THE BAROQUE AGE II
Revolutions in Scientific and
Political Thought, 1600–1715
Teaching Strategies and Suggestions
The instructor can introduce this second unit on the Baroque age with a Standard Lecture blended with a Spirit of the Age approach, underscoring the distinguishing characteristics of the period’s art styles as previously set forth in Chapter 14. This first lecture on Chapter 15 should emphasize two new revolutionary themes: radical changes in science and political theory. As background to these two revolutions, the teacher can employ one of several teaching models: the Diffusion, the Patterns of Change, the Comparison/Contrast, or, again, the Spirit of the Age. The instructor should then concentrate on the Scientific Revolution, since its changes had the more radical impact of the two intellectual movements. Perhaps the best approach is to do a comparison and contrast, showing the extraordinary differences between seventeenth-century and medieval science. The Patterns of Change model can then be used for the two sections of this chapter that are closely connected: the actual scientific discoveries and the remnants of magical thinking that survived even in the minds of the scientists themselves. The Patterns of Change method is also useful for setting forth the stage-by-stage developments in astronomy, physics, medicine, and chemistry. Either the Diffusion or the Reflections/Connections approach will work in assessing the impact of science on philosophy and the ironic aspects of the Scientific Revolution.
To introduce the revolution in political thought, the teacher can use a Standard Lecture with a Reflections/Connections slant, since all of the political thinkers were clearly influenced by the politics of their day. The Diffusion model is the most appropriate for examining the topic of European exploration and expansion. As a conclusion for this unit, the instructor can use a Spirit of the Age approach to explain how the revolutions in science and political thinking forever altered Western values and attitudes.
I.The Themes of the Baroque Age
II.Theories of the Universe Before
the Scientific Revolution
A.Geocentrism: Aristotle and Ptolemy
B. Empiricism, inductive
and deductive reasoning
III. The Scientific Revolution:
Discoveries and Theories
IV. The Magical and the Practical in
the Scientific Revolution
A.The paradox in the movement
B. The role of technology
C. Astronomy and physics:
from Copernicus to Newton
1. Nicolas Copernicus: a heliocentric universe
2.Johannes Kepler: the three planetary laws
3. Galileo Galilei: revelations about the heavens
and discoveries about motion
4. Isaac Newton: gravity and synthesis
D.Medicine and chemistry
1. Ancient and medieval opinions
2. Andreas Vesalius: early
discoveries about the circulatory system
3. William Harvey: the circulatory
4. Marcello Malpighi: identification of capillaries
5. Robert Boyle: beginnings of chemistry
E. The impact of science on philosophy
1. Francis Bacon: explaining the new learning
2. René Descartes: skepticism and the
dualism of knowledge
3. Pascal: uncertainty and faith
F. Ironies and contradictions of the
1.Work of a minority
2.Christian faith, superstition, and mysticism
V. The Revolutions in Political Thought
A.Impact of changing political systems
B. Natural law and divine right:
Grotius and Bossuet
1. Hugo Grotius: natural law and
2. Bishop Bossuet: divine right and
3. Absolutism and liberalism:
Hobbes and Locke
a)Thomas Hobbes’s The Leviathan
b)John Locke’s Second Treatise
of Civil Government and Essay
Concerning the Human Understanding
VI. European Exploration and Expansion
A.Into the Americas, Africa, and the Far East
B.Roles of various European nations
in discoveries and settlements
VII. Responses to the Revolutions in Thought
A.The spread of ideas
2. Fontenelle: popularizing science
3. Bayle: classifying knowledge
B.Impact on the arts
1. Baroque painting
2. Literature and drama
VIII. The Legacy of the Revolutions in
Scientific and Political Thought
(See Chapter 14 )
1. The foundations of Western science prior to the seventeenth century, in particular the contributions of Aristotle and Ptolemy in formulating the geocentric system
2. The general nature of the Scientific Revolution
3. The magical and practical elements at work in the Scientific Revolution
4. The discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Newton and their contributions to the rise of modern astronomy and physics
5. The discoveries of Vesalius, Harvey, Malpighi, and Boyle and their contributions to the rise of modern medicine and chemistry
6. The impact of seventeenth-century science on philosophy
7. The ideas and contributions of Francis Bacon
8. The ideas and contributions of René Descartes and his impact on Western philosophy
9. Pascal’s basic beliefs and their influence on Western thought
10.The ironic aspects of the Scientific Revolution
