The Citizen-Soldier



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N. J. Archives 6: 250.

cxlvii Bollan was attending Parliamentary hearings on the proposed imposition of the Mutiny Act. He also presented information on the Albany Plan and spoke in favor of the plan from the perspective of the Massachu­setts assembly.

cxlviii Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 7: 129.

cxlix Charles Thompson to Joseph Shippen, Jr., 31 January 1755, in Thomas Batch, ed. Letters and Papers Relating Chiefly to the Provincial History of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, 1855, 32 33.

cl The American Museum published an elaborate and long article, "Albany Plan of Union," in 1789, February, 190 194; March, 285 288; and April, 365 368. Franklin's remarks were dated February 9, 1789. The Museum, omits the word "Remark" but it was part of the response which was written by Dr. Franklin and accompanied the following letter to the editor, Matthew Carey, which was submitted to The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 23 [1899 1900]:
Sir,


cli Quoted in Samuel Peters. General History of Connecticut. London, 1781, 102.

clii James Veech. The Monongahela of Old. Pittsburgh, 1910, 48; Dinwiddie Papers, 1: 63-71.

cliii quoted in Ward, War of the Revolution, 1: 39.

cliv Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. "Maryland's Share in the Last Intercontinen­tal War." Maryland Historical Magazine, 7 [1912]: 119-49, 243-67.

clv Alexander Flick, ed. The Papers of Sir William Johnson. 13 vols. Albany: State of New York, 1921-62, 1: 461-62.

clvi Leonard W. Larabee. Royal Government in Ameruca. New York, 1958, 108.

clvii Annual Report of the American Historical Association, Washington, 1896, 685-86; Ward, 42.

clviii Ward, War of the Revolution, 1: 42.

clix A. G. Bradley. The Fight with France for North America. Westminster, 1900, 150; Ward, War of the Revolution, 1: 43.

clx Fitzpatrick, Writings of Washington, 1: 26.

clxi Ward, War of the Revolution, 1: 42.

clxii James High, "The Earl of Loudoun and Horatio Sharpe." Maryland Historical Magazine, 45 [1950]: 14-32.

clxiii Louis K. Koontz. Robert Dinwiddie: His Career in American Colonial Government and Westward Expansion. Glendale, 1941, 38; Rossiter Johnson. History of the French War. New York, 1882, 268-71.

clxiv Sipe, Indian Wars, 387; A. P. James, ed. The Writings of General John Forbes. Madison: Wisconsin Historical Society, 569-60.

clxv Theodore Thayer. Pennsylvania and the Growth of Democracy. Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Musuem Commission, 1953, 82.

clxvi Oliver M. Dickerson, comp. Boston Under Military Ruke, 1768-1769 as Revealed in a Journal of the Times. Boston: Chapman & Grimes, 1936, vii-x.

clxvii Boston Evening Post, 10 April 1769; Journal of the Times, 64-65.

clxviii "Achenwall's Observations on North America, 1767," J. G. Rosengarten, trans. Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 27 [1903]: 1-19.

clxix The Public Advertiser, 3 October 1755.

clxx The Public Advertiser, 3 October 1755.

clxxi Fred Anderson. People's Army: Massachusetts Soldiers and Society in the Seven Years' War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984, 73-74.

clxxii Secretary Henry Fox notified the governors that the king had appointed the Earl of Loudoun to succeed Shirley on 13 March 1756. Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society, 1 [1860]: 277-78.

clxxiii Francis Parkman. Montcalm and Wolfe. New York: Scribner's, 1892, 1: 283f; Proceed­ings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 19 [1895]: 6.

clxxiv Secretary Thomas Robinson to the Governor of Connecticut, 28 August 1755, Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society, 1 [1860]: 269-70.



clxxv "Secretary Robinson to the Governor of Connecticut, 23 January 1755, Collections of the Connecticut Historical Society, 1 [1860]: 258.

clxxvi John Winslow to William Shirley, dated 2 August 1756, in Correspon­dence of William Shirley. Charles Henry Lincoln, ed. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1912, 2: 496-98.

clxxvii William Shirley to John Winslow, dated 10 August 1756, in Correspon­dence of William Shirley, 2: 510-15; William Shirley to Lord Loudoun, dated 10 August 1756, in Ibid., 2: 501-10.

clxxviii Anderson, People's Army, 175-80; Correspondence of Shirley, 2: 505-09.

clxxix See Stanley Pargellis, Military Affairs in North America, 1748-1765. Hampden, Ct.: Anchor, 1969, 185, 241; see also Anderson, People's Army, 180-85, citing diaries and correspondence of the principals and also enlisted men.

clxxx William Blackstone. Commentaries on the Law of England [1776]. 2 vols. Thomas M. Cooley and James DeWitt Andrews, eds. Chicago: 4th ed.; University of Chicago Press, 1884, 1: 262; See also Statutes of Charles II, 13: 6.

