Fleets must cease their move whenever they enter a port locale containing an enemy force of combat units of any type(s).
Fleets may move into and through high seas regions containing enemy fleets.
24.4 Naval Transport of Land Forces
A fleet may pick up land units and move them under the following strictures:
1) Both the fleet and the land force must start the Movement Phase of the transport operation in the same port or off-map holding box.
2) A transport operation may end in a high seas region, a port, or an off-map holding box.
3) Transported land forces may not conduct any other movement in that phase.
4) When a transporting fleet disembarks all or part of its land force, that fleet must end its move for that Movement Phase; however, land units are never forced to disembark; they may remain indefinitely embarked on a fleet.
5) Land forces may not be embarked from, or disembarked into, a port containing an enemy fleet(s). And, yes, that stricture works to prohibit amphibious assaults (see 24.6).
6) Land forces may be picked up, and disembarked in, ports containing only enemy land units. See 24.6 for more details on the latter.
24.5 Transport Capacity
Each fleet can transport up to four land combat units and an unlimited number of leaders.
24.6 Amphibious Assault
You may disembark land forces in a port containing enemy land units by conducting an amphibious assault. To do so, the attacking units execute combat normally, but with the following additions:
1) The attacker rolls for the fleet’s combat factor when firing.
2) If the defender loses the battle, the amphibious assault force is considered to have seized (and thereby fully moved ashore into) the defender’s locale, and that includes its fleet unit(s).
3) If the attacker loses the battle, his surviving units automatically re-embark onto their fleet(s). The fleet(s) and all surviving attacking units then retreat from the assaulted port’s locale.
4) When using optional rules section 28.0, if there is a defending fortress in a locale, the defender may fire at the fleet only with that fortresses combat value. Fleets aren’t affected by other types of land units’ fire. (Ignore this rule if not using optional rules section 28.0).
Fleets may not by themselves attack land units; they may only do so in conjunction with land units as given above in 24.6.
24.8 Fleet vs. Fleet
Fleets may attack enemy fleets in port locales. Only the fleets are involved, land units, including fortresses, never participate in any way in such fights, no matter if transported or ashore. Combat is otherwise resolved normally.
Retreating Fleets always retreat into high seas regions. Fleets may retreat into high seas regions that contain enemy fleets, and they may do so with no adverse effects to either side.
If a fleet unit is sunk while transporting a land force, that transported force is sunk with it. Note, though, if a transporting fleet is sunk during an amphibious assault, that assaulting land force is considered to be already ashore at the time of the sinking. Also note, though, such a sinking could work to block all retreat for an amphibious assault force, unless another friendly fleet(s) still remained to carry them away; see 24.6(3).
When using optional rules section 28.0, fleets may not make any use of friendly fortresses or take part in sieges against enemy fortresses.
are treated like regulars, but with the following special abilities: 1) they are in automatically in supply when embarked on a fleet; and 2) they have their combat value increased by one when participating in an amphibious assault.
25.0 Off-Map Holding Boxes
There are three off-map areas along the east map edge: Britain, France and Spain. Movement into and from those boxes is allowed only via fleet movement and naval transport.
Only the British player may make use of the Britain off-map box.
Only the American player may make use of the French off-map box, and only if France has entered the war (see section 26.0). Even then, only French units may enter and leave that box.
Only the American player may make use of the Spanish off-map box, and only if Spain has entered the war (see section 26.0). Even then, only Spanish units may enter and leave that box.
Within the strictures given above, a player may place and maintain an unlimited number of units in his off map area(s).
All off-map boxes are ports.
All off-map areas have unlimited supply (forage) capacity.
Each off map area generates political points via die roll. The British player always gets Britain’s points. The American player only gets them for France and Spain, calculated separately, if they’ve entered the war (see section 26.0).
You never have to maintain any units in your side’s off-map areas in order to control them. You always automatically control your off-map area(s).
26.0 French & Spanish Alliances
France and Spain start both scenarios as neutrals. At that time, neither player controls them: their forces are frozen in place, and their colonial regions and holding boxes are totally out of play. They may be brought into play via the European Balance of Power Table (see section 12.0). Once in play, they remain so for as long as the Balance of Power remains in or beyond their space on the table. When France or Spain enter the war, they always do so on the American side and their forces are controlled by the American player. French and Spanish forces may never be controlled by the British player.
French and Spanish forces are initially placed according to the instructions given in section 4.0.
Until France allies with America, no non-French units may enter Hispaniola. Until Spain allies with America, no non-Spanish units may enter Cuba or New Spain. Neither player gains any political points for a neutral’s towns or off-map areas.
If France or Spain ally with America and then become neutral again, the following take place:
1) All British and American units in the again-neutral regions are picked up by the owning player and placed in the nearest space outside of those regions not containing any enemy units.