11.The impact of seventeenth-century political events on political thought
12.The definition, origins, and basic concept of natural law and Hugo Grotius’s interpretation of the term
13.The definition, origins, and basic concepts of divine right and Bishop Bossuet’s interpretation of the term
14.The meaning of political absolutism and Thomas Hobbes’s explanation of the theory
15.The origins and definition of political liberalism and John Locke’s interpretation of the theory
16.What is meant by the social contract and the ways it may be used to justify a civil society
17.John Locke’s theory of the origin of ideas and its influence on modern psychology
18.The early explorations of Europeans, the expansion of European peoples and culture abroad, and the effect of these developments on western Europe
19.The methods of spreading the ideas of the Scientific Revolution and the implications of those ideas for politics and culture
20.The impact of the Scientific Revolution on the arts
21.Historic “firsts” of the seventeenth-century revolutions in scientific and political thought that became part of the Western tradition: the heliocentric system; Newtonian physics and astronomy; Harvey’s explanation for the circulation of the blood; new habits of scientific thought, including empiricism and the inductive method; social contract theory; the beginnings of both modern authoritarian and liberal thought; and the opening phase of European expansion and influence around the world
22.The role of this period in transmitting the heritage of earlier civilizations: reshaping medieval science to conform to the new scientific discoveries and ways of thinking; reviving, for the first time since the fall of Rome, skepticism and intellectual restlessness; and reinterpreting medieval Christian political thought along secular lines
Suggestions for Films, videos, cd-roms
Ascent of Man: The Majestic Clockwork. Time-Life, 52 min., color.
Ascent of Man: The Starry Messenger. Time-Life, 52 min., color.
Astronomy: A New View of the Universe. Films for the Humanities, 26 min., color, video.
Descartes. Films for the Humanities, 45 min., color, video.
Descartes: Man of Genius. Films for the Humanities, CD-ROM. Windows.
Galileo, the Challenge of Reason. Learning Corporation of America, 26 min., color.
Galileo’s Dialogue. Films for the Humanities, 53 min., color.
John Locke. Films for the Humanities, 52 min., color.
The Making of the United Kingdom: Crowns, Parliaments, and Peoples, 1500-1750. Films for the Humanities, CD-Rom.
Newton: The Mind That Found the Future. Learning Corporation of America, 21 min., color.
Newton’s Revolution: Understanding Motion. Films for the Humanities, 25 min., color.
The Restoration Theater: From Tennis Court to Playhouse. Films for the Humanities, 45 min., color.
The Revolution in England, 1645-1649. Films for the Humanities, 30 min., color.
Vesalius: Founder of Modern Anatomy. Yale Medical School, 13 min., color.
William Harvey and the Circulation of the Blood. International Film Bureau, 33 min., color.
Suggestions for Further Reading
Alioto, A. M. A History of Western Science. Englewood Cliffs, J. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1987. A lucid treatment of the historic events that led to what the author calls our “scientific civilization.”
Ashcraft, R. Revolutionary Politics & Locke’s Two Treatises of Government. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1986. A brilliant study linking political theory to its historical context; the focus is on the language of political theory and how it arose from a past political situation.
Biagioli, M. Galileo, Courtier: The Practice of Science in the Culture of Absolutism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993. An impassioned work of cultural history that analyzes Galileo and his work within his social milieu, especially as the philosophical astronomer to the duke of Tuscany.
Christianson, G. Isaac Newton and the Scientific Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. A vivid and detailed, albeit brief, biography.
Davis, N.Z. Women on the Margins: Three Seventeenth-Century Lives. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995. Wonderful biographical study of Glial BAS Judah Leb., a merchant; Marie de l'Incarnation, a nun; and Maria Sibylla Merian, a painter and naturalist, all adventurous women who found their way far beyond gender conventions. A good window onto the seventeenth century in a broader sense as well.
The History of Science and Technology: A Narrative Chronology. New York: Facts on File, 1988. An invaluable resource for understanding science and technology; translated from an Italian work published in 1975.
Jolley, N. Locke: His Philosophical Thought. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. Excellent introduction to Locke’s philosophical and political thought.
