The China Journal Volume 67, Issue 1, Jan 2012 Title: Migration, Householding and the Well-Being Of Left-Behind Women in Rural Ningxia Authors: Jacka, Tamara Abstract

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The China Journal

Volume 67, Issue 1, Jan 2012

1. Title: Migration, Householding and the Well-Being Of Left-Behind Women in Rural Ningxia

Authors: Jacka, Tamara

Abstract: These recently published studies are important, for, although rural migration, especially rural-to-urban migration, has been attracting widespread attention from observers within and outside China for more than 20 years, most of that attention has been directed toward the significance of migration for national development, its impact on urban communities, and the experiences of migrants themselves.4 The new studies represent the first sustained effort on the part of Chinese scholars to understand the social consequences of migration for rural communities of origin, and the situation of those who remain in the countryside.5 In this paper, however, I argue that the scholarly contribution which these studies make is limited by a lack of appreciation of the embeddedness of migration patterns and left-behind people's responses to them in rural "householding": that is, the strategies and processes through which rural households create and reproduce themselves.
2. Title: Are Beijing's Equalization Policies Reaching the Poor? An Analysis of Direct Subsidies Under the "Three Rurals" (Sannong)

Authors: Lin, Wanlong; Wong, Christine

Abstract: Even though it has rightly been pointed out that, in the aggregate, the direct-subsidy programs for farmers have had a positive impact on reducing the incidence of absolute poverty in recent years,3 we are concerned that China's decentralized policy-making approach and the absence of a rigorous vetting of new programs may mean that, as the subsidies have grown, an increasing proportion of them may go to the wealthier households, subverting one of the government's key goals: reducing income disparities in rural areas. [...] as the costs of direct-subsidy programs rise, they impose a growing burden on local governments for co-financing, and the differences in local fiscal capacities can thwart the redistributive intent of threerural programs and amplify existing income disparities across regions. [...] though, efforts at promoting social equity and building a "harmonious society" - including programs such as these direct subsidies for farmers - will have at best only marginal impact, unless they are supported by systemic reforms to repair the intergovernmental fiscal system, which is the root cause of unequal public services and fiscal provisions both horizontally and vertically in the Chinese administrative system.
3. Title: Mobility and Agency: Private Sector Development in Rural Central China

Authors: Kostka, Genia

Abstract: According to a recent World Bank report, China's Gini Coefficient rose to .47 in 2009, from .28 thirty years ago, indicating rising income inequalities.1 The rising rural-urban income gap is particularly challenging, as incomes of urban residents are now 3.3 times greater than rural incomes.2 In response to this, the goal of "inclusive growth" (growth which benefits all economic strata and regions) has become central to the design of China's 12th Five- Year Plan (FYP), in line with the commitment of President Hu Jintao and Premier Wen Jiabao to achieving a "harmonious society" in China. To counter rising income inequality between urban and rural China and between coastal regions and the interior, Beijing has poured more than one trillion yuan into infrastructure and social welfare improvements, and has distributed these funds as part of its Western Development Program (since 1999), the Northeast Rejuvenation Initiative (after 2003) and the Central China Developmental Program (after 2005), along with a host of other developmental aid programs.3 While such government-led efforts may provide some benefit to remote regions, the state's ability to support the generation of private income is of paramount importance. Since 1998, when China privatized the majority of local state-owned enterprises (SOEs) difang guoying qiye ..., the private sector has played an ever more important role in employment, innovation and income generation.
4. Title: County and Township Cadres as a Strategic Group: "Building a New Socialist Countryside" in Three Provinces

Authors: Schubert, Gunter; Ahlers, Anna L.

Abstract: They stabilize the political system by defusing competition, making up for institutional deficiencies and compensating underpaid local élites.4 In this sense, Hillman's findings paint a somewhat more positive picture on the policy performance of local cadres than does Smith's analysis. [...] local cadres now often act as developmental agents,8 trying to relegitimize their claim to power and their position vis-à-vis both the rural populace and upper administrative levels through effective policy implementation which takes seriously both the people's need for economic and social welfare and the central state's demands for development, urbanization and stability.
5. Title: "Active Judiciary": Judicial Dismantling of Workers' Collective Action in China