2) All of the again-neutral nation’s units outside of its original colonial regions are picked up by the American player and placed anywhere within those original territories or its off-map box. That’s decided on a unit-by-unit basis.
3) The again-neutral nation is fully neutral, as described above in 26.1.
France and/or Spain may potentially go in and out of neutrality and alliance with America any number of times per game.
27.0 Hessian Units & Indian Units
Only the British player may mobilize Hessian units (German mercenaries). Their cost is relatively cheap; however, whenever one or more Hessian units are mobilized, the American player randomly picks one campaign marker per unit. Hessian units are generally treated as British regulars but, once eliminated, no given Hessian unit may ever be re-mobilized into play.
Only the British may recruit Indian units. They are initially mobilized into Indian locales at the rate of up to no more than one unit per Indian locale per game turn. Indian units are treated as British, except: 1) whenever one or more Indian units are mobilized, the American player randomly picks one campaign marker per unit; and 2) the British may recruit Indian units even if their entry locale is occupied by American units.
Prior to starting a game, players should decide between themselves which of the following optional rules sections they’ll use. Each rules section may be committed to individually, or they may all be used. Each optional rules section adds greater historical detail to play, but does so at the cost of some added complexity.
28.0 Fortresses & Sieges
represent heavily entrenched localities and supply depots. When using this rules section, some fortresses are added to the initial set-up. Others may also be mobilized into play after the game has begun.
28.2 Fortress Effects
Land units in a locale with a friendly fortress marker use the following altered rules:
1) A fortress adds +1 to the owning player’s total when determining the combat initiative as given in 18.4(1).
2) Combat effects against land units receiving fire in a locale that contains a friendly fortress use the following die roll results: on rolls of one through five there is no effect; on results of six, they’re disrupted.
3) Land units involved in combat in a locale containing a friendly fortress may generally never retreat from combat (see 28.13 for the exception).
4) Land units in the same locale as a friendly fortress, or that are in locales immediately adjacent (route connected) to a locale that contains a friendly fortress, are thereby supplied, regardless of political point values. A single fortress may supply any number of units, and a fortress isn’t expended by providing such supply. Note that since wilderness and Indian locales have no political point values, units in them would have to draw supply from fortresses or be out of supply (except as noted in 19.4).
28.3 Fortress Combat Strength
Fortresses have a combat value printed on them. They are special combat strengths that may be used only when defending against an enemy attack, they may never be used on the offense. Further, even when on the defense, a fortress’s combat strength may be used only if the player has one or more friendly land units in the same locale (any types). Even further, fortresses may never be the target of enemy fire during combat. The only way they’re eliminated is described below.
A fortress marker remains on the map until one of the following occur: 1) all friendly units move out of the locale or are eliminated; or 2) you may choose to remove any friendly fortress on the map as your last step in any Supply Phase.
If you move units into a locale containing only an enemy fortress, you gain immediate and automatic control of that fortress. If you win a battle against a force defending in a locale containing an enemy fortress, roll a die. On a result of one through three, you gain control of that fortress; on a four through six, the fortress is eliminated.
You may choose to place a Siege marker atop friendly land forces at the end of any Movement Phase in which it/they entered a locale containing an enemy fortress. The cost is three political points per marker. Units in a locale with a friendly siege marker are called a besieging force. You may only designate a land force as such if both the following pertain to its situation: 1) it’s locale must contain an enemy fortress and at least one enemy ground combat unit; and 2) your besieging force must contain at least one regular unit.
28.7 Siege Combat Effects
A besieging force negates the advantages given above to fortress defenders in rules 28.2(1) and 28.2(2).
28.8 Siege Supply Effects
A siege marker provides the amount of forage to its besieging force equal to the political point value of that locale. It also prevents enemy units in adjacent locales from being supplied by the besieged fortress, just as it also prevents enemy units in the besieged fortress’s locale from being supplied from an adjacent locale. Finally here, the Siege marker also negates the automatic supply of enemy units within the locale of the besieged fortress; those units draw on the normal supply forage value of the siege’s locale.
28.9 No Attack Requirement
A besieging force is never required to initiate an attack against the besieged fortress or the other enemy units in its locale.
28.10 Second & Third Combat Phase Siege Attacks
A besieging force may attack a fortress in Second and Third Combat Phases, but doing so requires the attacking player, in effect, to meet the requirements of a forced march.
If you move a force into a locale containing a garrisoned enemy fortress and you don’t start a siege there, you must attack that fortress using normal (non-siege) combat rules.