Kuhn, T. S. The Copernican Revolution: Planetary Astronomy in the Development of Western Thought. New York: Vintage, 1959. The standard history of the Copernican Revolution, embracing cosmology, physics, philosophy, religion, and mathematical astronomy; for the serious student; first published in 1957.
———. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970. A landmark book that explained how revolutions in thought originate; introduced the concept of “paradigm shift” into intellectual discourse.
Marks, J. Science and the Making of the Modern World. London: Heinemann, 1983. An excellent overview of the role of science in helping to form modern consciousness; concise and well illustrated.
Milton, G. Nathaniel’s Nutmeg, or, The True and Incredible Adventures of the Spice Trader Who Changed the Course of History. New York: Penguin, 2000. A fascinating study of the struggle between the Dutch and the English over the East Indies island of Run, a source of the immensely popular nutmeg.
Olby, R. C., et al. Companion to the History of Modern Science. London: Routledge, 1990. This selective survey aims to show the broad diversity of subjects in the history of science and the extensive scholarly literature written about it.
Sobel, D. Galileo’s Daughter. New York: Walker and Company, 1999. An effective blending of the letters of Galileo’s daughter to her father with the historical records and evidence to reveal human dimensions of these times.
Sommerville, J. P. Thomas Hobbes: Political Ideas in Historical Context. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992. A concise study of the political ideas of Thomas Hobbes and the historic situation that gave birth to them.
Webster. C. The Great Instauration: Science, Medicine, and Reform, 1626–1660. London: Duckworth, 1975. A provocative history of the Scientific Revolution in seventeenth-century England, linking it to the general intellectual ferment associated with the century’s Puritan Revolution.
———. From Paracelsus to Newton: Magic and the Making of Modern Science. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982. A revisionist study that tries to show the continuity between the thought of Paracelsus, who is generally considered an obscurantist, and Newton, who is the hero of early modern science.
Willis, J.E. 1688: A Global History. New York: Norton, 2002. A superb window on the seventeenth century.
key cultural termS
personal perspective background
Suzanne Gaudrey, A Witch’s Trial
Under the guise of dictating community morals, the Roman Catholic church sparked a wave of witch hysteria across Europe in the late seventeenth century. As communal agrarian societies gave way to competitive capitalism, many people, especially single women, were marginalized. An old, illiterate, single, and friendless woman, Suzanne Gaudrey was a stereotypical choice for those whose sense of instability led them to denounce “witches” to church courts. Under severe torture, including the rack, she admitted to having demon lovers, nocternal flights, violating the Sabbath, and having the Devil’s mark. She recanted her confession but was again tortured, condemned, and burned at the stake. (More information may be found in Joseph Klaits, Servants of Satan, and Diane Purkiss, The Witch in History.
The Sinews of Trade
The East India Company was founded in England on December 31, 1600, when Elizabeth I granted a charter to a large body of merchants, “The Governor and Company of Merchants of London, Trading into the East Indies.” This signalled the English intention of competing with the Dutch to overtake the old Portuguese monopoly in India and East Asia. It also reflected the gradual rise of a new entrepreneurial merchant class and a new form of early capitalist organization, the joint stock company.
1.Why is the period between 1685 and 1715 called “the crisis of the European conscience”? What scientific and intellectual changes were occurring during this period? How was the intellectual crisis resolved?
2. What was the long-term impact of the Scientific Revolution on philosophy and theology?
3.Discuss the differences between inductive and deductive reasoning and note their impact on early modern thought.
4.Discuss the contributions of Copernicus, Brahe, and Kepler to astronomy. How did their discoveries threaten the existing view of the universe?
5.Discuss Galileo’s research in light of the seventeenth century’s ongoing conflict between religion and science. Why was the church afraid of his findings? Ought it to have been? Explain.
6.What concept of the universe did Newton end up with? Describe it.
7.What contributions did Vesalius, Harvey, and Malpighi make to the study of the human body?
8.What has been the impact of Francis Bacon on modern thought?
9.Discuss Descartes’s most important contributions to philosophy and assess their value to modern thought.
10.Who was more important to the Scientific Revolution, Bacon or Descartes? Explain.
11.In what ways did Pascal’s ideas question the Scientific Revolution?