Authors: Chen, Feng; Xu, Xin

Abstract: The Courts and Collective Labor Disputes in China China's legal reforms since the 1980s have advanced "the rule of law" in the country and significantly elevated the role of courts in society.6 However, critics justifiably question whether the rule of law espoused by the government is possible, as courts and judges remain iully embedded in the state apparatus.7 Solomon identifies four common patterns of judicial power and independence in authoritarian regimes: 1 politically marginal courts; 2 fragmented judicial systems; 3 relatively independent courts having meaningful jurisdiction; and 4 formally independent and empowered courts but with informal practices to ensure that judges do not rule against the interests of the regime.\n Individualizing collective dispute cases has defused the potential for workers to undertake further action that could, in turn, generate organized movement and collective identity. [...] the courts have adjudicated collective cases in a way that has averted any possibility of labor mobilization.
6. Title: Casting (Off) Their Stinking Airs: Chinese Intellectuals and Land Reform, 1946-52

Authors: DeMare, Brian James

Abstract: the term "land reform intellectual" will be used to stress how these campaigns offered an opportunity for the educated to redefine themselves as "intellectuals" in contrast and in relation to the peasant masses, while their participation in land reform and their subsequent writings helped in the creation of the social category of "intellectual". [...] the sincerity of land reform intellectuals was continually undermined by a logic of class struggle that insisted on questioning their ability to overcome their family backgrounds.
7. Title: "Anything At Variance with It Must Be Revised Accordingly": Rewriting Modern Chinese Literature During the 1950s

Authors: Fisac, Taciana

Abstract: experiences were part and parcel of everyday life.7 When assessing the extent and magnitude of political control over writers in the 1950s, it has been pointed out that "the Party has accomplished what is often thought to be impossible, the control of thoughts and sentiments".8 Even today, self-censorship has a profound impact on Chinese fiction writing.9 Over and above self-censorship, the state publishing houses in charge of selecting, printing and distributing literary texts have been assigned the role of ideological watchdogs. Rather than a single official body charged with monitoring ideological purity, a network of organizations became part of an increasingly complex system created to disseminate propaganda.12 Speeches and slogans coming directly from the Party reinforced guidelines set out in internally circulated documents.13 The editors, who were selected more for their political qualifications than on the basis of their editorial skills, had to take these ideological considerations into account.14 Publishers also faced certain material constraints, such as fixed paper quotas for the publication of a given title within a particular time span.15 Once a literary text had passed the author's and publisher's scrutiny, the CCP still had recourse to further devices if necessary, such as its control over literary critics or scholars. [...] as a last resort, the Party always had the option of direct intervention, since writers' production was considered merely an extension of official propaganda.
8. Title: Nasty Or Nice? Explaining Positive And Negative Campaign Behavior In Taiwan

Authors: Sullivan, Jonathan; Sapir, Eliyahu

Abstract: [...] academic and popular observers are concerned that campaign behavior reflects particular shortcomings in Taiwanese political culture and exacerbates weaknesses in its democratic system. [...] the analysis in this article shows that there is added value in using the Taiwan case for comparative social science research.
9. Title: Developmental Fairy Tales: Evolutionary Thinking and Modern Chinese Culture

Authors: Larson, Wendy

Abstract: In his translation of Thomas Huxley's 1893 Evolution and Ethics, Yan Fu produced a "vernacularized version" (p. 67) that molded the nation as a form of historical agency whose laws unfolded logically and naturally, like evolutionary development itself. Because that deterministic trajectory did not necessarily show China positively, however, another seemingly contradictory and often unsuccessful effort was also being made to find loose bricks in this path.
10. Title: The Religious Philosophy of Liang Shuming: The Hidden Buddhist

Authors: Alitto, Guy

Abstract: Mainstream academia and the general public consider Liang to be predominantly Confucian; Meynard considers him to be ultimately a Buddhist, albeit a somewhat syncretic and creative one. [...] he argues that Liang's major historical role was that of a religious thinker, and that his various other roles were, in the end, expressions of his Buddhist beliefs.
11. Title: The Intellectual Foundations of Chinese Modernity: Cultural and Political Thought in the Republican Era

