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U9 Cotton, Cattle, and Railroads Era in Texas https://s3.amazonaws.com/piktochartv2-dev/v2/uploads/b1c02466-9f6c-4686-ad9a-4096dbd2d942/6875e34d74a0b68199765a8db0e3fe54a3d92300_original.jpg

Test Date Friday 3/20/15

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Parent Signature ________________________



Cotton, Cattle and Railroads in Texas Era

Cattle drives and wars with the American Indian Tribes


People

Buffalo soldiers

  • African American soldiers who were in the 9th and 10thCavalry, as well as in the 24th and 25th Infantry Regiments stationed in Texas.

  • They were former enslaved people who fought during the Indian Wars.

  • American Indians gave them this nickname for their bravery


Quanah Parker

  • He was the last Chief of the Comanches and skilled warrior.

  • His tribe roamed West Texas.

  • His mother, Cynthia Ann Parker, was captured by the Comanche as a small child and raised by them

  • His father was Chief Peta Nocona.

  • He eventually surrendered after evading capture by the U.S. cavalry.

  • He assimilated to American culture and influenced other American Indians to do the same.


Contributions of James Hogg

  • As Texas Attorney General, and Governor, he worked at reforming big business fighting to protect citizens from unjust businesses practices.

  • Supported the creation of the Texas Railroad Commission that protected citizens from unfair practices by railroads.


Issues & Events

Factors leading to the expansion of the Texas frontier

  • Large amount of land

  • Large supply of wild longhorn on the Texas frontier

  • Demand for beef in the northern and eastern United States

  • Longhorns were worth $40 a head in northern city packinghouses


Effects of westward expansion on American Indians

  • Battles between Comanche, Apaches, Kiowas, and the U.S. Army

  • Forced to move to reservations in Oklahoma


Development of the cattle industry from its Spanish beginnings

  • Cattle were brought to America by the Spaniards.

  • Large Spanish/Mexican ranches existed in northern Mexico and Texas.

  • The first cowboy was the Spanish vaquero.

  • Cattle trails were used to get cattle to the railroads, which took them to market in eastern & northern states.

  • Over time, railroad junctions were established in Texas.

  • Barbed wire, windmill (windpump or windwheel), and railroads in Texas were the main causes for the close of the open range and the end of the cattle drives.

  • Ranchers no longer had to have access to waterways.


Effects of the growth of railroads

  • Allowed raw materials in Texas to be sent to northern markets

  • Texans had fast, inexpensive, and reliable transportation.

  • Cause for the industrialization of Texas

  • Many new cities and towns grew up along the rail lines.

Agricultural Industry

  • Political impact

    • Increase of revenue for state

  • Economic Impact

    • Products were moved, sold, and transported across the nation.

    • New cash crops were grown in Texas (e.g., wheat, sorghum).

    • Cotton and corn grown across the state with cotton being grown mostly in East Texas.

    • Crops affect inflation

    • Income from agriculture exceeded income from cattle ranching by 1900s.

  • Social impact

    • Farmers moved west.

    • New methods of farming – dry farming, irrigation, and terraces

    • Increase of sharecropping and tenant farming, which resulted in many people in deep debt

    • Tenant Farming – farmers who rented land on which to grow crops

    • Sharecropping – farmers who rented land, tools, seeds, and/or houses and promised part of their crop as payment


Development of West Texas resulting from the close of the frontier

  • Political impact

    • Range wars –in the late 1800s, ranchers fenced their land with barbed wire. Farmers and ranchers then battled between each other. Cutting and destroying fences and burning pasture land resulted in gunfights and lower property values.

    • Legislation – fence cutting became a felony

  • Economic impact

    • Expansion of the railroad

    • Cattle ranching becomes a business, rather than a way of life

    • Growth of large ranches

    • Inventions – barbwire and windmill (windpump or windwheel)

    • Sheep ranching increased

    • Improvements in quality of beef

  • Social impact

    • Growth of population and towns in West Texas

    • Use of barbwire to fence-off land


Landforms in Texas

  • American Indian Wars

  • The U.S. Army trapped the Comanche in the Palo Duro Canyon, their winter home.

  • Flat land of High Plains allowed for them to be untouched for so long

  • This defeat forced the Comanche to move to reservations in Oklahoma.


Irrigation

  • Closing the frontier

  • When windmills were invented, farmers and ranchers in West Texas were able to water their crops and animals on their own property without having access to a river or aquifer.


Cattle trails

  • Adapted/Modified – after the Civil War, cattle trails were developed to transport cattle to the railroads.

  • Consequences – led to the development of railroads and towns in less developed areas

  • The first cattle trail that led out of Texas was the Shawnee/Sedalia Trail (1846-1879). It started in southern Texas and ended in St. Louis, Missouri.


Closing the frontier

  • Adapted/Modified – fences were used to keep cattle, sheep, and goats within one’s property.

  • Consequences – changed the business of ranching to be more commercial and encouraged other types of industries to move into the area


Limited water resources

  • Farming in West Texas was often abandoned because of the limited water resources making it too dry to farm, so ranching (cattle) became more successful.

19th century immigration to Texas

A cultural pattern of diversity is evident in the celebrations, languages, traditions, arts, architecture and foods in Texas.



Mexicans

  • Why – bordered Mexico, vast amounts of land for ranching

  • Where – settled South Texas (settled the largest area) bringing their distinctive architecture

Germans

  • Why – available cheap land, good climate

  • Where – settled in New Braunfels, San Antonio, and central Texas

Americans

  • Why – similar to southeast Texas where most came from, relatives and other people they knew, and financial opportunities

  • Where – East Texas

Swedish

Irish

  • Why – potato famine and poverty

  • Where – The Rio Grande Valley, San Patricio, Refugio, and Victoria

French

  • Why – took advantage of the Colonization Laws of 1841

  • Where – Castroville

Polish

Czech

  • Why – available cheap land and poverty

  • Where – Cat Spring, Fayette County


Transportation in Texas

Railroad

  • Past – to transport cattle, agricultural products, and people

  • Present – refrigerated trucks and faster rail systems transport cattle and agricultural products as well as freight

Agriculture—Barbed wire – fencing that prevented cattle and other animals from destroying crops

Windmill (windpump or windwheel) – allowed cattle, sheep, goats, and crops to be watered on a farmer’s land, they did not have to be near a river or water source

Irrigation –artificial application of water to the soil; usually used to assist the growing of crops in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall



  • Past – provided water so cattle can be contained and farming can be developed

  • Present – irrigation systems are built to more effectively provide water for animals and farming

Communication

  • Past – telegraph, telephones, letters, and very slow

  • Present –now includes cell phones and Internet/e­mail

Energy

  • Past – wood and kerosene

  • Present – since the early 20th century oil, electricity, wind, and solar


The diversity of Texas is reflected in many cultural activities such as local folk festivals, Wurstfest, celebrations of Cinco de Mayo, Quinceañera celebrations, ballet folklorico performances, Scottish dancing performances, and many numerous others.


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