12.Define “natural law,” and demonstrate how it was manifested in the writings of Grotius.
13.What were the major arguments of Bishop Bossuet in his defense of divine right?
14.How did English politics influence Hobbes’s political thinking? What impact has The Leviathan had on modern political theory?
15.Define the term “social contract.” How did Hobbes and Locke develop the term in their political thought? How did their notions of the individual sacrifices required by the social contract diverge?
16.What was the influence of John Locke’s political theories on the founders of the United States?
17.How has Locke’s theory of knowledge influenced modern psychology?
18.How were the discoveries and ideas of the Scientific Revolution disseminated to educated Europeans?
19.How did Fontenelle and Bayle help spread the ideas of the Scientific Revolution?
20.Discuss the impact of the Scientific Revolution on Baroque art.
21.How did the Scientific Revolution affect the rise of skepticism in Western thought?
22.Discuss some of the short-term and long-range effects of European explorations and settlements on modern times.
23.Why did witchcraft trials continue during the century in which the Scientific Revolution occurred?
24.Discuss the general impact of the seventeenth century’s scientific and political revolutions on the “European Mind.”
25.Do you think that the Scientific Revolution had more impact on Western civilization than the Renaissance and the Reformation? Defend your position.
1.The “crisis of conscience” that affected some European thinkers in the late seventeenth century meant that:
a. they no longer believed in God
b. they had given up hope about the future of the world
c. they had come to the conlusion that the truth lay in divine revelation
*d. they were slowly moving from traditional medieval ideas to modern views (p. 409)
2.Aristotelian physics and astronomy were transmitted to the West through:
a.Chinese and Indian culture
*b.Roman and Islamic culture (p. 410)
c.Viking and Slavic culture
d.Japanese and Mesoamerican culture
3.Which of the following was a feature of the geocentric model of the universe?
a.The universe is earth-centered.
b.The planets, sun, and moon each revolve in a separate sphere.
c. The universe is divided into supralunar and sublunar worlds.
d. All of the above. (p. 410)
4.The Egyptian scholar Ptolemy can be described as:
a. a man who thought that the earth was the center of the universe
b. an early scientist who provided Kepler with new mathematical findings
*c. a man who modified Aristotle’s geocentric model (p. 411)
d. a thinker who overturned the Aristotelian model of the universe
5.A central characteristic of medieval science was:
a. it rejected Muslim findings as a way to understand the physical world
b. it argued that on earth matter was incorruptible and no change occurred in matter
c. it maintained that the sun was the center of the universe
*d. it identified Aristotle’s Unmoved Mover with God (p. 411)
6.This artist specialized in engravings of New World insects and animals, based on firsthand knowledge gained in Surinam:
*a.Maria Sibylla Merian (caption for Fig. 15.3, p. 411)
d.Rembrandt van Rijn
7.In the Middle Ages, Aristotle’s science began to be undermined by the:
a. spread of the deductive method
b. use of the Bible as a guide for research
c. acceptance of the Ptolemaic order of the universe
*d. application of inductive reasoning (p. 411)
8.Which was NOT a feature of the seventeenth-century Scientific Revolution?
a. new discoveries in astronomy and biology
b. a radically changed perspective about the physical world
*c. the development of tools for looking inside the atom (p. 409-411)
d. the beginning of the separation of philosophy and theology
9.Which is a correct statement about the Scientific Revolution?
a. Late medieval technology had little impact on the new learning.
*b. Early modern scientists built on the work of medieval thinkers. (p. 409-411)
c. Most of the new discoveries were done within the context of the Aristotelian-Ptolemaic system.
d. Mathematics played a minor role in the discoveries.
10.True or false? Neo-Platonism affected the rise of modern science by emphasizing the power of mathematics. (T, p. 412)
11.The central issue between geocentrism and heliocentrism was:
a. which theory had the greatest quantity of data
b. which theory was supported by the church
*c. which theory was simpler (p. 412)
d. which theory was more complex
12.Copernicus’s explanation of the universe can be described as a:
a. brand-new idea
*b. revival of an ancient Greek theory (p. 412)
c. system compatible with medieval Christian theology
d. revival of an ancient Babylonian theory
13.How did religious leaders react to Copernicus’s theory?
a. It was fully accepted by both Catholics and Protestants.
