Textbook of Natural Medicine Second Edition Edited By



Download 0.99 Mb.
Page8/9
Date conversion26.05.2016
Size0.99 Mb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9

SIDE-EFFECTS

Side-effects from fasting are rarely serious, but fasting may uncover pathology and reveal weaknesses that were previously subclinical.[30] Discomfort during fasting may be due to withdrawal from stimulants, hypoglycemia, acidosis, elimination of wastes, and enhancement of repair. Patients may experience headaches, insomnia, skin irritations, dizziness, nausea, coated tongue, body odor, aching limbs, palpitations, mucous discharge, and visual and hearing disturbances. Hair growth is usually arrested, and dry, scaly skin may develop. Most signs and symptoms are usually brief as the body works to remove the disease.[112]

In certain cases, complications occur which may necessitate breaking the fast early. Examples of such conditions include:

a sudden drop in blood pressure (possibly due to peripheral circulatory collapse)

delirium

prolonged hypothermia

rapid/slow/feeble/irregular pulse

extreme weakness

dyspnea

vomiting and diarrhea leading to dehydration

gastrointestinal bleeding

hepatic decompensation

renal insufficiency

severe gout

cardiac arrhythmias

emotional distress.



Fasting elevates serum uric acid levels and uric acid excretion, and if fluid intake is insufficient, gout or renal stones may be precipitated.[36] [113]

A few studies have discussed the development of Wernicke’s encephalopathy during prolonged fasting, but since this rarely occurs during hygienic fasting, it is difficult to determine whether this is related to methodology. It is important, however, to acknowledge the importance of utilizing B vitamins, especially thiamine, when any fast is broken with i.v. glucose.[114] [115]

The decision to terminate the fast should be based on the complete clinical picture and not on an isolated sign or symptom.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Contraindications to fasting are few, and each case must be judged individually, since no two cases are alike. For example, an inexperienced practitioner may assume that emaciated patients should not fast, while Shelton states:[69]

Extreme emaciation: In such cases a long fast is impossible. A short fast of 1–3 days may be found beneficial, or a series of such short fasts with longer periods of proper feeding intervening may be found advisable.

Contraindications include severe anemia, porphyria, and serious malnutrition. Individuals with a rare fatty acid deficiency of the enzyme medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) should also avoid fasting.[46]

The fasting of children and pregnant women is controversial. While a short fast is appropriate for the sick child who does not want to eat, fasting a pregnant women may be seriously contraindicated: ketosis in pregnant diabetic women is known to cause fetal damage. Although this is commonly recognized, the fact that this information has come only from research of diabetic women is not as widely known. There appear to be no studies of the effects of non-diabetic ketosis on fetal development. Doctors (e.g. Shelton, Benesh, Sidwha, and Burton) with considerable experience of fasting pregnant women (during all three trimesters) have found no adverse effects with fasts of a few days to 2–3 weeks. Although the fasting of pregnant women appears, according to clinical observation, to be safe, definitive pronouncement cannot be made until careful research is performed (such as a controlled retrospective analysis of existing cases).[116]

Fasts for children and pregnant women should be shorter and meticulously supervised by an experienced doctor. In The science and fine art of fasting, Shelton states: “Few infants require more than 2–3 days of fasting … I have never hesitated to permit a sick infant to fast and I have yet to see one harmed by it.”[69]

Regarding pregnancy he states: “The author would object to a long fast in chronic ‘disease’ during this period. There can, however, be no objection to a short fast … ”

It is well recognized that fasting during lactation is not generally advised, since milk flow is halted and difficult to resume.[69] Although fasting is considered inappropriate in renal insufficiency,[36] the authors have seen patients with 65% renal function return to normal as a result of fasting and dietary management.

With regard to fasting contraindications in general, Burton stated:[111]

I have found few health problems which are absolute contraindications to fasting. In my experience, if the need is evident, the only genuine contraindication is fear. … As for the other conditions often mentioned, e.g. kidney disease, heart impairment, TB, etc., they merely require extreme caution, because of the limits imposed by pathology, but they are not inexorable contraindications.

Supervised fasting as a therapeutic procedure is generally safe and effective. The incidence of death at fasting institutions is low, which is promising, since many of the patients have serious chronic diseases and have exhausted other therapeutic options. Of the hundreds of cases of fasting described in the scientific literature, only seven cases of death have been reported prior to 1985.[58] [110] [117] [118] [119] [120] In all cases, the patients had serious chronic disease prior to fasting, and in five of the seven cases drugs were given to the patients while fasting, while in the other two no description of protocol was provided.