28.12 Relief Forces
The player controlling a besieged fortress may move units from outside that locale into the locale where the siege is taking place. Such a newly entering force is called a relief force. The Relief Force must attack the besieging force, which must be executed as the first attack of the ensuing Combat Phase using normal combat rules; the Siege marker has no effect on its resolution. The besieged force (the one already in the fortress’s locale) may not be combined with the attacking relief force. If the relief force wins its battle, the besieging force is retreated or eliminated out of the space and the relief force is instantly considered combined with the besieged force. If the relief force loses its battle, it’s retreated/ or eliminated out of the siege’s locale and the siege goes on.
Friendly besieged forces may be sortied in order to attack their enemy besieging force. Sorties may be conducted by some or all besieged units in a locale. They are resolved as normal combat as if no Fortress or Siege markers were present. A defeated sortie force may retreat back into its fortress. A sortie attack may be made in the same locale, and in the same Combat Phase, as a failed relief force attack.
28.14 Siege Duration
A Siege marker remains on the map until one of the following occurs: 1) All besieging units are eliminated, retreated, or moved out of the siege’s locale; or 2) the enemy fortress in the locale has been removed or captured. Siege markers may themselves never be captured by the enemy.
Once a Siege marker has been placed on the map, other units of the besieging side that enter that locale automatically join the besieging force. All units that move into a locale containing a friendly fortress under siege are considered part of the relieving force.
28.16 Sieges & Naval Transport
If a besieged fortress is in a port locale, units friendly to that fortress may enter and leave that locale via the normal rules of naval movement and transport (see section 24.0).
Partisan markers represent local guerrillas, mobs, agitators and so forth. There are two types of partisans: Rebels are American partisans; Tories are British partisans.
Partisans are created in Mobilization Phases as follows:
1) Indicate a colonial region.
2) Expend two political points if the area is pro your side, three if it’s neutral, and four if it is pro-enemy.
3) Roll a die. On a one through three, no partisan is placed; on a four through six, place one partisan unit in any locale in the region.
The locale into which you place a partisan unit may contain enemy units (or not); however, it may not contain another friendly partisan unit.
It may contain an enemy partisan unit, in which case remove that enemy partisan unit as you’re placing your partisan unit. You may only place partisans in the following colonial regions: New England, the Mid-Atlantic Colonies, Virginia, the Deep South, the West, Florida and Canada.
28.4 Partisan Effects
If a partisan is in a locale, both the following pertain there:
1) The political point value of the locale is reduced to zero for the enemy, including for forage. Note, though, that a friendly partisan has no effect on the political point value of a locale for your side.
2) An enemy force that enters an area containing one of your side’s partisan units must cease movement in that locale for that Movement Phase. An enemy force starting its move in such a locale may move out normally.
28.5 Eliminating Partisans
A partisan marker is eliminated if either of the following occur: 1) as described above in rule 28.3; or 2) via the optional Massacre rule given below. Eliminating a partisan doesn’t count for political points or as having fought a battle.
30.0 Indian Sovereignty
During each Political Phase check each Indian locale on the map. If an Indian locale is found to be occupied by non-Indian units of either player, the non-occupying player receives one political point for each such locale.
If both players simultaneously have non-Indian units in the same Indian locale, neither player receives a point for that locale.
31.0 British Militia Upgrades
The British player may choose to upgrade friendly militia units to regular or light units. That’s done as follows during the Mobilization Phase. To do so, indicate the militia unit to be upgraded. It must be in the same locale as a British regular or light unit. Expend two political points and replace the militia unit with a British regular or light unit.
No more than one militia unit may be upgraded per locale per Mobilization Phase.
A militia unit removed from the map via upgrade may be re-mobilized normally into play, but not prior to the next game turn.
Using this rule, you may use a friendly force to temporarily interrupt an enemy Movement Phase by playing a Tactics marker. This is called an interception, and they take place only under the following strictures.
Whenever an enemy force moves into a locale immediately adjacent (path connected) to a friendly force, and that friendly force has one or more leaders, you may declare an interception. You must also expend a Tactics marker at that time. The enemy movement is then temporarily suspended. Roll a die: if that result is less than or equal to your intercepting commander’s leadership value, the interception has succeeded. In that case, move some or all of the units in the interception force, along with the interception’s commander, into the moving enemy force’s locale. Regardless of the die roll outcome, the Tactics marker is expended.
A successful interception causes the intercepted enemy force to cease its movement for that phase in the locale into which the interception was projected. That will also trigger combat in that locale in the ensuing Combat Phase, using normal combat rules and attacker/defender definitions. Also note the originally moving player may choose to move other forces into the intercepted locale to reinforce that battle, provided he has any remaining forces still unmoved and in range.
A force attempting an interception may not be in a locale already containing enemy units; nor may besieged or besieging forces attempt interception. An interception may never be attempted into a locale containing an enemy fortress.
A given force may attempt no more than one interception per enemy Movement Phase. If there is more than one force capable of conducting an interception against a given locale, they may each attempt to do so separately, meaning a Tactics marker would have to be expended for each attempt, successful or not.