*b. The Catholics, after an initial acceptance, later rejected it, while the Protestants, lacking a centralized authority, eventually accommodated themselves to his thinking. (p. 413)
c. It was accepted by the Catholics but rejected by the Protestants.
d. It was rejected by the Catholics and the Protestants for more than 200 years.
14.Tycho Brahe contributed to the Scientific Revolution by:
a.inventing the telescope
b.discovering the moons around the planet Jupiter
*c.amassing copious observations of planetary movement (p. 413)
d.giving final form to the law of inertia
15.Kepler’s major contribution to the Scientific Revolution was:
a. the invention of the telescope
*b. the discovery of three key planetary laws (p. 413)
c. a convincing explanation of gravity
d. a treatise on terrestrial motion
16.A consequence of Kepler’s scientific research was that:
a. his startling discoveries made further investigation unnecessary.
b. the circular movement of planets was proven correct.
*c. the sun-centered universe could now be understood in mathematical terms. (p. 413)
d. the belief that the planets moved in irregular orbits was reinforced.
17.Galileo’s important discoveries were influenced by his:
a. determination to win favor with the church
b. reliance on the theory of Ptolemy
*c. use of the new technological invention, the telescope (p. 414)
d. dependence on the writings of Thomas Aquinas
18.Galileo’s celestial observations proved that:
a. The moon looked the same through a telescope as to the naked eye.
*b. Jupiter has moons, or satellites. (p. 414)
c. Aristotle’s calculations were essentially correct
d. The universe was about the size of Ptolemy’s figures.
19.Besides astronomical research, Galileo also contributed to the:
a. science of anatomy
*b. overturning of Aristotle’s theory of motion (p. 414)
c. modern explanation for the circulation of the blood
d. modern view that the body is composed of tiny cells
20.Regarding Galileo’s astronomical writings, the Catholic Church:
a. readily accepted them as confirming biblical scripture
b. agreed with his findings after summoning a church council
*c. arrested Galileo and threatened to torture him (p. 385)
d. ignored him, although it declared his ideas to be unacceptable
21.Newton’s outstanding contribution to the Scientific Revolution was the mathematical basis for the:
*a. law of gravity (p. 414-415)
b. law of inertia
c. theory of opposites
d. theory of relativity
22.What did the English poet Alexander Pope mean when he wrote: “God said, ‘Let Newton be!’ and All was Light”?
a. that Newton had discovered how electricity operated
b. that Newton had discovered the source of light
*c. that Newton had shed light on the mysteries of the universe (p. 415)
d. that Christians would now be able to follow God’s light
23.True or false? Newton, the pioneer of modern science, can be described as a religious person who never doubted the existence of God (T, p. 415)
24.Prior to modern times, knowledge of the human body was limited for which of the following reasons?:
a. There was general ignorance because the church prohibited the dissection of corpses.
b. The medical schools relied on animal dissection, and this resulted in misinformation since animal bodies differed from human bodies.
c. The Roman physician Galen was the supreme authority, and he was often incorrect.
*d. All of the above. (p. 415)
25.Both William Harvey and Isaac Newton:
*a. used mathematics to prove their theories (p. 415)
b. made important discoveries in celestial physics
c. borrowed from each other in their research
d. were greatly influenced by Francis Bacon
26.Robert Boyle made this contribution to modern chemistry:
a. He united alchemy with chemistry.
b. He organized the periodic table.
*c. He separated the study of chemistry from other areas of research. (p. 416)
d. He arrived at his findings using the deductive method.
27.Marcello Malpighi’s contribution to the study of the human body and circulation was:
*a. the discovery of capillaries (p. 415-416)
b. the discovery of arteries
c. the correct understanding of how the circulation system worked
d. the scientific reinforcement of Galen’s theories on circulation
28.Which is NOT a source of Francis Bacon’s fame?
a. his clear and precise writing style
b. his complete reliance on the experimental method
*c. his scientific discoveries (p. 417)
d. his belief in progress
29.The scientific work of René Descartes resulted in the development of:
*b. analytical geometry (p. 417)
d. irrational numbers
30.Descartes, in his search for the truth:
a. never doubted the existence of God
b. maintained that his body was always present
*c. concluded that he existed because his mind questioned (p. 417)
d. doubted the truth of his own mental processes
31.What is meant by Descartes’s dualism?
a. Everything comes in pairs.
