The biology of leadership The relation between leadership, psychopathy and hormones



Download 436.06 Kb.
Page7/7
Date conversion21.02.2016
Size436.06 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7

6. Conclusion


This research has shown that several psychopathy traits are desirable to a mild extend. Boldness is needed in a mild version, because it is correlated with charm, empathy and taking charge. Charm, empathy and taking charge are factors that are important in leadership performance. Meanness is needed, because it is related to the need for achievement, a lower need for affiliation and risk taking. Need for achievement is important for leadership emergence, whereas need for affiliation and risk taking have a positive influence on leadership performance. The only negative effect meanness has is on agreeableness, which will be lower with a higher level of meanness. Disinhibition has a positive influence on risk taking. There can be assumed, that a small deviation from the population on psychopathy traits might be beneficial. A second research question is about the relationship between hormones and leadership. Unfortunately, the hormone results did not support the proposed theory, due to strong situational influences on hormones. The disappointing results do not reject the theory, that leadership is related to hormone base-levels. It indicates, that a different approach is needed to show possible significant results, an approach with less situational and environmental factors. An important finding is that the cortisol levels are very high in leaders, which indicates high levels of stress. This is a worrying result, because high stress levels and the inherently high cortisol levels are a cause of decreased job and leadership performance.

7. Limitations


There are several limitations to this research. First of all, the hormone data was not complete due to polluted samples. A share of the testosterone samples was not suitable for proper analysis, which resulted in a loss of data. The same goes for cortisol data, but to a smaller extent. This results in a smaller sample of certain tests (such as t-tests). Another shortcoming is the fact that the measurement points are not equal. Specifically, the time difference between measurement point 2 and 3 vary much. Measurement point 1 and 2 are set to measure the morning peak in hormone levels, whereas point 3 is set at 12:00 clock. The time difference between point 2 and 3 is a lot bigger for a person that wakes up at 04:00 o’clock compared to a person that wakes up at 10:00 o’clock. This can result in distorted data. A third shortcoming is the lack of partition between leadership emergence, leadership performance and leadership development. Leadership is measured by the leadership dummy, without looking at the different leadership criteria. This results in some contradicting results, as is the case with the influence of meanness. The fourth shortcoming and perhaps the biggest shortcoming, is the distortion of base-line hormone information by situational factors, which is inevitable in a non experimental setting. This results in very high cortisol levels in leaders, which is opposite of what is expected. Another shortcoming is the extent to which the psychopathy questionnaire of Patrick (2010) is suitable for measuring corporate psychopathy. The factors meanness and disinhibition are somewhat extreme for measuring corporate psychopathy, resulting in a lack of significant results in for example the t-tests. The last shortcoming is the fact that the included leadership factors do not cover the total range leadership traits. There is much unknown about leadership and much research should still be done.

Further research should include a factor that can be used to correct data in a way, that the influence of stress will be filtered out. This could be realised by including a factor that contains several items that measure stress. A psychopathy questionnaire should be created, in such a way, that it suitable for testing corporate psychopathy.


References


  1. Allio RJ. 2007. Bad leaders; how they get that way and what to do about them. Strategy and Leadership, 35 (3), 12–17.

  1. Allport, G. W.; Odbert, H. S. (1936). Trait names: A psycholexical study. Psychological Monographs , 47, 211.

  1. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, (4th ed., text rev.).

  1. Archer, J. (2006). Testosterone and human aggression: An evaluation of the challenge hypothesis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 319−345.

  1. Arnett, P.A. (1997). Autonomic responsivity in psychopaths: A critical review and theoretical proposal. Clinical Psychology Review, 17(8), 903−936.

  1. Babiak, P., Hare, R.D. (2006). Snakes in suits. Harper Collins E-Books

  1. Babiak, P., Hare, R.D. (2006). Snakes in suits: When psychopaths go to work. Los Angeles: Regan Books.

  1. Barber, H. F. (1990). Some personality characteristics of senior military officers. In K. E. Clark & M. B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership, (pp. 441-448)

  1. Barling, J., Slater, F., Kelloway, E.K. (2002). Transformational leadership and emotional intelligence: an exploratory study. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21 (3), 157- 161.

  1. Baron, R. A., & Byrne, D. (1987). Social psychology: Understanding human interaction (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

  1. Barrick, M.R., Mount, M.K. (1991) The big five personality dimensions and job performance: A meta-analysis. Personnel Psychology, 44, 1-26.

  1. Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.

  1. Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 19-31.