Authors: Keating, Pauline

Abstract: Chronic political instability, warlordism, foreign invasion and dire poverty in much of rural China are the reasons that almost all reform thought in the Republican era was statist; even those liberals whose ideas were closest to classical liberalism believed that only a strong state could solve the problems which obstructed modernization. [...] for all of the reformers, "the quest for modernity was a state-building project" (p. 159).
12. Title: The Politics of Imagining Asia

Authors: Murthy, Viren

Abstract: [...] Chapter 6, "Weber and the Question of Chinese Modernity", discusses some basic issues concerning how to reflect critically on the categories that we use to understand China. In the editor's Introduction, Huters contends that the thread uniting the various chapters, and indeed Wang's entire oeuvre, is an "attempt to develop the possibility of an alternative modernity, one based on the rich possibilities existing in the complex historical practice of the East Asian region that has been studiously ignored in the scholarly apparatus built on the basis of a system of nation-states" (p. 4).
13. Title: Radicalism, Revolution, and Reform in Modern China: Essays in Honor of Maurice Meisner

Authors: Murthy, Viren

Abstract: While the extent to which Marx actually held a stage theory of history is subject to debate, there is little doubt that, in most of his mature works, capitalism was seen as a prerequisite for socialism. [...] in the early 20* century, Lenin also warned against Chinese attempts to overcome capitalism.
14. Title: Mao Zedong and China in the Twentieth-Century World

Authors: Weigelin-Schwiedrzik, Susanne

Abstract: [...] the Party sometimes focused on social transformation by initiating mass movements and destroying social hierarchies. [...] we have learned to understand the Cultural Revolution not only as a fight between Mao and his adversaries but, most prominently, as a gigantic social movement which cannot be reduced to what Mao thought and wanted.
15. Title: Sovereignty at the Edge: Macau and the Question of Chineseness

Authors: Lau, Sin Wen

Abstract: Highlighting the compromises, accommodation and differentiation embedded in these everyday stories of sovereignty, this monograph offers a nuanced critique of the ideologies of uniformity that undergird global norms of modern sovereignty. Asking why Macau history is not taught in schools, Chapter 4 traces the difficulties of teaching local history while carefully balancing the practical politics of transferring sovereignty, contradictory visions of Macau as cosmopolitan bridge or as colonial backwater awaiting liberation, and the unresolved question of how to insert Macau into national, regional and global networks after the handover.
16. Title: The Battle for China: Essays on the Military History of the Sino-Japanese War of 1937-1945

Authors: Benton, Gregor

Abstract: The articles provide a competent, detailed, strongly factual and authoritative account of the two main armies' strategy, tactics, doctrines, weaponry, equipment, training, indoctrination, combat effectiveness, discipline, logistics, communications, conscription methods, intelligence, force structure and command, and of the international environment. [...] the maps do not correlate adequately with the texts, either in their placing in the book or in the information that they convey.
17. Title: Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power

Authors: Cheung, Kelvin

Abstract: The book is not an introduction of ancient Chinese political thought per se; instead, it shows how Chinese scholars appropriate traditional Chinese cultural resources to refine the assumptions of contemporary international relations and to provide practical guidelines for China to navigate its ascent to global leadership. In this new era, growing security concerns are coming from non-human sources such as climate change and epidemics, or involve non-state actors such as terrorists and insurgents; these new security concerns have undermined the efficacy of military power in ensuring international security.
18. Title: Beating Devils and Burning Their Books: Views of China, Japan, and the West

Authors: Yeophantong, Pichamon

Abstract: According to Clark, the purpose of the volume is to explore how we "(mis)represent other cultures and why" (p. 3), through examining "how culture and religion are perceived and subsequently represented in text, image, and oral testimony" (p. 7). Chapters 4 and 7 make extensive use of specialized language unique to Chinese philosophy and Japanese Zen Buddhism. [...] the book could have offered further reflection on two issues: the underlying relationship between power, discourse and representation; and instances of East-West cultural congruence based on positive othering.
19. Title: Chiang Kaishek's Last Ambassador to Moscow: The Wartime Diaries of Fu Bingchang

Authors: Fung, Edmund S K

Abstract: The book provides a detailed account, based on Fu's minutes, of the six rounds of talks for the 1945 Sino-Soviet Treaty, at which the Soviet team was led by Stalin and the Chinese team by Foreign Minister Song Ziwen. According to Fu, Britain's reiusal to open a second war iront in Europe caused the Soviets to adopt an expansionist policy in China and Eastern Europe.
20. Title: Ancestral Leaves: A Family Journey Through Chinese History

