.

cccxxxv Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 78.

cccxxxvi Oscar T. Barck, New York City During the War for Independence. New York: Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, number 357, 1931; Thomas Jefferson Wertenbaker, Father Knicker­bocker Rebels. New York: Scribner's, 1948.

cccxxxvii Rhode Island Col. Rec. 8: 112; Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 526, 538; 2: 156, 350, 358-59, 424.

cccxxxviii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 242-45.

cccxxxix 4 Amer. Arch. 1: 1057.

cccxl Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 242-44.

cccxli Morning Chronicle and Daily Advertiser, 2 February 1775.

cccxlii Wilbur H. Siebert, "Loyalist Troops of New England," New England Quarterly, 4 [January 1931]: 108-47.

cccxliii E. A. Jones. The Loyalists of Massachusetts: Their Memorials, Petitions and Claims. London, 1930, 144-45.

cccxliv Lorenzo Sabine. Biographical Sketches of Loyalists of the American Revolution. Boston, 1864, 1: 468-71.

cccxlv Lloyd's Evening Post and British Chronicle, 16 June 1775.

cccxlvi Usher Parsons. Life of Sir William Pepperrell. Boston, 1855.

cccxlvii Wilbur H. Siebert. "Loyalist Troops of New England," New England Quarterly, 4 [1931]: 108-147.

cccxlviii Siebert, "New England Loyalists," 119-20.

cccxlix Siebert, "New England Loyalists" 120.

cccl Stark, Loyalists of Massachusetts, 134; Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 431; Jones, Loyalists of Massachusetts, 120.

cccli Otis G. Hammond, "Tories of New Hampshire in the War of the Revolution," Publications of the New Hampshire Historical Society, 5 [1917]; Otis G. Hammond. The Tories of New Hampshire in the War of the Revolution. Concord, N. H., 1917; Epaphroditus Peck. The Loyalists of Connecticut. New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press, 1934; Howard W. Preston, "Rhode Island and the Loyalists," Collections of the Rhode Island Historical; Society, 21 [1928]: 109-16; 22 [1929]: 5-10.

ccclii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 117, 350, 422-23, 435.

cccliii Siebert, "New England Loyalists," 117-18.

cccliv Siebert, "New England Loyalists," 122-23.

ccclv Elizabeth E. Dana. The British in Boston. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press, 1924, 22-23, 42-43.

ccclvi Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 304-05.

ccclvii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 352.

ccclviii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 80.

ccclix Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 368-69.

ccclx Flick, Loyalism in New York, 101.

ccclxi Captain John Bowater letter, 7 July 1776, in Marion Balderson and David Syrett. The Lost War: Letters from British Officers During the American Revolution. New York: Horizon, 1975, 87-88.

ccclxii William Fielding, 29 December 1776, in Balderson and Syrett, Lost War, 113-14.

ccclxiii Ella Pettit Levett, "Loyalism in Charleston, 1761-1784," Proceedings of the South Carolina Historical Association, [1936], 3-17.

ccclxiv Epaphroditus Peck. The Loyalists of Connecticut. New Haven, Ct.: Yale University Press, 1934.

ccclxv W. H. Siebert, "The Refugee Loyalists of Connecticut," Royal Society of Canada Transactions, third series, 10 [1929]: 76, 81-83.

ccclxvi C. J. Ingles. The Queen's Rangers in the Revolutionary War. H. M. Jackson, ed. Montreal, 1956; H. M. Jackson, "The Queen's Rangers, First American Regiment," Journal of the Society of Army Historical Research, 14 [1925]: 143-53; John R. Cuneo, "The Early Days of the Queen's Rangers, August 1776 -- February 1777," Military Affairs, 22 [1958]: 65-74; John R. Cuneo. Robert Rogers of the Rangers. New York, 1959.

ccclxvii John G. Simcoe. A Journal of the Operations of the Queen's Rangers. Exeter, 1787; Wilkin, Some British Soldiers, p. 91; John R. Cuneo, "The Early Days of the Queen's Rangers," Military Affairs, 22 [1958]: 65-74.

ccclxviii Alexander C. Flick, ed. Minutes of the Albany Committee of Correspon­dence, 1775-1778. 2 vols. Albany: State of New York, 1925, 1: 549.