33.0 Militia Expeditions
You may attempt to move militia units across regional borders if it’s part of a force moving with a commander (who can be a militia or non-militia). For each militia unit making such an attempt, roll a die. If that result is less than or equal to the commander’s leadership value, the rolled-for militia unit moves across the border. If the result is greater than the commander’s leadership value, but is other than a six, the rolled for militia unit ceases movement for that Movement Phase in the locale where the die roll check was made. If the result was a six, the militia goes home; remove the militia from the map.
Similarly, and under the same requirements, militia may attempt to retreat across a regional border. Here, however, even if it simply fails to move it’s eliminated.
If you move a force into a locale and that force has at least 10 times the printed combat strength points as the enemy force there, an overrun occurs. In that case, immediately eliminate all the enemy units in the locale. Your moving force may continue moving with no delay or other penalty. Note, though, no given force may conduct more than one overrun per Movement Phase. Such a force may enter another locale containing enemy units and engage them in normal battle. If a lone leader(s) is/are in a locale, your moving force would still need at least 10 combat factors to overrun him/them.
Overrun does not count as battle. Leaders and Tactics markers don’t come into play, nor may anyone gain campaign markers, nor can a massacre ensue (see below).
An overrun may not be conducted if the enemy force contains a Fortress or Siege marker. Further, they may not be conducted in a locale containing an enemy partisan, and a force containing Indians may not be overrun in an Indian locale. Fleets may not conduct overruns.
Within the strictures given above, overrun is conducted at the moving player’s option. He may instead decide to have his force stop and fight a normal battle in the ensuing Combat Phase.
35.0 Frontier Warfare
If you’re determining combat initiative, as in rule 18.4(1), if your involved force has more light and or Indian units than the involved enemy force, you thereby gain a +1 for that initiative determination (in addition to all other additives described in that rule). Further, it’s received even if your force is leaderless. This bonus isn’t received, though, if either involved force contains a Fortress or Siege marker.
When retreating from battle, you may have your retreating force do a forced retreat without having to undergo a final round of enemy fire, as described in 18.4(4b), if all of the following are in effect:
1) The combat must be taking place in a wilderness or Indian locale.
2) The retreating force must be composed entirely of some mix of light, Indian and/or leaders. (There must be at least one light/Indian unit to enable leader units to do this.)
3) The involved enemy force must contain fewer total light and Indian units than the retreating force.
4) Your retreating force isn’t starting in a locale containing a friendly Fortress or Siege marker.
All that being in place, simply declare your retreat, retreat your force without it being fired on, and the battle ends (the other side wins).
Light and Indian units out of supply in a wilderness or Indian locale are now eliminated on a die roll result of five or six.
Regulars out of supply in a wilderness or Indian locale are now eliminated on a die roll result of three through six.
All other units continue to be checked as described in the standard rules, and all dire rolls for other types of locales remain unaltered.
You may conduct a massacre in any land locale at the end of any combat in which your force has just won a battle.
37.2 Effects of massacres
are as follows:
1) Remove any enemy Partisan marker in the space.
2) Your opponent randomly picks from the pool a number of Campaign markers equal to the printed political point value of the massacre’s locale.
3) Place a Massacre marker in the locale. That locale has its political point value reduced to zero for as long as that marker remains on the map.
4) Indian units may not be mobilized in an Indian locale containing a Massacre marker.
5) A massacre may not be conducted in a locale that presently contains a Massacre marker.
If a victorious attacking force contains any Indian units, the attacking player must roll a die at the end of that battle. If that die roll is less than or equal to the number of Indian units in the victorious force, a massacre occurs automatically. If the result is greater than the number of Indian units present in the force, the player may still choose to massacre.
All Massacre markers on the map, other than those in Indian locales, are removed at the end of every Supply Phase. Massacre markers in Indian locales remain in place for the remainder of the game.
A massacre may only occur after a player has won a battle in a locale. You may not attack a locale without enemy combat units in it in order to then be able to conduct a massacre there.
38.0 Honors of War
If you have a besieging force, you may offer Honors of War to the enemy force it’s besieging. Such an offer is made at the start of any Combat Phase in which your besieging force is otherwise qualified to attack the besieged force.
If the besieged player accepts the offer, he picks up his besieged units (but not the besieged Fortress marker), and places them in the nearest locale that contains no enemy units or markers. If there’s an argument of which is the nearest qualified receiving locale, roll a die, with the high roller deciding. The besieging player then automatically gains control of the fortress. This doesn’t count as winning a battle.
If the besieged player declines the offer, the besieging player must conduct an attack against the besieged force. In that combat, the attacker may not choose to retreat, and neither player picks any campaign markers for eliminating enemy units.
If a force contains any Indians, it may not offer nor be offered Honors of War.