The Carpathians: populace, ethnos, civilization
2014. Vol. 5.
UDК 215 (477) Sviatoslav Kyiak
BBК 86.375-1 (Ivano-Frankivsk, Ukraine)
Historical origins of Ukrainian Christianity to the baptism of Rus’-Ukraine
In the article are analyzed the problem of Ukrainian historical origins of Christianity the official baptism of Rus’-Ukraine 988. Numerous references have ancient roots of early Ukrainian apostolic Christianity, characterized by distinct catholics character – universal character, serve as confirmation of active direct and indirect contacts of the early Christian community of the Kievan state of the Holy See. Has certified the existence in the mid ninth century. Metropolis in Kyiv and Kyiv confirmed inherency Christianity Slavic elements theological heritage devotees universal Christianity – Saints Cyril and Methodius and the Slavic rite concluded these saints and approved 867, the Pope Adrian II.
Keywords: Rus’-Ukraine, Kiev Christianity, Kiev Church, Slavonic rite, Kyiv Metropolis.
Modern historical science shows that for early Ukrainian Christianity from most of its beginning to the official baptism of Rus-Ukraine in 988 was inherent universal - Catholic character, which was revealed in the inseparable unity it with the Universal (Catholic) church and organically combined with the preservation of Eastern and Local Christian traditions. Therefore, in the above context, it is particularly important to explore the theological and historical roots, and the process of becoming Ukrainian Catholicism for its creation reasonable, objective historiosophical picture of the origins and formation of Ukrainian Christianity.
The above issues are relatively less explored in theological and historical literature - traditionally investigates the causes and history of the baptism of Ukraine and Ukrainian Christianity after becoming 988. Therefore, for an objective, scientifically-based study of the origins of Ukrainian Christianity we chose a slightly different time slice of its research - a study of the historical background and ecumenical roots and beginnings of Christianity in Ukraine, who have received the confirmation of history and church history. It has at least confirmed that not only at the time of the baptism of Rus-Ukraine Ukrainian Christianity was, but after he left, catholic (universal), connected with Apostolic - Rome, because at that time there was no division of Universal Christ Church on East - West and Orthodox - Catholic.
© S. Kyyak, 2014
Already on I-II centuries after Christ in Christianity to refer all-Lena essentially used definition of the church "catholic," which in Greek means "wholeness" or "according to the integrity" (kath'holon), and therefore all that is universal, universal, which meets in Old Church Slavonic language the word "Catholic" - "catholic." All these terms are synonymous to the term "Catholic".
The Catholic Church already from apostolic times (see D.: .: 4, 32 and more, 8, 4 and beyond), being united, that is Catholic in nature, nature, structure and purpose of the world (Mark.: 16 15 ; .: Mt 24, 14; Rom.: 10, 18), during all periods of its history up to now has his sense nespovnennya because, always abounding historically, it develops, on the other hand, remains unchanged. Such it status allows her to consider unity not only necessary but also zavdannyam1.
It is this "conciliar", "catholic" - Catholic, truly Christ, understanding Christianity came to Ukrainian lands long before the baptism of Rus-Ukraine Prince Volodymyr the Great in 988 and Christianity as a tolerated the government and people religion spread in the Ukrainian lands already more than a hundred years before the official baptism, and almost 120 years prior to this date there they Tmutarakanska Archdiocese of the so-called Azov Russia and almost 100 years - Przemysl diocese, not to mention the spread of Christianity among pre Ukrainians - the Scythians and their descendants and the West lands of Ukraine, as well as in the Black Sea city-states that were Greek colonies, where the bishopric was established already in the III-IV centuries.
We can assume that the oldest evidence that Christ's Gospel in the first decades of Christianity preached and in the then Scythia - Praukrayiny are references to the land of Saint Paul in the Epistle to the Colossians (3: 11): "As has neither Greek nor Jew, circumcision nor, no trimming, no Barbarian, no Scythian, neither slave nor free, but all and in all - Christ".