ccclxix E. A. Cruikshank, "The King's Royal Regiment of New York," Papers and Records of the Ontario Historical Society, 27 [1931]: 193-323.

ccclxx Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 83.

ccclxxi Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 517.

ccclxxii Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 319. William, a brother of John Stark, was evidently a tory who was killed on Long Island. Ibid., 2: 327.

ccclxxiii George B. Upham, "Burgoyne's Great Mistake," New England Quarterly, 3 [October 1930]: 657-80; Mary G. Nye, "Tories in the Champlain Valley," Proceedings of the Vermont Historical Society, 9 [1941]: 197-203.

ccclxxiv Wynn Underwood, "Indian and Tory Raids in the Otter Valley, 1777-1782," Vermont Quarterly, 15 [1947]: 195-221.

ccclxxv Oscar Zeichner, "The Rehabilitation of the Loyalists in Connecticut," New England Quarterly, 11 [1938]: 308-330.

ccclxxvi George Baxter Upham, "Burgoyne's Great Mistake," New England Quarterly, 3 [1930]: 657-680.

ccclxxvii See Ernest A. Cruikshank. The Story of Butler's Rangers and the Settlement of Niagara. Welland, Ontario: Tribune, 1893.

ccclxxviii A. H. Van Deusen, "Butler's Rangers," Wyoming County Historical and Genealogical Society Collections, 5 [1900]: 12-18.

ccclxxix See John E,. Potter. The Connecticut Grants and the Virginia Boundary Controversy. Wyoming County Commemorative Association, 1916, 9-29; Thomas P. Abernethy, "Pennsylvania-Virginia Boundary Dispute," in Western Lands and the American Revolution. New York: Appleton-Century, 1937, 91-97; Roland M. Hooker. Boundaries of Connecticut. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1933; and T. J. Chapman, "Early Virginia Claims in Pennsylvania," Magazine of American History, 13 [1885]: 155-60.

ccclxxx Sabine, American Loyalists, 2: 195-96.

ccclxxxi William E. Griffiths, "Wyoming, the Pivot of the Revolution," Proceed­ings of the Wyoming Commemorative Association, [1898], 10-24; H. E. Hayden. The Massacre of Wyoming. Wilkes-Barre, Pa.: Wyoming County Historical and Genealogical Society, 1895.

ccclxxxii Howard Swiggett. War Out of Niagara: Walter Butler and the Tory Rangers. New York: Columbia University Press, 1933; Alexander C. Flick, Loyalism in New York During the Revolution. New York: Columbia Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, 14 [1901].

ccclxxxiii Howard W. Preston, "Rhode Island and the Loyalists," Collections of the Rhode Island Historical Society. 21 [1928]: 109-16; 22 [1929]: 5-10; Siebert, "New England Loyalists," 127-27; Sabine, American Loyalists, 1: 315-16; David S. Lovejoy. Rhode Island Politics and the American Revolution. Providence, R. I.: Brown University Press, 1958..

ccclxxxiv Siebert, "Loyalist Troops of New England," 135-36.

ccclxxxv Thornton Anderson. Jacobson's Development of American Political Thought. New York: second edition; Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1960, 107-08, 115, 118, 121, 1236-37, 140, 142-49. See also the appendix, "British Plans for Erecting a Loyalist Haven in America," in Paul H. Smith. Loyalists and Redcoats. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1964.

ccclxxxvi George W. Kyte, "Some Plans for a Loyalist Stronghold in the Middle Colonies," Pennsylvania History, 16 [1949]: 177-90.

ccclxxxvii See proceedings against the tories in New Jersey Archives 3: 8.

ccclxxxviii A. Van Doren Honeyman, "Concerning the New Jersey Loyalists in the Revolution," Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society, 51 [1933]: 126.

ccclxxxix Edward Alfred Jones. The Loyalists of New Jersey in the American Revolution. Newark: Collections of the New Jersey Historical Society, 10 [1927]; Cornelius C. Vermeule, "The Active Loyalists of New Jersey," Proceedings, New Jersey Historical Society, 52, [1934]: 87-95.

cccxc Ruth M. Keesey, "Loyalism in Bergen County, New Jer­sey," William and Mary Quarterly, third series, 18 [1961]: 558-71.

cccxci
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