Authors: Dunn, Emily

Abstract: The suppression of bandits and rebels and coordinating recovery efforts in their wake was also a key plank of their official lives, while their family lives were characterized by the fulfillment of Confucian obligations, and geographical separations due to examinations, imperial audiences, official postings and the need to flee from the Taiping. [...] the public and private lives of these families reflected the broader concerns facing the state during the late Qing.
21. Title: Chinese Circulations: Capital, Commodities, and Networks in Southeast Asia

Authors: Rosenberg, David

Abstract: More important was opium's contribution to the overall economy of the region, particularly to the Chinese economy of Southeast Asia, where it served several major roles: an "addictive consumable", an incentive for peasants and coolies to enter the cash economy, an agency of capital accumulation for the Chinese merchants who controlled the poppy farms, and the financial basis of Asia's great port cities, Singapore, Batavia, Bangkok, Saigon, Hong Kong and Shanghai (Trocki, p. 101).
22. Title: Behind the Gate: Inventing Students in Beijing

Authors: Rosen, Stanley

Abstract: Whereas scholars such as Vera Schwartz and Timothy Weston have noted that a number of the key reforms instituted by Beida President Cai Yuanpei had antecedents in policies put forward years earlier, including the late Imperial period, Lanza argues that the existence of precedents and favorable conditions for university reform should be seen as a "framework", and that the complex experiment in academic practice which he describes contributed to a "radical change", both practically and symbolically, in the May 4th period (pp. 7980). [...] while Weston also focuses on "the everyday" - the "quotidian" - for him the May 4th Movement marked an "intensification of a process of dialectical interplay between existing, familiar ways of doing things and novel, unfamiliar ways of doing things"; despite its undeniable radical elements, his history of Beida during this time suggests that it "also had a strong conservative undertow" Timothy B. Weston, The Power of Position:
23. Title: The Oil Prince's Legacy: Rockefeller Philanthropy in China

Authors: Hsu, Carolyn L

Abstract: [...] 1950, the Rockefeller Foundation's investments in China were of a totally different scale from its investments in Europe, Latin America or South Asia, with as much as 50 per cent of its annual budget invested in PUMC (p. 106).
24. Title: Sound and Script in Chinese Diaspora

Authors: Blum, Susan D

Abstract: Tsu investigates "writers, readers, critics, language policies, bilingualism, technologies of orthography, and the materiality of writing" (p. 2), introducing the concept of "literary governance" to unify concerns over the Chinese language and diasporic literatures. The remaining chapters - about the peculiar case of French-Chinese writer Chen Jitong, his advocacy of "world literature", and its intersection with global politics; "The Missing Script of Taiwan"; "Look-Alikes and Bad Relations", about Malaysian Chinese literature; and "The Elephant in the Room", about southeast Asian Sinophone writers - all look from different directions at problems of standardization, unification and diversity, identities and power, from the perspective established earlier in the book.
25. Title: Return Migration and Identity: A Global Phenomenon, A Hong Kong Case

Authors: Smart, Josephine

Abstract: The feet that the Hong Kong Chinese remigrants' selfreported incidents of stress may be fewer than remigrants in other locations and of different cultural backgrounds is a matter of degree, not of kind. [...] the claim that the Hong Kong Chinese remigrants are unlike remigrants elsewhere because they do not experience stress related to return migration can be considered an exaggeration.
26. Title: Merchants' Daughters: Women, Commerce, and Regional Culture in South China

Authors: Chen, Minglu

Abstract: [...] a discussion of state-making is missing from the overall account, despite claims that the book reveals the connections between state-making, gender issues and local traditions and customs. [...] descriptions of women being subject to discrimination at work, deprived of educational opportunities or victimized during the Maoist era despite the revolutionary rhetoric of "women hold up half the sky", or of migrant women engaging in prostitution to make a living are not uncommon.
27. Title: Colonial Project, National Game: A History of Baseball in Taiwan

Authors: Collins, Sandra

Abstract: The Japanese colonial traces in Taiwanese baseball were never completely erased, and the intense "culture of loss and shame" that came to represent the Taiwanese colonial experience was reproduced in new circumstances. [...] Taiwanese baseball, introduced by the Japanese colonial government, became not only a symbol of Taiwan's modernity but also of its traumatic colonialization.
28. Title: The Narrative Arts of Tianjin: Between Music and Language