The very first authentic historical bearer of Christ, truly universal - Catholic teaching on Ukrainian lands was the holy Apostle Andrew, of which the so-called "Svyatoandriyivska legend" Christianization of Ukraine, which supported both Byzantium and Kievan princes Monomahovychi2, as is historically proven fact Apostle Andrew missionary journey to Asia Minor, the Crimea, Dnieper and Greece. These lands were in close proximity to Sinopcities, which contained the pulpit, which was the seat of the apostle. It is reported not only old Ukrainian chronicle "Tale of Bygone Years" but also confirms the Christian writer of the third century, Origen, evidence which suggests historian Eusebius of Caesarea in the "Ecclesiastical History", recounting distribution missionary territories among the apostles: "John got Scythia, John - Asia , Peter looks preached in Ponti (in the Ukrainian Black Sea. - Comm. aut.), and finally he preached in Rome, where he was crucified upside down at his own request. "3 The fact that missionary activity of the Apostle Andrew confirmed by the numerous stories of other church historians and theologians: Hippolytus of Rome (III.), Eusebius of Caesarea (IV c.), Yevheriya Lyons (end of IV - beginning of V in.), Epiphany Cyprus (VIII century). , and the description of St. Apostle Andrew listed in ancient chronicles, according to Michael Braychevsky, originates from the Byzantine apocryphal stories about walking to Andrew marmidonyan countries - Russia, as it was called at the end of millennium Byzantines. From this description refers to the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Ducas (1071-1078) in a letter to the prince of Kiev Vsevolod (1077-1093), which is evidence that the Rus mission St. Andrew was well known in the Byzantine Empire, and not caused protest and zaperechen4.
Historical facts ancient Christian past of Ukraine, especially its southern part is found by archaeologists in 1965 from the ruins of the church of the first century - from apostolic times in the Greek city-colony Tanais, which belonged to the kingdom of Bosphorus, which then was under the authority of Rome. The church was built on the surface, and therefore not a catacomb church that was built before '62 after Christmas time to the persecution of Christians by the Roman Emperor Neronom5. It found various church inventory, including forms for baking loaves (holy bread): two without cross and five on the cross and in the Ukrainian Black Sea coast, particularly in the Crimea, many gravestones monuments of the time found images of famous Christian symbols: the vine, fish, hresta6.
These data provide historical play route missionary journey of the Apostle Andrew: Sinop - Hersonissos - Phanagoria (later name Tmutarakan) - Azov Sea - Tanais - Novaris (River Don) - the lower and middle Dnieper.
Christianity in Ukraine in the first centuries after Christ penetrated not only the south but also in the west, in the second century., During the reign of the Roman Emperor Trajan (98-117) South Bessarabia and part of today were Pokuttya outskirts of the Roman Empire, known as the " Moesia "where Christians banished into exile, and they fled persecution by the Roman authorities. And, obviously, because of these people was the spread of Christianity in the western territories of Ukraine, since, according to the statements of the Archbishop and Professor, Doctor of Philosophy Igor Isichenko, along the eastern border of the province in the third century already there were two dioceses, bishops chaired lyuvani: urban Tomi (Constanta) and Martsiyanopoli (Preslav)7. On these early missionaries and the early Christians in the Ukrainian lands also shows Christian apologist and writer of the late second - early third centuries Tertulian8. It is this church historian among the list of many people of the Roman Empire, which had already received Christ and "submitted themselves to Christ" leads Sarmatians and Scythians - praukrayintsiv9, thus confirming the universal-universal nature of pre-Ukrainian Christianity.
As you know, in the II-III in large parts of Ukraine was common Slavic culture, most of which is concentrated in the sights basin Ros, who as certifying these monuments had a close relationship with the Greek-Latin world, through which spread to Ukraine Christian influences. Thus, archaeologists ornaments Chernyakhivsky dishes often encounter the cross, not only in combination with other elements of the ornament, but also to and between Chernyakhovsky attractions found and so-called "loaves" - pottery with a cross. In addition, the fact influences the Christian tradition in Chernyakhov culture is the existence in it along with cremation and trupopokladennya the ground - typically Christian rite pohovannya10. But doubtless confirmation of the population of Ukraine chernyahivtion days to Christianity, according to Michael Braychevsky are archaeological discovery made in Chernyakhovsk settlement near the village. Chornivka (Chernivtsi region): they found mold for casting crosses, which is irrefutable proof of local rather than imported origin insihniy11.
With the advent of Goths and Huns in the land of Ukraine in the third century Christian priests and the whole community were among them missionaries and martyrs have shown loyalty to Christ to science, particularly in the fight against Arianism, which prevailed among the Goths. These missionaries were, in t. Ch. Chersonesus bishops who were martyred: Basil, Ephraim, Capito, Eugene, ether, and Alpidiy Ahatofor, the memory of which Ukrainian Catholic Church celebrates 20 March, and more than 370 martyrs in the period around Ukrainian Prychornomor'yi12. In addition, as the Filostorhiy - scholar of church history, "with the Scythians" arrived ready Urfila Bishop, who translated the Bible Gothic language and the then Bishop Gothic hrystyyan13.