There is no evidence in the scientific literature to suggest that fasting itself can be considered a cause of death. Death during fasting indicates that the remedial efforts of the body have been overpowered by the pathological process. This situation occurs in serious disease, whether eating or fasting. In examining the fallacy of attributing the cause of death to fasting, one researcher in the Lancet wrote:[121]

Fasting short of emaciation is not hazardous, if death results, reasons other than those of the fast should be considered before concluding that all supervised fasts should be discouraged.

CONCLUSION

Therapeutic fasting is a useful protocol for any doctor interested in studying and promoting the inherent ability of the body to heal itself. This fine art and science is generally a safe, economical, and effective therapy for most patients in disease. Those interested in further study should initially direct their attention to the main historical texts and then to the recent hygienic and scientific literature. The references provide a greater depth of information for the topics discussed in this chapter. Internship with a doctor skilled in therapeutic fasting is strongly advised for those interested in providing safe and effective patient care.

REFERENCES

1. Mosby’s Medical & Nursing Dictionary. St Louis, MO: CV Mosby. 1983: p 417

2. Lehninger A. Biochemistry. New York, NY: Worth Publishing. 1964: p 841–845

3. IAHP Secretary/Treasurer Atty. Mark A Huberman, 204 Stambaugh Bldg, Youngstown, OH, 44503

4. Randolph TG. Human ecology and susceptibility to the chemical environment. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas. 1962

5. Dickey LD, ed. Clinical ecology. Springfield, IL: CC Thomas. 1976

6. Arbesman R. Fasting and prophecy in pagan and Christian antiquity. Tradition 1951; 7: 1–71

7. MacDermot V. The cult of the seer in the Ancient Middle East. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1971

8. Maulana Mohammad Ali. The religion of Islam: a comprehensive discussion of the sources, principles and practices of Islam. The Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam: Lahore, India. 1936

9. Burns D. The greatest health discovery. Chicago, IL: Natural Hygiene Press. 1972

10. Shelton HM. Some fasting history. Shelton’s Hygienic Review 1964; XXV: 12: 291–293

11. Shelton HM. Rubies in the Sand. San Antonio, TX: Shelton’s Health School. 1961

12. Numbers RL. Prophetess of health: a study of Ellen G White. New York: Harper and Row. 1976

13. Weiss HB. The great American water cure. New Jersey: Past Times Press. 1967

14. Shelton HM. Natural Hygiene. Man’s pristine way of life. San Antonio, TX: Shelton’s Health School. 1968

15. Shyrock RH. Medicine in America. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Press. 1966

16. ANHS, 12816 Race Track Road, Tampa, FL, 33625

17. Dr Tanner’s fast. Br Med J 1880; ii: 171

18. Paton DN, Stockman R. Observations of the metabolism of man during starvation. Proc R Soc Edinb 1888–89; 16: 121–131

19. Penny F. Notes on a thirty day’s fast. Br Med J 1909; 1: 1414–1416

20. Benedict FG. A study of prolonged fasting, Publication #203. Washington, DC: Carnegie Institute. 1915

21. Morgulis S. Fasting and undernutrition. New York, NY: EP Dutton. 1923

22. Keys A, Brozek J, Henschel A et al. The biology of human starvation, vols 1 and 2. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. 1950

23. Guelpa G. Starvation and purgation in the relief of diabetes. Br Med J 1910; ii: 1050–1051

24. Allen FM. Prolonged fasting in diabetes. Am J Med Sci 1915; 150: 480–485

25. Guelpa, Marie, 1910, cited by Kernt PR, Naughton JL, Driscoll CE et al. Fasting: the history, pathophysiology and complications. West J Med 1981; 137: 379–399

26. Hoeffel G, Moriarty M. The effects of fasting on the metabolism. Am J Dis Child 1924; 28: 16–24

27. Lennox WG, Cobb S. Studies in epilepsy. Arch Neurol Psych 1928; 20: 711–779

28. Folin O, Denis W. On starvation and obesity with special reference to acidosis. J Biol Chem 1915; 21: 183–192

29. Bloom WL. Fasting as an introduction to the treatment of obesity. Metabolism 1959; 8: 214–220

30. Duncan GG, Jenson WK, Cristofori FC, Schless GL. Intermittent fasts in the correction and control of intractable obesity. Am J Med Sci 1963; 245: 515–520