Authors: Zhang, Fan

Abstract: At this time, the narrative arts community was transformed from professional guilds affiliated with teahouses and market places to state- contro lied organizations aiming to serve the masses, allowing performers to obtain elevated social status and stable incomes. The accompanying CD that collects four sound clips ofshuochang performances adds value to this book, supplementing the text to help readers understand the complex interplay between music and language in traditional narrative arts.
29. Title: Rethinking Transnational Chinese Cinemas: The Amoy-dialect Film Industry in Cold War Asia

Authors: Jacobs, J Bruce

Abstract: [...] Taylor argues that "the cash spent by postLand Reform Taiwanese peasants was directly responsible for funding Amoydialect film production in Hong Kong" (p. 38). [...] most could barely afford to buy a little meat to offer to the gods on the first and fifteenth day of each lunar month.
30. Title: Chinese Architecture and the Beaux-Arts

Authors: Miller, Tracy

Abstract: The conference was organized to explore the figure of Paul Philipe Cret, an awardwinning architect trained in the Beaux-Arts tradition in Paris then lured to UP in 1903 to head its school of architecture, and his influence on a group of Chinese students who returned to China to establish the new discipline of "architect" in its best universities. [...] Fu Chao-Ching provides the interesting comparative perspective of Taiwan, whose earliest Beaux-Arts-styte buildings were constructed by the Japanese after they were ceded the island in 1895.
31. Title: Cultural Studies and Cultural Industries in Northeast Asia: What a Difference a Region Makes

Authors: DeBoer, Stephanie

Abstract: When David Morley and Kevin Robbins published Spaces of Media in the early nineties, they argued for the centrality of media communications to the cultural formation of (in this case European) regional identities; this book rises to the challenge of a region formed in relation to the cultural industries that have long been the backbone of Asian production. The second essay here, by Mark Morris, follows this close textual reading with a broader discursive interrogation - of film texts, critical responses, industry trends - within a larger industrial and historical context and concern for New Korean Cinema from the mid to late 1990s.
32. Title: The Religious Question in Modern China

Authors: Billioud, Sébastien

Abstract: The perspective is broadened to encompass a variety of religious trajectories, whether in Western and Japanese colonies or in new Chinese states (Taiwan and Singapore, as well as Chinese minorities overseas). [...] a spectrum of religious experiences is also discussed, ranging from family-centered practices (especially funerals) to the recent revival of communal religion or the development of a whole set of individual practices, especially in cities (vegetarianism, body-cultivation, involvement in redemptive societies, Confucian movements, lay Buddhism or urban Christianity).
33. Title: Constructing China's Jerusalem: Christians, Power, and Place in Contemporary Wenzhou

Authors: Yang, Mayfair

Abstract: In the process, the state comes to regard them as a reliable partner espousing the same kind of mainstream pro-growth and pro-government messages. [...] instead of rural Underground Christian cultures of martyrdom and attitudes of non-cooperation with the "demonic state", the boss Christians aid the state by ensuring a pliant, upwardly mobile civil society sharing values of economic modernization.
34. Title: The Cultural Economy of Falun Gong in China: A Rhetorical Perspective

Authors: Thornton, Patricia M

Abstract: According to the author, CCP leaders responded to Falún Gong's repeated discursive challenges with the invocation of three synchronie keywords - "stability" (wending), "political struggle" (zhengzhi douzheng) and "cult" (xiejiao) - to discredit the movement, and two additional key concepts - "support" (zhichi) and "create a civilized and scientific social environment" (yingzao wenming he kexue de shehui huanßng) to legitimize their intervention (pp. 77-79).
35. Title: Faiths on Display: Religion, Tourism, and the Chinese State

Authors: Chan, Selina Ching

Abstract: [...] various chapters demonstrate that the identities and cultures of ethnic minorities have always been subordinated to the nation's overarching quest for unity and harmony. [...] sacred revolutionary memorials, museums and monuments are found to be tourist sites invented by the state with the aim of enhancing patriotic education and evoking nationalism through highlighting the history of the Communist Party (Yu Luo Rioux, Chapter 3).
36. Title: Religion and the State in Russia and China: Suppression, Survival, and Revival