The device of Christ Church at the beginning of the fourth century, according to statements arhiyepys- dug Miroslav Marusin not based on any national policy or on the basis of language, resulting in extensive missionary activity of the Church among pagan peoples, including the territory of the then Praukrayiny14. Then there was no superechnosdren between the Latin and Greek churches Greek everywhere odds along with Latin and Greece itself, together with almost the whole Balkan Peninsula was under Roman jurisdiction.
The nature of the spread of Christianity in Ukraine in the IV century, in particular the formation of its hierarchy by the fact that in the first - Nicene Ecumenical Council of the Church of Christ in the year 325 participated bishop of Scythia informs the Byzantine historian Eusebius in his work "The Life of Blessed Emperor Constantine "(Book III), and the then bishops of southern Ukraine blast furnace Bosphorus, Philip Chersonese, Theophilus Hotskyy15. Other leaders of the early church, including St. John Chrysostom (died 407 g.) And historian of the fourth century. Saint Athanasius of Alexandria (300-373) not only gave certain information about the Christianization of the region, but they themselves contributed to it. Thus, the Greek church historian Teodoryt, writing in the words of praise in honor of St. John Chrysostom in exile last time his missionary work among the Scythian nomads, emphasizes that this holy sent to the Scythians on the Danube missionaries first "... put altars in the monastery, living in carts."16.
Himself holy homilite in the Gospel of Matthew notes that the Scythians and Sarmatians, "translating the Scriptures everyone on their language, philosophizing about those words."17 And St. Athanasius in his treatise "On zalyudnennya world" recalls the evangelization of the Scythians, along with Ethiopians, Persians, Armenians and hotamy18.
Important facts about the Scythians belong to ecumenical Christianity brought a number of other historians and ecclesiastics IV-V centuries, and which gives detailed analysis M. Braychevskyy cited in his work, particularly evidenced by the Bishop Konstantskyy Epiphany (about 314-367), Eusebius Jerome (30-40-ies IV century. - 420 p.), who wrote that "the cold of Scythia burning fervor of faith" Kirskyy Theodoret (390-457), Hermias Sozomen (first half of V in.) 19.
A further significant evidence catholicity of the Church of the first centuries was part of Bishops of Khersones in II-IV Ecumenical Council: St. Eteria - the second (381 g.) And Bishop Longinus - the third (431 g.) And fourth (451). Ecumenical councils .
Effective factor Catholic Christianization of Ukraine was the fact that it is from the south end of the century and by the end of iconoclasm in the church (842 g.) Served as a place of exile of many Christians - bishops, priests, religious and even popes of Rome - St. Clement I (88-97 years.) And Martin I (649-655 gg.). In particular, St. Clement, also known as Clement of Rome (the bishop of Rome during 88-97 years.), Who along with two thousand other Christians exile in Chersonesos. It was the third Successor of Peter in Rome and it is believed by some researchers, the Apostle Peter ordained a priest. Within a short time of his stay in Crimea there were built 75 Christian holy sites and increased the number of Christians in particular, he prysluzhyvsya to the Christianization of the Goths, for which he was sentenced to 97 year in death and drowned in the Black mori20. This holy not only its activities and martyrdom, but science, in t. Ch. Corinthians, helped consolidate the Catholic character of Christ's Church and its power in the history of Ukrainian Catholicism played a special role - they revered celebration in our church and in the important moments of its history it was used to bless novopostavlenyh Primate of the Ukrainian church, the church is demonstrated loyalty of its age-old Catholic tradition - The only Church of Christ.
Starting from the V century, the spread of Christianity in Ukraine are tangible effects of Constantinople, who, following Rome, showed commitment to the spread of Christianity outside of their own state, which eventually was used by the Byzantine political purpose - to influence the neighboring nations, which was one of tsezaropapizmu Byzantine foundations. In particular, this idea contributed to the desire of the Byzantine Empire through conversion to Christianity affect the then young Ruthenian state ob'yed ment headed by Prince Kyi, which successfully developed, carried out campaigns on the Danube and the Balkans, gaining authority in Byzantium. So last Kyi during his visit to Constantinople with honors entered into a mutually beneficial agreement with him and Prince converted to Christianity. This contemporary witness of the events of John Nicky, emphasizing that the prince has "... in his youth was baptized and brought up in Constantinople in the depths of Christianity."21 However, the problem of the baptism of Prince importance for the whole of the then Russian people as stresses M.Braychevskyy remains open and requires further research sources, including from the standpoint of Christianity spread among the people and influence of Byzantium to Russia at the time.