31. Duncan GG, Duncan TG, Schless GL, Cristofori FC. Contraindications and therapeutic results of fasting in obese patients. Ann NY Acad Sci 1965; 131: 632–636

32. Drenick EJ, Swenseid ME, Blahd WH, Tuttle S. Prolonged starvation as a treatment for severe obesity. JAMA 1964; 187: 100–105

33. Drenick EJ. Contraindications to long term fasting. JAMA 1964; 188: 88

34. Thompson TJ, Runcie J, Miller V. Treatment of obesity by total fast for up to 249 days. Lancet 1966; ii: 992–996

35. Stewart WK, Fleming LW. Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days’ duration. Postgrad Med J 1973; 49: 203–209

36. Goodhart RS, Shils ME. Modern nutrition in health and disease. 6th edn. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger. 1980: p 738, 826, 983–986, 1086

37. Gresham GA. Is atheroma a reversible lesion. Atherosclerosis 1976; 23: 379–391

38. Lawlor T, Wells DG. Metabolic hazards of fasting. Am J Clin Nutr 1969; 22: 8: 1142–1149

39. Suzuki J, Yamauchi Y, Horikawa M, Yamagata S. Fasting therapy for psychosomatic disease with special reference to its indications and therapeutic mechanism. Tohoku J Exp Med 1976; 118: 245–259

40. Vessby B, Boberg M, Karlstrom B et al. Improved metabolic control after supplemented fasting in overweight type 2 diabetic patients. Acta Med Scand 1984; 216: 67–74

41. Sorbris R, Aly KO, Nilsson-Ehle P et al. Vegetarian fasting of obese patients. A clinical and biochemical evaluation. Scand J Gastroenterol 1982; 17: 417–424

42. Navarro S, Rose E, Aused R et al. Comparison of fasting, nasogastric suction and cimetidine in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Digestion 1984; 30: 224–230

43. Imamura M, Tung T. A trial of fasting cure for PCB poisoned patients in Taiwan. Am J Ind Med 1984; 5: 147–153

44. Shakman RA. Nutritional influences on the toxicity of environmental pollutants: a review. Arch Env Health 1974; 28: 105–133

45. Brod J, Pavkova L, Fencl V et al. Influence of fasting on the immunological reactions and course of acute glomerulonephritis. Lancet 1958; i: 760–763

46. Fuhrman J. Fasting and eating for health. New York, NY: St. Martin’s Press. 1995

47. Okamoto O, Murakami I, Itami S et al. Fasting diet therapy for chronic urticaria: report of a case. J Derm 1992; 19: 7. 428–431

48. Lithell H, Bruce A, Gustafsson IB et al. A fasting and vegetarian diet treatment trial on chronic inflammatory disorders. Acta Derm Venereol 1983; 63: 397–403

49. Skoldstam L, Larsson L, Lindstrom FD. Rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1979; 8: 249–255

50. Skoldstam L, Lindstrom FD, Lindblom B. Impaired con A suppressor cell activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis shows normalization during fasting. Scand J Rheumatol 1983; 12: 4: 369–373

51. Sundquist T, Lindstrom F, Magnusson K, Skoldstam L. Influence of fasting on intestinal permeability and disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis shows normalization during fasting. Scand J Rheumatol 1982; 11: 33–38

52. Kroker GF, Stroud RM, Marshall R et al. Fasting and rheumatoid arthritis: a multicentre study. Clin Ecology 1984; 2: 3: 137–144

53. Uden AM, Trang L, Venizelos N, Palmblad J. Neutrophil function and clinical performances after total fasting in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1983; 42: 45–51

54. Palmblad J, Hafstrom I, Ringertz B. Antirheumatic effects of fasting. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1991; 17: 2: 351–362

55. Kjeldsen-Kragh J, Mellbye OJ, Haugen M et al. Changes in laboratory variables in rheumatoid arthritis patients during a trial of fasting and one-year vegetarian diet. Scand J Rheum 1995; 24: 2: 85–93