*b. The mind and body are separate. (p. 417)
c. Only by dividing objects into two parts can they be understood.
d. Human beings have both a human an animal nature.
32.This thinker questioned the benefits of the Scientific Revolution:
*a. Blaise Pascal (p. 418)
b. Francis Bacon
c. René Descartes
d. Thomas Hobbes
33.Pascal’s attitude toward the existence of God was that:
a. God did not exist
*b. God did exist (p. 418)
c. it made no difference if God did or did not exist
d. no one could ever prove the existence of God
34.The seventeenth century witnessed the:
a. end of witchcraft trials
b. beginning of industrial capitalism
c. full acceptance of the heliocentric view of the universe
*d. origins of liberal political theory (p. 419)
35.A powerful influence on seventeenth-century political thought was the:
a. writings of St. Thomas Aquinas
b. collapse of manorialism in Western Europe
c. rise of a large laboring class
*d. English civil war (p. 419)
36.A major source of seventeenth-century political thought was the:
a. writings of Byzantine historians
b. thoughts of Arab scholars
*c. period’s scientific discoveries (p. 419)
d. uncovering of medieval manuscripts on feudal law
37.True or false? Hugo Grotius’s political ideas were influenced by his personal experiences during the Thirty Years’ War. (T, p. 420)
38.Grotius founded his political theories on his belief in:
*b.natural law (p. 420)
d.the social contract
39.Bishop Bossuet’s arguments for the divine right of kings rested on:
a. the Koran’s statements about Allah
*b. his beliefs that God gave certain men the right to rule (p. 420)
c. the assumption that a king’s subjects possess certain basic rights
d. the long-standing feudal law of right to property that the lord had over his knights
40.Hobbes based The Leviathan on the assumption that:
a.Humans are basically good.
*b.Individuals generally act out of fear of death and the quest for power. (p. 420)
c.God controls human activity.
d.The world is run by chance.
41.Hobbes reasoned that the best form of government is a(n):
a. constitutional monarchy limited by the doctrine of natural rights
*b. absolutist state with the ruler completely controlling the people (p. 420)
c. enlightened aristocracy in which the best people rule
d. democracy where there is rule of the people, by the people, and for the people
42.Hobbes’s legacy to modern political thought was a theory of:
*b. absolutism (p. 420)
43. John Locke believed all of the following EXCEPT:
a. All men are created equal.
b. Humans have reason and are basically decent.
*c. Humans give up their rights to the state in civil society. (p. 421)
d. Private property has to be protected.
44.Locke argued that the social contract was:
a. an ironclad agreement that could not be broken
b. written to give all the power to the state
c. a gift from God
*d. arranged to ensure that the people retain their sovereignty (p. 421)
45.John Locke is considered to be the father of which political school of thought?
*c. early liberalism (p. 420)
d. social welfare thought
46.When Locke argued that the mind at birth is tabula rasa, he meant that the mind is:
a.already furnished with the germs of ideas
*b.empty, devoid of ideas (p. 422)
c.ready to receive the ideas that God inspires
d.muddled until internal reasoning can take over
47.Both Hobbes and Locke agreed that the basis of government should be a(n):
*c.social contract (pp. 421-422)
48.True or false? A result of the migration of Europeans overseas during the seventeenth century was a relaxation of control over the overseas colonies. (F, pp. 423-424)
49.One of the major contributions that Fontenelle made was to:
a. reinforce the stand of the Roman Catholic church against early modern science
b. push the political ideas of Bishop Bousset
c. argue for limitation of information to the public
*d. explain to an educated public the findings of seventeenth-century science (p. 427)
50.Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary can be described as:
a. a book that supported prevailing institutions and traditions
b. a work that attacked the findings of the Scientific Revolution
c. the last book that reflected medieval thought
*d. an encyclopedic work arranged in systematic form (p. 427)
PRIMARY SOURCES IN READINGS IN THE WESTERN HUMANITIES, VOL. I
Galileo Galilei, Selections from the Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems--Ptolemaic and Copernican
Francis Bacon, Selection from Essays
René Descartes, Selections from Discourse on Method
Thomas Hobbes, Selection from Leviathan
John Locke, Selections from the Second Treatise of Civil Government