Active hierarchy Southern territories as part of the universal church is not interrupted in VI-VII centuries Bishop of Chersonese George and Dora took part in the famous Trulskomu Local Council in the year 662, an act which were signed by this eparch. And in the period of iconoclasm - call time catholicity of Christianity - suffered as bishop hoftiyskyy Ioan22. In the second half of the VIII century, fleeing from the persecution of Emperor Constantine V Copronymus (741- 775) to Surozh (modern Sudak) came Confessor Stephen, later nicknamed "Sourozh", which in 787 was in the rank of bishop Sourozh took part in VII (II Nicene ) Ecumenical Council and was active as a missionary among the Gentiles, which many converted to Christianity, including even the then Russian prince Bravlyna23.
A special activation process of Christianization of Ukrainian lands historians date the end VIII - the beginning of the ninth century, when, after creating the Kuban Tmutarakan episcopacy as one of the dioceses Dorian or Gotha Metropolis, tyyanstvo Christ began to spread rather quickly on land Ukraine24. One evidence of this just was already mentioned the baptism of Prince of - Bravlin and all his wife after going to Suhdu, Alan Greek colony in the Crimea, and building Christian community in Kiev, the first church - St. Elijah, who lived in the subsequent history of Kievan Christianity appears as a cathedral in the city, that is, as the seat of the bishop, or according to some - even the Archbishop, Metropolitan.
The next crucial step in the formation of Ukrainian Christianity as part of the universal - Catholic Christianity and as a historical beginning of the formation of the Kiev church was baptized Rus Prince Askold and boyars, which, according to some sources, occurred during the first campaign of Prince at Constantinople in 860, during the reign of the Byzantine Emperor Michael III Vypyvaka (856-867), or, according to other sources, during the second campaign in 867, already in the reign of Emperor Basil and Macedonians (867-886). These campaigns were extremely successful for Kyiv since completed the signing of lucrative contracts. And as says M. Braychevskyy after a number of prominent historians centuries past, the lack of information on foreign sources later (988). Official Volodymyr's baptism of Rus-Ukraine is just a by proof that the official act of Christianity in Kievan state has already taken place in 860 or 867, for Askolda25. Thus historians refer to the encyclical - the socalled Epistle Photios, which recorded the fact of the Baptism of the act and purpose for her bishop or archbishop, because the encyclical is not called rank assigned arhiyereya26. This fact is confirmed by other Greek and Muslim sources, including product grandson of Emperor Basil and Macedonians - Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus (913-959), which refers to the miracle nezhorannya books in the fire of the Gospel, which accelerated the conversion of Rus and Facts ordination in 867 Ignatius, the Patriarch of Constantinople, who in the same year was returned Basil and Macedonians to the patriarchal throne, Archbishop for Rusi-Ukraine, who settled in Kiev (here, in our opinion, talking about Kyiv St. Elijah). This year we have 860, followed by a number of researchers to this problem, consider the date of the first baptism of Rus-Ukraine, and 867 a year - the date of the rise of the Kiev church hierarchy. The first baptism of Rus-Ukraine also confirmed by Vatican sources, according to which this act took place somewhere between 853 and 889 rokamy27.