  1. Bass, B.M. (1997), ``Does the transactionaltransformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries?'', American Psychologist, 52 (2), pp. 130-139.

  1. Bird, C. (1940). Social psychology. New York: Appleton-Century.

  1. Blair, R.J.R. (2004). The roles of orbital frontal cortex in the modulation of antisocial behavior. Brain and Cognition, 55, 198−208.

  1. Blum, M. L., & Naylor, J. C. (1956). Industrial psychology: Its theoretical and social foundations. New York: Harper & Row.

  1. Boddy, C.R.P., Ladyshewsky, R., Galvin, P. (2010). Leaders without ethicts in global business: corporate psychopaths. Journal of public affairs, 10, 121-138.

  1. Borgatta, E.E. (1964). The structure of personality characteristics. Behavioral Science, 12, 8-17.

  1. Botwin, M.D., Buss, D.M. (1989). Structure of act-report data: Is the five-factor model of personality recaptured? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 56, 988-1001.

  1. Bums, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row.

  1. Cangemi, J.P. & Pfohl, W. (2009). Sociopaths in high places. Organizational Development Journal, 27(2), 85-96.

  1. Cattell, R. B., Marshall, M.B., Georgiades, S (1957). Personality and motivation: Structure and measurement. Journal of Personality Disorders 19: 53–67.

  1. Chusmir, L.H., Koberg, C.S. (1986). Creativity Differences among Managers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 240-253

  1. Cima, M., Smeets, T., Jelicic, M. (2008). Self-reported trauma, cortisol levels, and aggression in psychopathic and non-psychoathic prison inmates. Biological Psychiatry, 78, 75– 86.

  1. Cleckley, Hervey (1982). The Mask of Sanity. Revised Edition. Mosby Medical Library.

  1. Coates, J.M., Gurnell, M. Sarnyai, Z. (2008). From molecule to market: steroid hormones and financial risk-taking. Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society, 365, 331-343.

  1. Conley, J.J. (1985). Longitudinal stability of personality traits: A multitrait-multimethod multi-occasion analysis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, 1266-1282.

  1. Cummin, P. C. (1967). TAT correlates of executive performance. Journal of Applied Psychology 51, 78-81.

  1. Day, D.V., Schleicher, D.J., Unckless, A.L., Hiller, N.J. (2002). Self-Monitoring Personality at Work: A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Construct Validity. Journal of applied psychology, 87 (2), 390-401.

  1. Deveau, R. J. (1976). The relationships between the leadership effectiveness of first-line supervisors and measures of authoritarianism, creativity, general intelligence and leadership style. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 3-A, 1360-1361.

  1. DeVries, A.C., DeVries, M.B., Taymans, S., Carter, C.S. (1995). Modulation of pair bonding in female prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) by corticosterone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 92, 7744−7748.

  1. Digman, J.M., Takemoto-Chock, N.K. (1981). Factors in the natural language of personality: Re-Analysis, comparison, and interpretation of six major studies. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 16,149-170.

  1. Fiedler, F. E. (1971). Validation and extension of the contingency model of leadership effectiveness. A review of the empirical findings. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 128–148.

  1. Fiedler, F. E., & Garcia, J. E. (1987). New approaches to effective leadership: Cognitive resources and organizational performance. New York: Wiley.

  1. French, J. R. P., Raven, B. (1950). The bases of social power. In D. Cartwright and A. Zander. Group dynamics. New York: Harper & Row.

  1. Funder, D. C. (2001). The personality puzzle (2nd ed.). New York: Norton.

  1. Galton, F. (1869). Hereditary genius. New York: Appleton.

  1. Ghiselli, E. E., & Brown, C. W. (1955). Personnel and industrial psychology (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: McGraw-Hill.

  1. Ghiselli, E.E. (1973). The validity of aptitude tests in personnel selection. Personnel Psychology, 26, 461-477.

  1. Glenn, A & Raine, A. (2011). Increased Testosterone-to-Cortisol Ratio in Psychopathy. Journal of abnormal psychology, 120 (2), 389-399

  1. Goleman, D. (2008). Social intelligence and the biology of leadership. Harvard Business Revies, September, 74-81

  1. Gray, J.A. (1987). The psychology of fear and stress. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  1. Gregory, S., Ffytche, D., Simmons, A., Kumari, V., Howard, M., Hodgins, S., Blackwood, N. (2012) Archives of General Psychiatry 

  1. Gudmundsson, A. & Southey, G. (2011) Leadership and the rise of the corporate psychopath: What can business schools do about the ‘snakes inside’?. E-Journal of Social & Behavioural Research in Business, 2 (2), 18-27.