Authors: Clarke, Jeremy

Abstract: Consider also the extent to which talks given at, and the ongoing work of, the host institution, like Baylor's Empirical Study of Values in China (pp. 231-39), are cited as references. [...] Marsh's book, while a work of academic professionalism, evolved out of a community of scholars at an institution which esteems faith journeys, not only as rights, but also as expressions of humanity.
37. Title: Paradise Redefined: Transnational Chinese Students and the Quest for Flexible Citizenship in the Developed World

Authors: Coates, Jamie

Abstract: Despite the size of this group, Fong's study provides more detail on the visa regulations and policies of English-speaking countries (particularly Ireland, the US and Britain) than on those of Japan. [...] her Japanese case studies tend to be a little more general than those of Chinese in Anglophone countries.
38. Title: Gods, Ghosts, and Gangsters: Ritual Violence, Martial Arts, and Masculinity on the Margins of Chinese Society

Authors: Cao, Nanlai

Abstract: According to Boretz, the practice of carousing can be seen as a game of control and indulgence and a site for the negotiation of social power and male subjectivity. [...] the ethnography demonstrates convincingly that ritual violence plays a vital part in the expression and construction of masculine solidarity for Chinese men on the social margins, and that these men's involvement in violent rituals and gang subcultures is fostered by patriarchal Chinese social institutions and the fondamental tensions between fathers and sons in the traditional Chinese family.
39. Title: As Normal as Possible: Negotiating Sexuality and Gender in Mainland China and Hong Kong

Authors: Carroll, Peter J

Abstract: The collection is divided into three thematic sections, entitled "Traveling Bodies", "Communities" and "Representations", and encompasses topics such as the social geography of lesbian bars and cafés in Hong Kong, a safesex educator's lively account of her symbolic wedding to a gay man and a lesbian as a strike against marriage normativity, and a stimulating analysis of gender performance in two indie Chinese films. [...] Sim argues that gaining sexual access to women and thus becoming a social male tomboi brought increased status without social stigma.
40. Title: Understanding Chinese Families: A Comparative Study of Taiwan and Southeast China

Authors: Jankowiak, William

Abstract: [...] the average age for first marriage for both Taiwan and mainland China has risen steadily over the last 50 years, with women with higher education marrying latest. [...] mainland marriages are younger than those on Taiwan.
41. Title: Suburban Beijing: Housing and Consumption in Contemporary China

Authors: Wu, Fulong

Abstract: Wangjing, one of the largest residential developments in the capital, is the perfect case to provide a snapshot of Beijing. Besides commercial residential developments, it also accommodates controversial public housing programs of "affordable housing" (literally, economic and comfortable housing).
42. Title: Marginalization in Urban China: Comparative Perspectives

Authors: Gillen, Jamie

Abstract: Related to this, the book's evidence is largely quantitative in nature and, although there seems to be a high percentage of Chinese speakers among its authors, there is no attempt in these pages to explore conversations with Chinese migrants by asking them about how hukou, dibao and their experience as migrants and Chinese citizens in general affect urban China. [...] the book is a benefit to economists, statisticians, planners and policy studies scholars, but may be less interesting to researchers with interests in qualitative methods.
43. Title: Grassroots Elections in China

Authors: Brown, Kerry

Abstract: [...] as Alpermann concludes, while recognizing the democratic potential inherent in village self-government, we need to acknowledge that party dominance is not just an unfortunate flaw in the current system of village governance.
44. Title: Ballot Box China: Grassroots Democracy in the Final Major One-Party State

Authors: Heberer, Thomas

Abstract: In many rural areas, most capable young people leave to work as migrant workers in China's more developed areas. [...] despite some successes, many Chinese scholars and cadres argue that the introduction of village elections took place too early and was not really successful, and that their abolition should be considered. [...] the book contains one major mistake: it claims that China is home to over 100 million Muslims (most estimate the number at about 20 million) and over 100 million Christians (p. 123), a figure which is based not on genuine statistics but on a rough estimate that includes millions of believers in various religious practices which might only dubiously be classified as "Christian".
45. Title: Laid-off Workers in a Workers' State: Unemployment with Chinese Characteristics