56. Panush RS. Controversial arthritis remedies. Bull Rheum Dis 1984; 34: 1–10

57. Gerrard JL. Food intolerances. Lancet 1984; ii: 413

58. Spencer IOB. Death during therapeutic starvation for obesity. Lancet 1968; i: 1288–1290

59. Boehme DL. Preplanned fasting in the treatment of mental disease: survey of the current Soviet literature. Schizophr Bull 1977; 3: 2: 288–296

60. Millet V, Spencer MJ, Chapin M et al. Dientamoeba fragilis, a protozoan parasite in adult members of a semicommunal group. Dig Dis Sci 1983; 28: 4: 335–337


61. Johnston DA, Wormsley KG. The effects of fasting on 24-h gastric secretions of patients with duodenal ulcers resistant to ranitidine. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1989; 3: 5: 471–479

62. Dewey EH. The no-breakfast plan and the fasting-cure. New York, NY: The Health Culture Co. 1900

63. MacFadden B. Fasting for health. New York, NY: MacFadden. 1923

64. Hazzard LB. Scientific fasting. New York, NY: Grant Publications. 1927

65. Carrington H. Fasting for health and long life. Mokelume Hill, CA: Health Research. 1963

66. DeVries A. Therapeutic fasting. Los Angeles, CA: Chandler Book Co. 1963

67. Shelton HM. Fasting can save your life. Chicago, IL: Natural Hygiene Press. 1964

68. Shelton HM. Fasting for renewal of life. Chicago, IL: Natural Hygiene Press. 1978

69. Shelton HM. The science and fine art of fasting. Chicago, IL: Natural Hygiene Press. 1978

70. Oswald JA, Shelton HM. Fasting for the health of it. Pueblo, CO: Nationwide Press. 1983

71. Wing EJ, Boehme SM, Barczynski LK. Effects of acute nutritional deprivation on immune function in mice. Immunology 1983; 48: 543–550

72. Wing EJ, Stanko RT, Winnkelstein A, Adibi SA. Fasting enhanced immune effector mechanism in obese patients. Am J Med 1983; 75: 91–96

73. Friend PS, Fernandes G, Good RA et al. Dietary restrictions early and late. Effects on the nephropathy of NZBxNZW mouse. Lab Invest 1978; 38: 629–632

74. Miller JD. Life extension. N Eng J Med 1985; 313: 760

75. Palmblad J, Cantell K, Holm G et al. Acute energy deprivation in man. Effect on serum immunoglobulins, antibody response, complement factors 3 & 4, acute phase reactants and interferon producing capacity of blood lymphocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 1977; 30: 50–55

76. Young VR, Scrimshaw NS. The physiology of starvation. Sci Am 1971; 225: 4: 14–21

77. Rothman DL, Magnusson I, Katz LD et al. Quantitation of hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in fasting humans with 13C NMR. Science 1991; 254: 573–576

78. Editorial. Insights into fasting. Lancet 1992; 339: 152–153

79. Koff RS, Rapid induction of gluconeogenesis during fasting. Gastroenterology 1992; 102: 6: 2174–2175

80. Elkeles RS, Tavill AS. Biochemical aspects of human disease. Boston, MA: Blackwell. 1983: p 141

81. White A, Handler P, Smith EL et al. Principles of biochemistry. 6th edn. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 1978: p 496

82. Montgomery R, Dryer RL, Conway TW, Spector AA. Biochemistry: a case-oriented approach. 4th edn. St Louis, MI: CV Mosby. 1983: p 493–498

83. Nutrition Reviews. Present knowledge in nutrition. 5th edn. Washington, DC: Nutrition Foundation. 1984: p 439–453
84. Reinmuth OM, Scheinberg P, Bourne B. Total cerebral blood flow and metabolism. Arch Neurol 1965; 12: 49–66

85. Saudek C, Felig P. The metabolic events of starvation. Am J Med 1976; 60: 117–126

86. Haro EN, Blum SF, Faloon WW. The glucagon response of fasting obese subjects. Metabolism 1965; 14: 976–984

87. Cahill GF Jr, Owen OE, Morgan AP. The consumption of fuels during prolonged starvation. Adv Enzyme Regul 1968; 6: 143–150

88. Cahill GF, Jr, Owen OE. Starvation and survival. Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc 1967; 79: 13–20

89. Felig P, Owen OE, Morgan AP, Cahill GF Jr. Utilization of metabolic fuels in obese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1968; 21: 1129–1133

