The chronology of latin american history 1450 – 1750



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THE CHRONOLOGY OF LATIN AMERICAN HISTORY 1450 – 1750


1695

Gold discovered in Brazil leads to internal settlement of frontier by prospectors


1700

Caribbean islands are main source of sugar; main customer for African slaves


1700

Indian population falls to five million; cattle, sheep outnumber Indians in most areas


1702 – 1713

War of Spanish Succession: English obtain right to supply slaves, trade in region


1728

Spanish crown supports economic development of industry, imports, commerce





1759 – 1788

New Spanish monarch institutes economic, political, military reforms in colonies


1778

Spain, Portugal formally delineate boundaries between their colonies, empires


18th Century

French, English control Caribbean; majority of world’s sugar comes from region


18th Century

American crops had spread world wide and influence population growth


1792

Slave rebellion in Haiti abolishes slavery, led to free black state


1800

30,000 peninsulares; 3.5 million creoles; 10 million Indians, blacks, mestizos, mullatos


1808

Spanish American wars of independence begin with rebellions in Mexico, Venezuela


1819

Regional liberals seek secular state, free trade, immigration; clash with conservatives


1822

Brazil independent of Portugal as an empire; population predominately African, slave


1823

US issues Monroe Doctrine telling Europeans to stay out of American affairs


1840

Brazilian exports consist of 40% coffee, 80% by 1880; ¼ of population were slaves


1850

Large Italian, Portuguese immigration to Brazil begin to lessen need for slaves

1850


UK accounts for majority of trade, importing raw materials, exporting finished goods

1850


Railroads, steamships, telegraphs open interior of Brazil; railroads in Argentina, Cuba

1850 – 1930


Massive European migration to Mexico, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Uruguay

1850 – 1880


Peru exports of fertilizer dominate world market; uses wealth to reform society

1879 – 1881


War of Pacific gives Chile control of copper, nitrates; makes Chile a regional power


1886, 1888

Cuba, Brazil are last states to abolish slavery begun during wars of independence

1890


Argentine exports grew five times since 1860; beef, hides, wool, grains exported

1890


First socialist party founded in Argentina follows growth of industry, rise of workers


1914

US builds, opens Panama Canal after declaring Panama independent of Colombia


1910

More than 40% industry, wealth owned by US in Mexico, Central America





1914 – 1918

World War I: countries supply oil, beef, minerals to both sides, loses ships to submarines


1914 – 1918

Cut off from suppliers, Latin America experiences import substitution, industrialization


1914 – 1933

30 US military interventions to protect US investments: Central America, Caribbean


1916

US intervenes in Mexico after Pancho Villa raids US banks, kills US citizens


1917

Mexican Constitution is revolutionary: state-owned nationalized industries common


1920s

Growth of industrial, urban work force exerts influence on politics, students radicalize


1920s

US replaces UK as primary source for investment capital: US controls regional exports


1929

$5 billion invested in Latin America, 1/3 of all US investment abroad


1930s

Foreign investment cease, exports collapse as result of Great Depression


1930s

Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Mexico develop of steel, oil to offset loss of exports


1942 – 1945

Mexico, Brazil, Panama, Cuba, Ecuador, Peru join Allies in World War II


1945 – 2000

Industrialization, urbanization transform region; anti-imperialism, social issues critical


1950s – 1970s

Central America, Caribbean economies single commodity exporters subject to prices


1961

US Alliance for Progress seeks to help development in Latin America through US aid


1970s

750,000 illegal immigrants to US; 5 million migrants per year in Latin America


1973 – 1989

Global recession hit region hard; huge foreign debts, prices of exports fall dramatically


1980s

½ population in Latin America live in cities, 25 cities are larger than 1 million

1980s – 1990s


Declining economic opportunities, rise of squatter settlements, environmental destruction

1994


Free trade associations established: NAFTA, MERCOSUR

2000


Latin America continues search for economic growth, social justice, political stability


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