Authors: Siu, Kaxton

Abstract: The essays collected in this volume provide a perspective on xiagang as the source of rapid "social dislocations", in which a huge number of !aid-off workers suffered from a loss of material livelihood, political privilege and social status, as well as psychological injury. Antoine Kernen (Chapter 10) analyzes the forms of laid-off workers' action, and explains that their limited resistance is due largely to workers' mentality and the strategies they employed - to keep protest within legal bounds, to express their claims in the language of socialism, and to seek the attention of the provincial and central authorities as a means to put pressure on the local administration.
46. Title: The Challenge of Labour in China: Strikes and the Changing Labour Regime in Global Factories

Authors: Schucher, Günter

Abstract: [...] by linking his work to the "new international labor studies", Chan wants to prove that the migrants as a "new working class" are going to replace previous SOE employees as the class fraction with the greatest means of achieving social transformation in China. [...] he broadens the "Western" concept of class and defines "unorganized workers" as a collective, exit strategies as a powerful form of struggle, and unorganized protests without any lasting solidarity as "class struggle without class organization".
47. Title: Sovereign Power and the Law in China

Authors: Fu, Hualing

Abstract: In this meticulously documented and carefully researched book, Flora Sapio presents the various zones of legal exception in which personal freedom is removed, without formal accusation and due process. Since it is state law that creates the state of lawlessness, law is not part of the solution, and the remedies have to occur at a more fundamental political level.
48. Title: Student Loans in China: Efficiency, Equity, and Social Justice

Authors: Wei, Jianguo

Abstract: By exploring the evolution of China's student financial aid system in the context of national and international trends, Cheng makes interesting connections between higher education reform and democracy. [...] Cheng's book is a compelling academic monograph concerning China's student financial aid system.
49. Title: Foreign Firms, Investment, and Environmental Regulation in the People's Republic of China

Authors: Ohshita, Stephanie

Abstract: After providing a solid overview of the institutional and regulatory landscape of environmental protection in China (Chapters 2 and 3), noting a strengthening of China's environmental regime over time, the book turns to examining government and industry behavior around FDI and environmental protection. In the quest for FDI, government officials in relatively poorer, less attractive localities race to make concessions - including bypassing environmental standards - to lure foreign firms, especially small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
50. Title: The Politics of Nuclear Energy in China

Authors: Lin, Kun-Chin

Abstract: [...] this book provides another representative case study of the effects of corporatization of state-owned enterprises in sectors with natural monopoly characteristics, network externality factors and power bases spread out across former ministries.
51. Title: Nuclear Energy Development in Asia: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Wang, Haibin

Abstract: The development of India's nuclear energy program has been mainly driven by security considerations. [...] in different ways, high politics (national security and politics) have outweighed low politics (economy and society) and acted as the main driver of nuclear energy development in all the countries surveyed.
52. Title: Inside China's Grand Strategy: The Perspective from the People's Republic

Authors: Carlson, Allen

Abstract: [...] as a translation of a work that was written almost a decade ago, it comes across in many places as more retrospective than prospective (even with the inclusion of Ye's own prefece and postscript, and his translators' introduction, which are of more recent vintage). [...] the main empirical chapters suffer from an over-abundance of disjointed statistical data and references, while the overall organization of the book is also somewhat repetitive and uneven.
53. Title: The Military Lens: Doctrinal Difference and Deterrence Failure in Sino-American Relations

Authors: Boutilier, James

Abstract: For their part, having waged war successfully for over 20 years, the Chinese remained supremely confident that they would prevail. [...] the evidence "strongly supports the doctrinal difference misperception hypothesis" (p. 149).
54. Title: The Great Wall at Sea: China's Navy in the Twenty-first Century

Authors: Boutilier, James

Abstract: Central to that rise has been the evolution of a powerful export-led economy, characterized by China's existential dependence on seaborne commerce, the explosive growth of coastal production zones and the nation's insatiable demand for imported energy, the bulk of which comes by sea. Not only does he provide invaluable insights into the evolution of ship types, the PLAN'S recruitment, education and retention strategies, China's offshore interests (where Beijing tends to play fest and loose with the application of the UN Convention Law of the Sea), and the PLAN'S organizational structure, but he provides sage analysis of the PLAN'S strengths and weaknesses.

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