  1. Guion, R.M., Gottier, R.E. (1965). Validity of personality measures in personnel selection. Personnel Psychology, 18, 135-164.

  1. Hakel, M.D. (1974). Normative personality factors recovered from ratings of personality descriptors: The beholder’s eye. Personnel Psychology, 27, 409-421

  1. Hare, R.D., Hart, S.D., Harpur, T.J. (1991). Psychopathy and the DSM-IV criteria for antisocial personality disorder. Abnormal Psychology 100:391–8.

  1. Hayes, R.H., Abernathy, W.J. (2007) Managing Our Way to Economic Decline. Harvard Business Review, july-august, 138-151.

  1. Herriot, P., Manning, W.E., Kidd, J.M. (1997) The content of the psychological contract. British Journal of Management, 8, 151-162.

  1. Herrnstein, R.J., Murray, C. (1994). The Bell Curve. New York: The Free Press

  1. Holi, M., Auvinen-Lintunen, L., Lindberg, N., Tani, P., Virkkunen, M. (2006). Inverse correlation between severity of psychopathic traits and serum cortisol levels in young adult violent male offenders. Psychopathology, 39, 102–104.

  1. Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., LePine, J. A., Colquitt, J. A., & Hedlund, J. (1998). The multilevel theory of team decision-making: Explaining and controlling the decision accuracy of leaders and staff. Academy of Management Journal, 21, 269-282.

  1. Hough, L. (1992). The “Big Five” personality variables—construct confusion: Description versus prediction. Human Performance, 5, 139–155.

  1. House, R. J. (1988). Power and personality in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 10, 305–357.

  1. House, R.J., Spangler, W.D., Woycke, J. (1991) Personality and Charisma in the U.S. Presidency: A Psychological Theory of Leader Effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 3, pp. 364-396

  1. Howarth, E. (1976). Were Cattell’s ’personality sphere’ factors correctly identified in the first instance? British Journal of Psychology, 67, 213-230.

  1. Johnson, E.O., Kamilaris, T.C., Chrousos, G.P., Gold, P.W. (1992). Mechanisms of stress: A dynamic overview of hormonal and behavioral homeostasis. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 16, 115−130.

  1. Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 765–780.

  1. Judge, T. A., Bono, J. E., Ilies, R., & Gerhardt, M. W. (2002). Personality and leadership: A qualitative and quantitative review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 765–780.

  1. Judge, T.A., Colbert, A.E., Ilies, R. (2004). Intelligence and Leadership: A Quantitative Review and Test of Theoretical Propositions. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 89(5), 755-768.

  1. Kaufman, A.B., Butt, A.E., Kaufman. J.C., Colbert-White, E.N. (2011), “Towards a Neurobiology of Creativity in Nonhuman Animals”. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 125 (3), 255-272.

  1. Kenny, D. A., & Zaccaro, S. J. (1983). An estimate of variance due to traits in leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 678-685.

  1. Kirkpatrick, S. A., Locke, E. A. (1991). Leadership: Do traits matter? Academy of Management Executive, 5, 48–60.

  1. Kraft, U. (2005), “Unleashing creativity,” Scientific American, 16 (1), 16-21.

  1. Krug, S.E., Johns, E.F. (1986). A large scale cross-validation of second-order personality structure defined by the 16PF. Psychological Reporis, 59, 683-693.

  1. LePine, J. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., & Hedlund, J. (1997). The effects of individual differences on the performance of hierarchical decision making teams: Much more than G. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 803-811.

  1. Lord, R. G., De Vader, C. L., & Alliger, G. M. (1986). A meta-analysis of the relation between personality traits and leadership perceptions: An application of validity generalization procedures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 402–410.

  1. Lord, R. G., Foti, R. J., De Vader, C. L. (1984). A test of leadership categorization theory: Internal structure, information processing and leadership perceptions. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 343-378.

  1. Lorr, M., Manning, T.T. (1978). Higher-order personality factors of the ISI. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 13, 3-7.

  1. Mahaffey, K.J., Marcus, D.K. (2006). Interpersonal perception of psychopathy: a social relations analysis. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25(1), 53–74.

  1. Mandell, B., Shilpa, P. (2003). Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence and Transformational Leadership Style: A Gender Comparison. Journal of Business and Psychology, 17 (3), 387-404.

  1. Mann, R. D. (1959). A review of the relationship between personality and performance in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 241–270.