An important argument in favor of these findings is the fact that, as the cardinal and papal librarian Cesare Baronius28 and confirms the "Tale of Bygone Years"29 Ecumenical Patriarch Ignatius sends to Ukraine Archbishop, that the Metropolitan, and Cyril (Constantine the Philosopher) and Athanasius - Two "holy men" as they calls the historian Isidore Nahayevskyy30. The first of them was one of two brothers Thessaloniki - "Apostles of the Slavs" St. Cyril, who brought with him to Ukraine skoe Slavic writing. It is "the apostles of the Slavs" as says I.Nahayevskyy, Saints Cyril and Methodius during the first Patriarchate St. Ignatius, about 848 years, made the first official missionary trip to Russia-Ukraine on the instructions of the Apostolic Prestolu31. Thus, according to the proof I.Nahayevskoho, St. Cyril, as a bishop, was appointed head of the mission or legate of the Apostolic See. This fact indicates that the "apostles of the Slavs" brought in Ukraine as it were "absolutely canonical" Christianity is the true universal - Catholic Christianity, which at the time was not yet struck later schism Photios (860 g.) To ground misinterpretation him Filioque - the doctrine of the Holy Spirit, as well as some other controversial dogmatic theses, which later Photios, however, withdrew, and this grew into a schism not break the unity of the then Eastern and Western churches and has not led to formal division of the Catholic Church. That is obvious is the fact that the Christian Rus-Ukraine became a member of the Universal - the Catholic Church in the 60 years of the ninth century, as, as the then Byzantine church in communion with Rome. This "universal canonical" early church confirmed Kyiv as the use while Slavonic liturgical books and liturgical vidpravlyannya in Slavic rite which concluded holy brothers and even persuaded the Synod of Bishops of the Universal Church of Christ in the necessity of introduction of the Slavic peoples and Pope Adrian II in 867, officially approved the use of Slavic language in holy liturgy and thus its power introduced this new Slavic rite throughout the universal church, which spread to Ukraine and this svyati32. This clearly indicates that early Christianity was formed on Ukrainian Cyril and Methodius tradition and efforts Thessaloniki brothers in a short time was essentially created a new church organization initiated Slavic theological and philosophical shkoly33.
The missionary work of Saints Cyril and Methodius in Ukraine lasted intermittently for 843-862 years. The positive progress of the work and, consequently, the spread of Christianity among pre Ukrainians were apparently so great that we can assume that the Enlightenment to our people were able to acquire and organize, through its work in Ukraine, knowledge and experience. This knowledge prysluzhylysya them for making liturgical books Slavic language and Slavic liturgical rite generally approved in 867 Apostolic for all Slavic peoples. In the same year, as already mentioned, Ecumenical Patriarch Ignatius sends in Ukraine Archbishop, Metropolitan Michael, Bulgarian and showed formation of church structure then Kievan Church, which was part of the Universal Church, which confirms the Regulation Byzantine Emperor Leo VI Philosopher (866-912) in which under 61 m n number listed mytropoliya34.
Overall story Askold baptism of Rus-Ukraine shows, firstly, the Catholic character of the then Ukrainian Christianity, which in early on characteristics of spirituality different, particularly from the Byzantine tradition of monastic life, based on the tradition of Cyril and Methodius Christianity proof why is the emergence of the Ukrainian lands already in the 70s IX. first monasteries, including the Pochaivskiy monastyr35. This obviously did not suit Constantinople and later Moscow Orthodoxy, so that time in Christian history Ukraine has many ambiguities and unproven facts. Proof of this is at least how rightly observes historian Jaroslav Zaborowski that 882, or about 20 years after the baptism of Askold, Kyiv is a coup and the killing of a Christian Prince Oleg of Novgorod. This prince started pagan anti-Christian terror in the country, but the Patriarchate of Constantinople not only does not react to it, but not canonized as a Christian Prince Askold muchenyka36. But in popular memory tomb of Prince earned much respect – it built St. Nicholas. Secondly, suppression or diminution of value Askold Baptism is evidence of the presence of Byzantine-Muscovite censor Ukrainian historiography of early Christian history or even falsification of historical events. Yes, Michael Braichevsky, quoting Boris Rybakov, proves that the third edition of "The Tale of Bygone Years" concluded about 1118, even were removed "from the manuscript ... Nestor all information about Christianity in Rus 860-870 years by patriarchs Photius and Ignatius, who had his story to legend koresponduvaty of Christianity in Moravia and Bulgaria. In their place emerged a Baptism of Sts Volodymyr Monomakh namesake, and the first Christ tyyanamy the general baptism called Normans"37. It Monomakh in 1116 ordered by Superior Vydubychi Monastery Sylvester zredahuvaty "Story", which he did by signing her own name. However, shows Cardinal M. I. Lyubachivskyy referred to falsification of the record was not the last, and for the next 250 years "story" yet repeatedly revised and rewritten, but she still preserved in the most objective Laurentian (1376) and Ipatyevskaya (early fifteenth century) spyskah38. Initiated by Vladimir Monomakh falsification "Tale" is consistent with the official common "Byzantine" model Volodymyr's baptism of Rus, despite the almost constant military conflicts Kievan princes with the state, which serves traditional historiography as Baptist Rousseau (the last hike took place even in 1043, more than than half a century after Volodymyr's baptism).