90. Buse MG, Reid SS. Leucine, a possible regulator of protein turnover in muscle. J Clin Invest 1975; 56: 1250–1261

91. Felig P, Pozefsky T, Marliss E, Cahill GF Jr. Alanine. Key role in gluconeogenesis. Science 1970; 167: 1003–1004

92. Mallette LE, Exton JH, Park CR. Control of gluconeogenesis from amino acids in the perfused rat liver. J Biol Chem 1969; 244: 5713–5723

93. Cinque R. Hematological changes during fasting. IAHP Newsletter 1993; 7: 1: 6–8

94. Kernt PR, Naughton JL, Driscoll CE, Loxterkamp DA. Fasting: the history, pathophysiology and complications. West J Med 1982; 137: 379–399

95. Theorell T, Kjellberg J, Palmblad J. Electrocardiographic changes during total energy deprivation (fasting). Acta Med Scand 1978; 203: 13–19

96. Consolazio CF, Nelson RA, Johnson HL. Metabolic aspects of acute starvation in normal humans: performance and cardiovascular evaluation. Am J Clin Nutr 1967; 20: 684–693

97. Goldhammer A. Personal communication. 1986

98. Valenta LJ, Elias AN. Modified fasting in the treatment of obesity. Postgrad Med J 1986; 79: 263–267

99. Ende N. Starvation studies with special reference to cholesterol. Am J Clin Nutr 1962; 11: 270–280

100. Immerman AM. Fasting and diet restriction in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. ACA J Chiropractic 1980; 140: S42–S54

101. Rapoport GL, From A, Hudson H. Metabolic studies in prolonged fasting: inorganic metabolism and kidney function. Metabolism 1965; 14: 1: 30–47

102. Scott DJ. Personal communication. 1986

103. Rooth G, Carlstrom S. Therapeutic fasting. Acta Med Scand 1970; 187: 455–463

104. Spark RF, Arky RA, Obrian JT et al. Renin aldosterone and glucagon in the natriuresis of fasting. N Eng J Med 1975; 292: 1335–1340

105. Harrison MT, Harden RM. The long-term value of fasting in the treatment of obesity. Lancet 1966; ii: 1340–1342

106. Beitins IZ, Barkan A, Kiblanski A et al. Hormonal responses to short term fasting in post menopausal women. J Clin Metab 1985; 60: 1120–1126

107. Kim YC, Brodows RG. Starvation stimulates pancreatic PGE content. Prostaglandins 1983; 25: 365–371

108. Cinque R. Personal communication. 1986

109. Benesh G. Personal communication. 1986

110. Kahan A. Death during therapeutic starvation. Lancet 1968; i: 1378–1379

111. Burton A. Fasting too long. Health Science 1979; 2: 144–146

112. Salloum TK. Fasting signs and symptoms. East Palestine, OH: Buckeye Naturopathic Press. 1992

113. Drenick EJ. Hyperuricemia, acute gout, renal insufficiency and urate nephrolithiasis due to starvation. Arth Rheum 1965; 8: 988–997

114. Devathansen G. Wernicke’s encephalopathy in prolonged fasting. Lancet 1982; 2: 8307: 1108–1109

115. Falzi G, Ronchi E. Wernicke’s lethal encephalopathy in voluntary, total prolonged fasting. Foren Sci Int 1990; 47: 17–20

116. Churchill JA, Berendes HW, Nemore J. Neuropsychological deficits in children of diabetic mothers. Am J Obst Gyn 1969; 105: 257–268

117. Cubberley PT, Polster SA, Schulman CL. Lactic acidosis and death after treatment of obesity by fasting. N Eng J Med 1965; 272: 628–630

118. Garnett ES, Barnard DL, Ford J, Goodbody RA. Gross fragmentation of cardiac myofibrils after therapeutic starvation. Lancet 1969; i: 914–916

119. Norbury FB. Contraindication to long term fasting. JAMA 1964; 188: 88

120. Runcie J, Thompson TJ. Prolonged starvation – a dangerous procedure. Br Med J 1970; 3: 432–435

121. Stewart WK, Fleming LW. Fragmentation of cardiac myofibrils after therapeutic starvation. Lancet 1969; 1: 1154


APPENDIX3: Fasting – patient guidelines

Trevor K. Salloum ND
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9


The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page