Josef Mengele- physician notorious for medical experiments. He selected new arrivals by simply pointing to the left or right, separating those considered able to work from those who were not. Those too weak or old were sent straight to the gas chambers.
Nuremberg Laws- To anti-Jewish laws enacted in 1935. The first deprived them of their citizenship and rights.
Ordnungsdienst - "order service" (German) - The ghetto police, which was made up of Jewish ghetto residents.
Partisans- Irregular troops engaged in guerrilla warfare, often behind enemy lines. During World War II, this term was applied to resistance fighters in Nazi-occupied countries.
Selection- Euphemism for the process of choosing victims for the gas chambers in the Nazi camps by separating them from those considered fit to work.
Terezin- Established in early 1942 outside Prague as a "model" ghetto, Terezin was not a sealed section of town, but rather an eighteenth-century Austrian garrison.
Umshlagplatz- Collection point. It was a square in the Warsaw Ghetto where Jews were rounded up for deportation to Treblinka.
Vernichtungslager- "extermination camp" or "death camp" (German)
Warsaw Ghetto- Established in November 1940, the ghetto, surrounded by a wall, confined nearly 500,000 Jews. Almost 45,000 Jews died there in 1941 alone, due to overcrowding, forced labor, lack of sanitation, starvation, and disease.
Zyklon B- Hydrogen Cyanide (HCN) - The poison that was dropped in crystal form, through a small hole in the ceiling, into the gas chambers. The pellets turned into a lethal gas once in air. The first test using Zyklon B was on September 3, 1941 in Auschwitz.