clxxxi Journal of the House of Commons, 10: 49-73; Charles M. Clode. The Military Forces of the Crown. 2 vols. London: Murray, 1869, 1: 142 and 2: appendix 33. Under Anne, the law was amended to ensure such protection of law only in time of peace. 1 Anne 2: 20.

clxxxii 3 George I; Parliamentary History, 97: 550; 14: 425-60; 21 George II; 22 George II.

clxxxiii Parliamentary History, 14: 535-47; 4 George 1. Regard­ing the legitimacy of orders, the Duke of Argyll argued passionately that "If they should receive any illegal commands, they may disobey them with impunity." Parliamenta­ry History, 8: 1245; Lords Mansfield and Loughsborough in Johnstone v Sutton, 1 East. Rep. 548.

clxxxiv Grant v Gould, 2 H. B. 99.

clxxxv Anderson, People's Army, ch. 4.

clxxxvi Douglas Hay, "Property, Authority and the Criminal Law," in Douglas Hay and others, eds. Albion's Fatal Tree: Crime and Society in Eighteenth Century England. New York, 1975, 17-63.

clxxxvii Mass. Col. Rec., 1: 85, 165, 270; 2: 23; 4, part 2: 97; 5: 49-50.

clxxxviii Hay, Albion's Fatal Tree, 17-63; Anderson, People's Army, 121-22.

clxxxix Deut. 25: 3.

cxc quoted in New York Journal, 26 December 1768; also noted in A Journal of the Times: Boston under Military Rule. Oliver M. Dickerson, comp. Boston: Chapman and Grimes, 1936. This little known and under-utilized document was published in pamphlet form and widely read in the 1760s. Parts were published in both the New York Journal and Boston Evening Post.

cxci "Braddock's Orderely Book" quoted in William Lowdermilk. History of Cumberland, Maryland. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1971, 121.

cxcii Boston Evening Post, 6 October 1768.

cxciii Boston Evening Post quoted in New York Journal, 27 October 1768.

cxciv New York Journal, 29 December 1768.

cxcv Boston Evening Post, 10 April 1769.

cxcvi quoted in New York Journal, 17 November 1768.

cxcvii John W. Shy, "A New Look at Colonial Militia," 3 William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, 20 [1963]: 175-85, especially at 177-78.

cxcviii Boston Evening Post, quoted by the New York Journal, Supplement, 27 April 1769.

cxcix Bland, Military Discipline, ch. 15.

cc Anderson, People's Army, 90-98.

cci Anderson, People's Army, 82-86.

ccii Francis Bernard to the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations, dated 5 September 1763, in Joseph Henry Benton, Jr., Early Census-Making in Massachusetts, 1643-1765. Boston: State of Massachusetts, 1905, 55.

cciii Anderson, People's Army, 99-100.

cciv James Robertson to John Calcraft, dated 22 June 1760, in Alan Rogers, Empire and Liberty: American Resistance to British Authority, 1755-1763. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974, 67.

ccv Anderson, People's Army, 60-62.

ccvi T. H. Breen, "English Origins," 74-96; David R. Millar, "The Militia, the Army and Independe­ncy in Colonial Massachusetts" Cornell Univer­sity Ph.D. dissertation, 1967; Morrison Sharp, "Leadership and Democracy in the Early New England System of Defense," American Historical Review, 1 [1945]: 244-60. Morrison sees a far greater conflict between the aristocrats and the common men than did Breen. See Breen, footnote 5, 76.

ccvii Loudoun to Cumberland in Pargellis, Military Affairs, dated 17 October 1757.

ccviii The Public Advertiser, 3 October 1755.

ccix The Public Advertiser, 6 October 1755.

ccx The Public Advertiser, 3 October 1755.

ccxi The Public Advertiser, 3 October 1755.

ccxii Extract of a letter from New York, dated 1 August, The Public Advertiser, 6 October 1755.

ccxiii Mass. Col. Rec., 1: 85, 90, 102, 124, 210; 4 part 1: 420; 5: 211-12.

ccxiv "Training Day" in Thomas C. Cochran and Wayne Andrews, eds. Concise Dictionary of American History. New York: Scribner's, 1962, 961.

ccxv The Public Advertiser, 6 October 1755.

ccxvi Humphrey Bland. A Treatise of Military Discipline. London; 6th ed., 1746; originally published in first edition in 1727.

ccxvii Ford, Writings of Washington, 5: 386.

ccxviii Count Maurice de Saxe (1696-1750), French marshal, was the illegitimate son of Augustus II of Poland and was perhaps the greatest military mind of his age. His Memoirs were published in France in 1730 and in English in 1761. Generals Lee and Knox read and recommended it to Washington and others. Knox used it heavily in his military plan sent to Congress in 1790.