  1. Mayer, D., Salovey, S., Caruso, D.R. (2002) Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. MHS, p.59

  1. Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salovey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional development and emotional intelligence: Implications for educators, pp. 3 -31.

  1. Mayer, J.D., Caruso, D. (2002). The effective leader: Understanding and applying emotional intelligence. Ivey Business Journal, nov/dec, 1-5

  1. Mayer, J.D., Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. Intelligence, 17, 433-442.

  1. Mazur, A., Booth, A. (1998). Testosterone and dominance in men. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 21, 353–363.

  1. McCaulley, M. H. (1990). The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and leadership. In K. E. Clark & M. B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 381–418). West Orange, NJ: Leadership Library of America.

  1. McClelland, D. C. & R. E. Boyatzis (1982). Leadership motive pattern and long-term success in management. Journal of Applied Psychology 67,731-143.

  1. McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J. W., Clark, R. A., Lowell, E. L. (1958). A scoring manual for the achievement motive. In J. W. Atkinson (Ed.), Motives in fantasy, action, and society (pp. 179-204).

  1. McClelland, D. C., D. Burnham (1976). Power is the great motivator. Harvard Business Review, 100-l 10, 159-166.

  1. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1987). Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81–90.

  1. McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T. (1987) Validation of the five-factor model of personality across instruments and observers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 81-90.

  1. McCrae, R.R., & Costa, P.T. (1989). Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From the Perspective of the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality, 57, 17-40.

  1. McCrae, R.R., Costa, P.T. (1985). Updating Norman’s “adequate taxonomy”: Intelligence and personality dimensions in natural language and in questionnaires. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, 710-721.

  1. Morrow, I. J., & Stern, M. (1990). Stars, adversaries, producers, and phantoms at work: A new leadership typology. In K. E. Clark & M. B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership, (pp. 419 – 440).

  1. Muchinsky, P. M. (1983). Psychology applied to work. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.

  1. Mumford, M. D., & Connelly, M. S. (1991). Leaders as creators: Leader performance and problem solving in ill-defined domains. The Leadership Quarterly, 2, 289 –316.

  1. Mumford, M. D., Marks, M. A., Connelly, M. S., Zaccaro, S. J., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2000). Development of leadership skills: Experience and timing. The Leadership Quarterly, 11, 87–114.

  1. Mumford, M. D., Scott, G. M., Gaddis, B., & Strange, J. M. (2002). Leading creative people: Orchestrating expertise and relationships. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 705–750.

  1. Myers, I. B. & McCaulley, M. H.. (1985). Manual: A guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.

  1. Noller, P., Law, H., Comrey, A.L. (1987). Cattell, Comrey, and Eysenck personality factors compared: More evidence for the five robust factors? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 775-782.

  1. Norman, W. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 66, 574-583.

  1. Norman, W. T. (1963). Toward an adequate taxonomy of personality attributes: Replicated factor structure in peer nomination personality ratings. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology 66, 574–583.

  1. Patrick, C.J. (2010). Unpublished manual: Operationalizing the Triarchic Conceptualization of Psychopathy: Preliminary Description of Brief cales for asessment of Boldness, Meanness, and Disinhibition

  1. Pavlov, I.P. (1927). Conditioned Reflexes. New York: Dover.

  1. Peabody, D., Goldberg, L.R. (1989). Some determinants of factor structures from personality trait descriptors. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 57, 552-567.

  1. Peterson, R. S., Smith, D. B., Martorana, P. V., & Owens, P. D. (2003). The impact of chief executive personality in top management team dynamics: One mechanism by which leadership affects organizational performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 795–808.

  1. Plucker, J., Beghetto, R. A., & Dow, G. (2004). Why isn’t creativity more important to educational psychologists? Potential, pitfalls, and future directions in creativity research. Educational Psychologist, 39, 83–96.

  1. Ressler, N. (2004). Rewards and punishments, goal-directed behavior and consciousness. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 28, 27−39.

  1. Salgado, J.F. (1998): Big Five Personality Dimensions and Job Performance in Army and Civil Occupations: A European Perspective, Human Performance, 11:2-3, 271-288

  1. Schmitt, N., Gooding, R.Z., Noe, R.A., Kirsch, M. (1984). Meta-analyses of validity studies published between 1964 and 1982 and the investigation of study characteristics. Personnel Psychology, 37, 407-422.

  1. Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437–453.

  1. Schneider, B., Ehrhart, K. H., & Ehrhart, M. G. (2002). Understanding high school student leaders II: Peer nominations of leaders and their correlates. The Leadership Quarterly, 13, 275-299.