Isidore Nahayevskyy agrees with the above conclusion that oseredmissionary work of St. com. Cyril and seat of the Archbishop - Metropolitan of Kyiv Rus was, which then reigned Askold. Proof of this is mentioned in the "Tale of Bygone Years" oath of the Kiev Christians to maintain their loyalty to the contract Kyiv Prince Igor with the Greeks in 945, composed in "cathedral", that cathedral St. Elijah. It is this clarification of the dignity of the church indicates the presence in Kiev at the time of the bishop and even archbishop.
In total, the rule on the Kiev throne Prince Igor anti-Christian persecution ceased, and instead continued the Christianization of Ukraine, especially among the fields, which did not oppose Prince Igor, which some researchers describe as secret or "internal" hrystyyanyna39 that overall the evidence of tolerance Rurik Christianity . A special acknowledgment was this time the Management Board on the Kiev throne Princess Olga (945-963).
Princess Olga was an active Christian practitioner who not only had his personal confessor, chaplain, but her reign Christianity in Ukraine more ukripylosya and thus the ground had been prepared to Ukraine Volodymyr's baptism in 988.
It was during the reign of Princess Olga, who after baptism received the name Helena and who was the first Christian in Kyiv princely throne and was later proclaimed the Universal Church of the Holy and Apostolic and by the West tytuluvaly "Helena Russorum Regina" (lat.:"Queen Helen Rus"), strengthened ecumenical - Ukrainian Catholic roots of Christianity. She started official contacts with the Catholic Church: the 959 and 962, respectively princess sent an embassy to Emperor Otto I request to send clergy to the early Christian mission in Ukraine after its contacts to the same purpose from Constantinople in 957 he gave nothing to Ukraine (which, in our opinion, could be a reaction to the spread of the Byzantine church in Ukraine Askold time of Cyril and Methodius Christianity). Instead Byzantium again resorted to censoring our church history: Byzantine priests and historians diligently took care to remove from the Ukrainian chronicle sources notification of these measures Princess Olga, but because of them was well aware from Western sources, in particular the "monumental Germanic history" and with other German litopysiv40. In celebration of Christmas 960 in Frankfurt am Main, in the presence of King Otto, was ordained the first bishop to Kievan Rus in the face Lybutiya monk, who, however, came to Kyiv as a month after ordination he died. But the repeated request of Princess Olga Otto took care of the deceased bishop ordained successor in the person Adalberta41 monk, who immediately went to Russia and came to Kyiv in late 961 or early 962 years. However, at that time on the throne was sitting Kyiv Prince Svyatoslav, which not only restored ushanuvannya pagan gods, but again, after a reign of Oleg started the anti-Christian persecution in the country. In such circumstances the mission Adalbert was impossible, so he came back.
Princess Olga already initiated contacts with Rome were further developed by Prince Yaropolk (972-978), whose Catholic sympathies were known, and he was even a year before his death, according to historian V. Parhomenko was baptized Catholic Bishop Bruno-Boniface. The latter, according to foreign sources, is considered the first Baptist Rusi42. In 977, the Prince Yaropolk contacts with Rome became a particular extension: Pope Benedict VII for the first time in the history of Ukraine sent their ambassadors to Russia to his request for the establishment of the Catholic hierarchy. However short the reign of this prince did not allow him to carry out his plan.
The fact of the baptism of Princess Olga did not cause any censure or opposition in the then Ukrainian society and its attempts initiation Ukraine the Christian world did not cause objections from the environment Princess and only political instability in the country is not allowed to implement this action, and finished it already grandson of Princess - Prince Vladimir.