ccxix William Barrisse. Military Discipliner, or, the Young Artillery Man. London, 1635. Two later editions were dated 1643 and 1661.

ccxx Thomas Handon. The Regulations for the Prussian Infantry, or, Prussian Evolutions. English editions, London, 1771; Philadelphia, 1775. The work was advertised in the Pennsylvania Magazine, December 1775, 574. Among those noted as subscribers was George Washington who had ordered 8 copies of the translation.

ccxxi William Young. Maneuvers, or, Practical Observations on the Art of War. 2 vols. London, 1771.

ccxxii John W. Wright. Some Notes on the Continental Army. Vails Gate, N. Y.: National Temple Hill Assn., 1963, 3.

ccxxiii Mark C. Walsh. Free Men Shall Stand: The Story of Connecticut's Organized Militia. Hartford: Connecticut National Guard Officers Associa­tion, 1991, 25-27.

ccxxiv For a discussion of these weapons see my Arms Makers of Colonial America. Susquehanna University Press, 1992; or Carl P. Russell. Guns on the Early Frontiers. University of California, Berkeley, Press, 1957; or M. L. Brown, Firearms in Colonial America, 1492-1792. Smithsonian Institution Press, 1980.

ccxxv John K. Mahon, "Anglo-American Methods of Indian Warfare, 1676-1794, Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 45 [1958]: 154-75; Hert M. Sylvester. Indian Wars of New England. 3 vols. Boston, 1910, II 213.

ccxxvi Samuel Sewall of Boston reported that he had seen 15 or 20 soldiers "with small guns and short lances in the troops of them" in 1687. "Diary of Samuel Sewall," Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 5th series, 5 [1878]: 193.

ccxxvii John Dunton, Letters Written from New England, A.D. 1681. edited by W. H. Whitmore. Boston: Prince Society, 1867, 140.

ccxxviii Ebenezer W. Peirce, Indian History, Biography and Genealo­gy . . . North Abington, Mass.: Mitchell, 1878, 76; see also Jack S. Radebaugh, "The Militia of Colonial Massachusetts," Military Affairs, 43 [1954]: 1-18.

ccxxix Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 43 [1909-10]: 491.

ccxxx "set of halberts for a foot company, to be sold on reasonable terms by Nicholas Boone," Boston News Letter, 22 April and 3 June 1706.

ccxxxi Mass. Col. Rec., 2: 43; 5: 47.

ccxxxii New York Gazette, 16 March 1747.

ccxxxiii Among the better books and articles on colonial warfare are: Robert K. Wright, Jr. The Continental Army. Washington: U. S. Army, Center of Military History, 1983, 5-7; Louis Morton, "The Origins of American Military Policy," Military Affairs, 22 [1958]: 75-82; Douglas Leach. Flintlock and Tomahawk: New England in King Philip's War. New York: Macmillan, 1958; Arthur A. Buffington, "The Puritan View of War," Publications of the Colonial Society of Massachusetts, 28 [1930-33]: 67-86; C. J. Bernardo and E. H. Bacon. American Military Policy. Harrisburg, Pa.: American Military Service, 1955; John K. Mahon, "Anglo-American Methods of Indian Warfare, 1676-1764," Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 45 [1958]: 254-75; Douglas E. Leach, "The Military System of Plymouth Colony," New England Quarterly, 24 [1951]: 342-64; and Louis Morton, "The End of Formalized Warfare," American Heritage, 6 [1955]: 12-19.

ccxxxiv Among the many important works on arms in colonial America are: Brown. Firearms in Colonial America; Harold L. Peterson. Arms and Armor in Colonial America, 1526-1783. New York: Bramhall House, 1956; Horace Kephart, "The Rifle in Colonial Times," Magazine of American History, 24 [1890]: 179-91; Felix Reichmann, "The Pennsylvania Rifle: A Social Interpretation of Changing Military Techniques," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 49 [1945]: 3-14; John W. Wright, "The Rifle in the American Revolution," American Historical Review, 24 [1924]: 293-99; Paul C. Boehrt. Arming the Troops, 1775-1815. Easton, Pa.: Boehert, 1967; Whisker, Arms Makers of Colonial America.

ccxxxv Archives of Maryland. ed. W. H. Browne and others. 72 vols to date. Annapolis: State of Maryland, 1883-1912, 3: 317, 345-46; 7: 18.

ccxxxvi Archives of Maryland, 3: 531.

ccxxxvii Archives of Maryland, 3: 345-46; 5: 32-33.

ccxxxviii Public Records of Connecticut, 2: 217-18.

ccxxxix Public Records of Connecticut, 2: 346-47.

ccxl Public Records of Connecticut, 2: 19-21.