  1. Schneider, B., Paul, M. C., White, S. S., Holcombe, K. M. (1999). Understanding high school student leaders: I. Predicting teacher ratings of leader behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 609–636.

  1. Schulkin, J. (2003). Allostasis: A neural behavioral perspective. Hormones and Behavior, 43, 21−27.

  1. Sinetar, M. (1985). SMR forum: Entrepreneurs, chaos, and creativity-Can creative people really survive large company structure? Sloan Management Review, 57-62.

  1. Singh, J. 2008. Impostors masquerading as leaders: can the contagion be contained? Journal of Business Ethics, 82(3), 733–745.

  1. Smith, G.M. (1967). Usefulness of peer ratings of personality in educational research. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 27, 967-984.

  1. Smith, J. A., Foti, R. J. (1998). A pattern approach to the study of leader emergence. Leadership Quarterly, 9, 147–160.

  1. Stålenheim, E.G., Eriksson, E., von Knorring, L., Wide, L. (1998). Testosterone as a biological marker in psychopathy and alcoholism. Psychiatry Research, 77, 79–88.

  1. Sternberg, R. J. (Ed.). (1999). Handbook of creativity. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

  1. Sternberg, R. J., Kaufman, J. C., & Pretz, J. E. (2002). The creativity conundrum. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

  1. Stevens, G.W., Dueling, J.K., Armenakis, A. (2012). Successful psychopaths: Are they unethical decision-makers and why? Journal of Business Ethics, 105, 139-149.

  1. Stogdill, R. M. (1948). Personal factors associated with leadership: A survey of the literature. Journal of Psychology, 25, 35–71.

  1. Stogdill, R.M. (1974). Handbook of leadership: A survey of theory and research. New York: Free Press.

  1. Taylor, J., Loney, B.R., Bobadilla, L., Iacono, W., McGue M. (2003). Genetic and environmental influences on psychopathy trait dimensions in a community sample of male twins. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(6), 633–645.

  1. Terburg, D., Morgan, B., & van Honk, J. (2009). The testosterone– cortisol ratio: A hormonal marker for proneness to social aggression. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 32, 216–223.

  1. Varga, K. (1975). N Achievement, n power and effectiveness of research development. Human Relations, 28, 571-590.

  1. Winter, D. G. (1987). Leader appeal, leader performance, and the motive profiles of leaders and followers: An exploratory study of U.S. presidents and elections. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 196-202.

  1. Yukl, G. (1989). Managerial Leadership: A Review of Theory and Research. Journal of Management, 15 (2), 251-289.

  1. Yukl, G. and Howell, J. (1999), Organizational and contextual influences on the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leadership, Leadership Quarterly, 10, pp. 257-283.

  1. Zaccaro, S. J. (2001). The nature of executive leadership: A conceptual and empirical analysis of success. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

  1. Zaccaro, S. J. (2002). Organizational leadership and social intelligence. In R. Riggio (Ed.), Multiple intelligences and leadership (pp. 29–54).

  1. Zaccaro, S. J. (2004). Leadership. In C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman (Eds.), Character strengths and virtues, pp. 413–428.

  1. Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist Vol. 62, No. 1, pp. 6–16

  1. Zaccaro, S. J., Mumford, M. D., Connelly, M. S., Marks, M. A., & Gilbert, J. A. (2000). Assessment of leader problem-solving capabilities. Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 37-65.

  1. Zaccaro, S.J., Gilbert, J.A. (1995). Investigating a background data measure of social intelligence. Army Research Institute, 1024.

  1. Zaccaro, S.J., Gilbert, J.A., Thor, K.K., Mumford, M.D. (1991). Leadership and social intelligence: Linking social perspectiveness and behavioural flexibility to leader effectiveness. Leadership Quarterly, 2(4), 317-342.

  1. Zingales, L. (2008). Causes and Effects of the Lehman Brothers Bankruptcy. United States House of Representatives, 1-28.





Appendices


The appendices contain the questionnaire, as presented to the respondents. This questionnaire contains many questions, that are not used in the thesis. Only 83 items are used, whereas 128 items are measured. The second appendix is the syntax, that is used in SPSS, which allows you to see what analysis have been done and how.

Appendix 1: Questionnaire


page 1.jpg

page 2.jpgpage 3..jpg

page 4.jpg

page 5.jpg

page 6.jpg

page 7.jpg

page 8.jpg

page 9.jpg

page 10.jpg

page 11.jpg
1   2   3   4   5   6   7


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page