In general, summing said on Ukrainian historical genesis of Christianity to the baptism of Rus-Ukraine in 988, we have grounds for such generalizations:
- Early Ukrainian apostolic Christianity has ancient roots and is characterized by expressive katolytskistyu - universal character, which implies the active direct and indirect contacts Praukrayiny and early Kievan state of Apostolskym See. In particular, the perception of science Saints Cyril and Methodius Ukrainian people demonstrated his faith in the one, holy, catholic - Catholic, apostolic church. Honoring all these holy Catholic Church on July 5, and the Ukrainian Catholic Church on May 24 and celebrate the last day of February 27 Church St. memory. Cyril and April 19 Remembrance Day St. Methodius, in contrast to the Greek Orthodox Church, which recognizes the apostles and saints in general does not respect them, confirming the historical-theological and ritual universality - katolytskist Ukrainian Christianity;
- The ambiguity of Byzantine origin and nature of early (dovolodymyrovoho) Ukrainian Christianity cite facts vidtsenzurovanosti the then Byzantine historian historical truth of the baptism of Ukraine Prince Askold, and the fact that after this act of Russia remained in the eyes of European Christian country, in particular, confirmed contacts Princess Olga of Rome with a view to the Christianization of Ukraine and provide it with the clergy and the Church hierarchy;
- Catholic (Ecumenical) roots and Catholic theological and liturgical content Ukrainian early Christianity witnessed by close historical connectedness of early Christianity with his Ukrainian universal Church through the Byzantine church at that time combined with the first, and later - direct links princess Olga and Prince Yaropolk with the Apostolic See and the universality Slavic (Cyril and Methodius) Christian rite approved 867 year Pope Adrian II received Ukrainian and Christianity, which completed the combination of Byzantine and Slavic rite Ukrainian elements. Thus, even Christianity was officially introduced by St. Vladimir the Great in Ukraine for 66 years to separation unified Christian church was not yet divided into Catholic and Orthodox in the modern sense, because then there was no division of the Universal Church for two churches - Catholic the Pope headed and led by the Orthodox Patriarch of Constantinople;
- Universality (katolytskist) early Ukrainian Christianity derives also from the theological and ecclesiological principles, since it was based on one single Christ faith, who taught correctly, that is - the "right" to believe in Christ and "right" - the right (unchanged, not distorted on changes that have occurred in the Eastern church after the schism Kerulyariya 1054 - Comm. aut.) glorify Christ and it had universal - Catholic character, because with Byzantine churches recognized church hla- tion Successor of Peter - the Pope. This loyalty to the Church of Kyiv Petrovo wire Christ Church even after the split of the Universal Church in 1054 remained a feature of Ukrainian Christianity.
1 Sheptytsky A. Works / A. Sheptytsky. - Rome, 1983. - T. LVI-LVIII. - P. 99-103.
2 Bishop Sofron Mudry, OSBM. Essay on the history of the church in Ukraine / Bishop Sofron Wise. - Ivano-Frankivsk, 1999. - P. 22. See P..: Bilanyuk About Ukrainian origin apostolic Church / Peter Bilanyuk // Readings Millennium baptism of Rus-Ukraine. - Philadelphia; Toronto: S.K.V.O.R., 1986. - P. 23.
3 Shevcyv I. Christian Ukraine. Selected Works / Ivan Shevcyv. - K.; Drohobych, Kolo, 2003. - P. 109.
4 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 10-11.
5 See .: Svevcyv I. Christian Ukraine. Selected Works / Ivan Shevcyv. - K.; Drohobych, Kolo, 2003. - P. 109.
6 Kramar E. From Apostle Andrew to Prince Vladimir. Outline of the history of the Christianization of Ukraine's 988 / E. Kramar. - Ivano-Frankivsk: Galicia, 1992. - P. 15.
7 Archbishop Isichenko I. History of the Christian Church in Ukraine / Archbishop Ihor Isichenko. - H.: Act 2003. - P.33.
8 See .: Svevcyv I. Christian Ukraine. Selected Works / Ivan Shevcyv. - K.; Drohobych, Kolo, 2003. - P. 111.
9 Harkovschenko EA Sofiynist Kyivan Christianity / Harkovschenko EA - K.: Science. opinion, 2003. - P. 25. See E. Kramar .: From Apostle Andrew to Prince Vladimir. Outline of the history of the Christianization of Ukraine to 988. - Ivano-Frankivsk: Galicia, 1992. - P. 20.
10 Kramar E. From Apostle Andrew to Prince Vladimir. Outline of the history of the Christianization of Ukraine's 988 / E. Kramar. - Ivano-Frankivsk: Galicia, 1992. - P. 22-23.
11 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 20.
12 Posiko S. History of the people and the church in Ukraine old / C Posiko. - Lviv, 1998. - P. 9-10.
13 Harkovschenko EA Sofiynist Kyivan Christianity / Harkovschenko EA - K.: Science. opinion, 2003. - P. 25. See E. Kramar .: From Apostle Andrew to Prince Vladimir. Outline of the history of the Christianization of Ukraine to 988. - Ivano-Frankivsk: Galicia, 1992. - P. 26.