ccxli John Winslow to Charles Lawrence, dated 27 October 1755, in "Journal of John Winslow," Collections of the Nova Scotia Historical Society, 4 [1884]: 180.

ccxlii Edward Pierce Hamilton. "Colonial Warfare in North America," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 80 [1968]: 3-15.

ccxliii Entry for August 1756, The American Journals of Louis Antoine de Bougainville. Edward P. Hamilton, ed and trans. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1964, 34.

ccxliv Howard H. Peckham. The Colonial Wars, 1689-1762. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964, 8-10.

ccxlv Entry for 3 July 1756, American Journals, 5.

ccxlvi Entries for late June and July 1757, American Journals, 120, 130.

ccxlvii Entry for 31 July 1756, American Journal, 20.

ccxlviii Entry for 8 August 1756, American Journal, p. 24. Other entries, such as for 6-16 February 1756, show militiamen as a part of the French army.

ccxlix Bougainville, American Journals, 152-53.

ccl Entry for February 17-28, Bougainville, American Journals, 87.

ccli Entry for 3 May 1758, Bougainville, American Journals, 202.

cclii Entry for 30 June 1758, Bougainville, American Journals, 221.

ccliii Bougainville, American Journals, 250-51.

ccliv See Peter Brock. Pacifism in the United States. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1968.

cclv George W. Kyte, "An Introduction to the Periodical Literature Bearing upon Loyalist Activities in the Middle Atlantic States, 1775-1783," Pennsylvania History, 18 [1951]: 104-18.

cclvi William W. Sweet, "The Role of the Anglicans in the American Revolu­tion," Huntingdon Library Quarterly, 11 [1947]: 51-70.

cclvii Virginia D. Harrington. The New York Merchants on the Eve of the Revolution. New York: Columbia University Press, 1935; Arthur M. Schlesinger. The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776. New York: Columbia University Press, 1918.

cclviii Leonard W. Labaree, "The Nature of American Loyalism," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, 54 [1944]: 15-58; George M. Wrong, "The Background of the Loyalist Movement, 1763-1783," Papers and Records of the Ontario Historical Society, 30 [1934]: 171-80.

cclix See two books by Wallace Brown. The Good Americans: the Loyalists in the American Revolution. New York: William Morrow, 1969; and The King's Friends. Providence, R.I.: Brown University Press, 1965. See also, Robert M. Calhoon. The Loyalists in Revolutionary America. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1973; and William H. Nelson. The American Tory. Oxford: at the Clarendon Press, 1961; Morton Borden and Penn Borden, eds. The American Tory. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall, 1972 G. N. D. Evans. Allegiance in America: The Case of the Loyalists. Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley, 1969; Paul H. Smith. Loyalists and Redcoats. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press, 1964; Charles H. Van Tyne. The Loyalists in the American Revolution. New York: Smith, 1902. Lorenzo Sabine. An Historical Essay on the Loyalists of the American Revolution. Springfield, Ma.: Walden, 1957; A. G. Bradley. The United Empire Loyalists. London: Butterworth, 1932; Moses Coit Tyler, "The Party of the Loyalists in the American Revolution," American Historical Review, 1 [1895]: 24-49.

cclx See, for example, Henry B. Yoshpe. Disposition of Loyalist Estates in the Southern District of the State of New York. New York: A. M. S. Press, 1967. Yoshpe's study is one of the most thoroughly researched studies of condemnation by bill of attainder and subsequent confiscation of estates.

cclxi See Arthur G. Bradley. Colonial Americans in Exile. New York: Dutton, 1932; North Callahan. Flight from the Republic: The Tories of the American Revolution. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967.

cclxii North Callahan. Flight from the Republic: The Tories of the American Revolution. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1967; Bradley Chapin. The American Law of Treason: Revolutionary and Early National Origins. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1964.

cclxiii John Eardley-Wilmot, ed. Historical View of the Commission for Enquiring into the Losses, Services and Claims of American Loyalists at the Close of the War between Great Britain and her Colonies in 1783. London: Nichols, 1815; Arbitration of Claims for Compensation for Losses and Damages Resulting from Lawful Impediments to the Recovery of Pre-War Debts. New York: Oxford University Press, 1931; Hugh Egerton. The Royal Commission on the Losses and Services of American Loyalists. Oxford: at the Clarenendon Press, 1915; Alexander Fraser. Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of Ontario. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1905.

cclxiv Eric Robson, "The Raising of a Regiment in the War of American Independence," Journal of the Society for Army Historical Research, 27 [1949]: 107-15; Edward E. Curtis, "The Recruiting of the British Army in the American Revolution," American Historical Association Annual Report, 1 [1923]: 313, 319-20.

cclxv "Instructions to Major Ferguson, Inspector of Militia," 22 May 1780, in Henry Clinton.
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