The Age of Napoleon Test 4 Questions What personal qualities did Napoleon possess that gained him popular support?

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The Age of Napoleon

Test 4 Questions

  • 1. What personal qualities did Napoleon possess that gained him popular support?

  • 2. What was the significance of Napoleon’s Civil Code?

  • 3. What were the three parts of Napoleon’s Grand Empire?

  • 4. Why did Napoleon invade Russia?

The Rise of Napoleon

The Rise of Napoleon

  • Napoleon Bonaparte dominated French and European history from 1799 to 1815.

  • Napoleon brought the chaos of the French Revolution to an end.

  • He told the French people “I am the French Revolution”.

  • He spread revolutionary ideas throughout Europe.

The Rise of Napoleon

  • Napoleon was born in Corsica, a son of a lawyer of nobility.

  • He earned a scholarship to French military schools and was commissioned an officer in 1785.

  • He studied military history and became an expert in military tactics.

  • He became a captain in 1792 and a general by age 24.

The Rise of Napoleon

  • By 1796, Napoleon was commander of the French armies in Italy.

  • In Italy, Napoleon earned many victories based upon his confidence of his men, his energy, charm, and ability to make quick decisions.

  • These qualities combined with his keen intelligence, ease with words, and confidence in himself, won him support.

The Rise of Napoleon

  • In 1797, Napoleon returned to France a conquering hero.

  • He was given command of an army to invade England.

  • He invaded British controlled Egypt and abandoned his army and returned to France in 1799.

  • In Paris, Napoleon took part in the overthrow of the French government.

The Rise of Napoleon

  • He was 30 years old at the time.

  • A new government was formed, called the consulate.

  • Although the consulate was a republic, Napoleon held absolute power.

  • As First Consul, Napoleon controlled the entire government.

  • In 1802, he became Consul for life.

Napoleon’s Domestic Policies

Napoleon’s Domestic Policies

  • Napoleon claimed he preserved the gains of the revolution for the French people.

  • Napoleon made peace with the Catholic Church.

  • In 1801, he made a deal with the pope.

  • The Catholic Church was recognized as the majority religion in France.

  • In return, the government kept church land that was seized during the revolution.

  • This strengthen Napoleon’s grip on power.

Napoleon’s Domestic Policies

  • Napoleon’s most famous domestic achievement was his codification of the laws.

  • He created the Seven Codes of Law.

  • The most important code was the Civil Code or Napoleonic Code.

  • It was based upon equality of all citizens before the law, the right for an individual to choose a profession, religious toleration, and total elimination of feudalism.

Napoleon’s Domestic Policies

  • Property rights were protected.

  • And unions were outlawed.

  • But women were given less rights than men in the Civil Codes.

  • In lawsuits, women were treated as “minors” in courts.

  • They were considered less reliable than men as witnesses.

Napoleon’s Domestic Policies

  • Napoleon also developed a powerful, centralized administrative machine.

  • Promotion was based upon the quality of performance only.

  • He created a new aristocracy based upon merit in the state service.

  • But individual liberties were limited.

  • Napoleon shut down newspapers that wrote bad stories about him.

Napoleon’s Domestic Policies

  • Even the mail was opened by the government.

  • All books were read by governmental officials before being published.

  • Most of the rights gained through the revolution was removed by Napoleon.

  • Napoleon was a absolute dictator.

Napoleon’s Empire

Napoleon’s Empire

  • When Napoleon came to power in 1799, France was already at war with Russia, Great Britain and Austria.

  • He signed a peace treaty in 1802.

  • And broke the peace treaty with Great Britain in 1803.

  • And gradually Great Britain was joined by Austria, Russia, Sweden, and Prussia.

Napoleon’s Empire

  • In a series of battles between 1805-07, Napoleon defeated the Russians, the Austrians, and the Prussians.

  • Napoleon had conquered all of mainland western Europe.

  • His Grand Empire was composed of three major parts:

  • 1. dependent states

Napoleon’s Empire

  • 2. the French Empire

  • 3. Allied nations

  • Dependent states were kingdoms ruled by his relatives.

  • Allied states were defeated nations forced to join the war against Prussia, Russia, Austria, and Sweden.

  • Everywhere Napoleon gained control, he would impose his laws, thereby spreading religious toleration, property rights, and equality of all citizens before the law.

European Response

European Response

  • Napoleon (like Hitler) believed his empire would last a 1000 years.

  • But it failed quickly because of two major reasons…

  • 1. Great Britain

  • 2. the growing force of nationalism

  • Britain’s survival was due to its great sea power.

European Response

  • As long as Great Britain ruled the waves, Napoleon’s Empire could be attacked.

  • And Great Britain’s navy was invulnerable to military attack.

  • Napoleon tried to invade England in 1805 but failed at the battle of Trafalgar.

  • He then tried to bankrupt Great Britain with the Continental System.

  • But this failed too.

European Response

  • Also defeating Napoleon was nationalism.

  • Nationalism is the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols.

  • By invading so many different cultures, Napoleon had aroused a common hatred against the aggressor.

  • Plus, by example, Napoleon had shown the European nations what a united people/nation could do.

The Fall of Napoleon

The Fall of Napoleon

  • The beginning of Napoleon’s downfall began in 1812 with his invasion of Russia.

  • The Russians had refused to obey the Continental System and Napoleon was forced to invade.

  • He invaded with 600,000 French troops.

  • He was hoping for a quick victory.

  • But Russia kept retreating east, dragging the French troops deeper into Russia.

The Fall of Napoleon

  • When the French finally entered Moscow, they found the city burning and lacking all supplies.

  • Napoleon finally abandoned Moscow and started the “Great Retreat” home to France in October 1812.

  • Only 40,000 French troops made it out of Russia by January 1813.

  • This military defeat caused many European defeated nations to rise up against France.

The Fall of Napoleon

  • Many armies attacked France and Paris was captured in March 1814.

  • Napoleon was captured and sent to the island of Elba, and the old French royal family was reinstated. (the Bourbon monarch Louis XVIII, brother of the beheaded Louis XVI.)

  • This new French king had little support and Napoleon slipped back into France.

The Fall of Napoleon

  • Napoleon enters Paris in a grand parade March 20, 1815.

  • He raised an army and attacked British forces stationed in Belgium.

  • At Waterloo in Belgium, Napoleon suffered his final defeat by a brilliant British general named Wellington. (Duke)

  • This time, Napoleon was sent to St. Helens island in the Atlantic Ocean.

The Fall of Napoleon

  • Napoleon never left the island alive.

  • Many say he was murdered, some say he fell ill.

  • For sure Napoleon Bonaparte died on St. Helena island.

The End

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