14 Archbishop Isichenko I. History of the Christian Church in Ukraine / Archbishop Ihor Isichenko. - H.: Act 2003. - P. 3
15 See. Harkovschenko EA Sofiynist Kyivan Christianity / Harkovschenko EA - K.: Science. opinion, 2003. - P. 25. See E. Kramar .: From Apostle Andrew to Prince Vladimir. Outline of the history of the Christianization of Ukraine to 988. - Ivano-Frankivsk: Galicia, 1992. - P. 25.
16 Hubatiy M. History of Christianity in Rus-Ukraine / Crested Moscow - Rome New York, 1965. - TI - P. 72. See .: I. Archbishop Isichenko history of Christ Church in Ukraine / Archbishop Ihor Isichenko. - H.: Act 2003. - S. 34.
17 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 12-13.
18 See .: Svevcyv I. Christian Ukraine. Selected Works / Ivan Shevcyv. - K.; Drohobych, Kolo, 2003. - P. 111.
19 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 12-13.
20 Labunka M. St. Clement Pope and Ukraine / Miroslav Labunka // Patriarchate. - 2004. - Part 2 - April-March. - P. 21. See .: Pryslak M. Millenio del Batessimo della Rus’- Ucraina. Memoria e profezia (988–1988) / Pryslak Michaele. – Roma : Tipografia S.G.S., 1988. – Р. 14.
21 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 30-32.
22 V. Shevchenko Orthodox-Catholic polemics and problems in life Rusy- uniynosti Ukraine doberesteyskoho period / V. Shevchenko - Kyiv, Ukraine Press, 2002. - P. 30.
23 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 33.
24 Bishop Sofron Wise. Essay on the History of the Church in Ukraine / Bishop Sofron Wise. - Ivano-Frankivsk: Izdatel'stvo IFTKDI, 1999. - P. 38.
25 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 38, 63.
26 Ibid. - P. 50.
27 Yarotskiy P. Religion: teach. guidances. / Yarotskiy P. - K: Condor, 2004. - P. 82.
28 Baronius C. Annales ecclesiastici / Baronius C. – Antverpiae, 1603. – Vol. VII. – Appendix : De Ruthenis. – Р. 721.
See "Tale vremennыh years" / ed. D. Likhachev. - Moscow
; Leningrad, 1950. - P. 19.
30 Nahayevskyy I. Cyril and Methodius Christianity in Rus-Ukraine / Isidore Nahayevskyy. - Rome: Izdatel'stvo Basilian Fathers, 1954. - P. 14.
31 Ibid. - P. 21, 26, 54.
32 Ibid. - P. 54, 61.
33 See. Harkovschenko EA Slavs lived baptized? / Harkovschenko EA // The man and the world. - 2004. - № 2 (521). - P. 33.
34 Harkovschenko EA Sofiynist Kyivan Christianity / Harkovschenko EA - K.: Science. opinion, 2003. - P. 32.
35 See A. Hudyma .: Pochayiv monastery in the historical fate of Ukrainians / Hudyma A. // Pochayiv monastery in the context of the history and spirituality of the Ukrainian people Sciences thesis. Conf. - Ternopil, 1995. - P. 16-21.
36 See Ya .: Zaborowski paths of history / Zaborowski am - Ivano-Frankivsk, 2003. - P. 8.
37 Braichevsky M. Adoption of Christianity in / Braichevsky M. - C.: Science. opinion, 1988. - P. 45.
38 His Beatitude Myroslav Ivan Cardinal Father Lubachivsky. Is was the baptism of 988? / Father, His Beatitude Myroslav Ivan Cardinal Lubachivsky. - Rome Munich: Eng. Educational Inst, 1986. - P. 8.
39 See Harkovschenko .: EA Sofiynist Kyivan Christianity / Harkovschenko EA - K.: Science. opinion, 2003. - P. 34.
40 Bishop Sofron Wise. Essay on the History of the Church in Ukraine / Bishop Sofron Wise. - Ivano-Frankivsk: Izdatel'stvo IFTKDI, 1999. - P. 41, 43.
41 Archbishop Miroslav (Marusin). The introduction of Christianity in Kievan Rus / Archbishop Miroslav (Marusin) // Notes OSBM. - 1988. - T. XIII. - Vol. 1-4. - P. 7.
42 See Harkovschenko .: EA Sofiynist Kyivan Christianity / Harkovschenko EA - K.: Science. opinion, 2003. - P. 37.