Terms to know line of demarcation



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UNIT XI – NEW MISSIONARY EFFORTS (1500’s – 1700’s)

We wish to confirm once more that the task of evangelizing all people constitutes the essential mission of the Church. Pope Paul VI in Evangelii Nuntiandi (Apostolic Exhortation on Evangelization)

http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/historical/shepherd_1911/shepherd-c-107-110.jpg

TERMS TO KNOW

  • LINE OF DEMARCATION – longitudinal line 100 leagues west of the Azores which separated Spanish colonization from Portuguese colonization

  • ACCOMMODATION METHOD – approach to evangelization which allows for a blending of Catholicism with some anti-Catholic beliefs


IMPORTANT PERSONS

  • CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS – Italian explorer who sought a path to India by sailing west and discovered the “New World”

  • ST. FRANCIS XAVIER – co-founder of the Society of Jesus who served as a missionary in Asia

  • OUR LADY OF GUADALUPE – apparition of the Blessed Virgin Mary to St. Juan Diego in 1531 near modern-day Mexico City

  • FR. JUAN PADILLA – first recorded martyr in the Americas (1540)

  • ST. JUNIPERO SERRA – Franciscan missionary who served and organized the missions of California

  • NORTH AMERICAN MARTYRS – 8 Jesuits who were violently executed by the Iroquois between 1642 and 1649

  • BL. KATERI TEKAKWITHA – native American woman who was converted by Jesuit missionaries and dedicated herself to a life of virginity


I. A NEW ZEAL FOR THE FAITH – 1500’s

We’re about to set sail…

Most trade went through the __________________________

Taxes were high in __________________ countries, so European traders sought different routes

1488 – Bartholomew Dias is the first known European to travel around southernmost tip of __________

1497, Vasco de Gama made it all the way to _____________ by this route.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS

Inspired by Ptolemy, an ancient Roman geographer, he believed one could reach ________ by sailing west

Isabella of Spain accepted his proposal and _____________________________________

He underestimated the size of the world by about _________ miles

BTW: why would Columbus be reading Ptolemy? __________________________________

He died believing he had found the passage to the _____________

Columbus’ discovery set of a frenzy of _______________

Spain, Portugal, France, the Netherlands, and England

Pope Alexander VI drew up the “________________________________”

Spain given all ___________ 100 leagues west of the Azores, and Portugal all new lands to the East

France, the Netherlands, and England also joined in _______________________

Background

We’re in the 1500’s; what events have recently taken place in the Church?

____________________________________________________________________________

With renewed zeal for the Gospel, many felt called – like ____________ – to “make disciples of all nations”

Following the wake of discovery and exploration, a relatively small number of holy missionaries felt the call to bring the Gospel to these new worlds; which of the 4 Marks does this exhibit? _______________

Obstacles to Missionaries


  • Great distances to ___________

  • __________ was also a great barrier

  • Languages were difficult to learn and often lacked the _____________ to explain ___________________

  • Native medicine men, witch doctors, and pagan priests were ________________ to missionaries.

  • GREATEST OBSTACLE: the ______________ of the Christian, European settlers


II. EXPLORATION & MISSIONARY MOVEMENTS: ASIA

St. Francis Xavier (1549-1551)

One of the founding members of the ________________ (the Jesuits)

Worked first to improve the moral character of the __________________ settlers in India

Always tried to learn the native _________________; said to have _____________ thousands

Did much to evangelize the natives of ___________ (Remember, he’s the patron saint of Goa, India)

Eventually he _________________ to Japan; he wanted to go to China, but he _______on the way


INDIA

History says that St. _____________ the Apostle came to India to preach the Gospel

Why does a nation already evangelized need to be “re-evangelized”?

Missionaries in this area dedicated a large part of efforts to ________________________ traditions of the people

Missionary efforts directed by St. _____________________

By learning ___________________, the missionaries could teach about Jesus in a more convincing way

Christianity was presented in different ways to the _____________________

Bore great fruit because of the effective ____________ and well-ordered ____________ established

What does this remind you of? ____________________________________________________

After the suppression of the Jesuits in _______________, the Christian population in India __________



JAPAN

By 1580’s – 160,000 Catholics in Japan, numerous ____________ as well as _____________________

1587 – there’s concern over this “new religion” & its connection w/ “quiet takeover” by _____________

The Japanese begin to _______________ the Church in Japan

1614 – over 200,000 Catholics __________________

From 1638-1825 no outsiders ________________ and no connection to the ________________ Church

When French missionaries returned, they found an _____________________ Church 20,000 strong

No ______________, but they’ve continued _______________ for 200 years

Taught by the Jesuits before they were expelled

CHINA

China resisted ________________ for many years – unimpressed with ________________ “sophistication” because China was so _____________ culturally and technologically

1583, Fr. Matteo Ricci SJ was able to set up a permanent residence in China

He embraced the Chinese _______________

Through his __________________ and ____________, he was able to introduce the Chinese to the fruits of Western culture

He developed a ______________ in Chinese, and wrote a treatise on the ___________ in Chinese

By 1724 the number of Chinese Catholics grew to 800,000

Catholicism was encouraged by ______________ BUT ______________ was short-lived

Ricci allowed for a blending of Catholicism with some anti-Catholic beliefs (ex. Ancestor worship)

Known as the ________________________________________

Church which is largely European, wants Church in China to look more like Church in Europe

Wary of Western expansion, the Emperor began a persecution of the Church and numbers declined

Situation today: “Patriotic Church” & “underground” Church

III. EXPLORATION & MISSIONARY MOVEMENTS: AFRICA

Because of the Line of Demarcation, Africa is in the hands of which European nation? _____________

This region of the world showed the ______________ results from missionary activity

Historically, at least north Africa was Catholic; why was that not the case by the 1600’s?

_________________________________________________________________________________

In addition, ________________ destroyed nearly all missionary efforts

Other obstacles included reprisals over the slave trade, jealous pagan priests, and persecutions

No real fruit born until __________________________________________________ centuries



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IV. EXPLORATION & MISSIONARY MOVEMENTS:

THE “NEW WORLD” (A.K.A. THE “WEST INDIES”)

  1. SPAIN IN THE NEW WORLD

In the New World…

After realizing they weren’t in _________, Spanish discoverers & missionaries found a wealth of _____

…BUT Spanish missionaries had __________________ converting natives

The natives distrusted the Spanish after ______________ were destroyed and their human _________________ were stopped

After the apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe, conversions abounded

Within _____ years of the apparition, ___________________ natives would be baptized.



Spanish Missions: FLORIDA

Motivated by 3 things: _______________________________

Arrived in _____________ in April, 1513

Juan Ponce de Leon landed at Bay of __________________________

BUT not exactly _________; natives are VERY hostile; lots of martyrs among the Jesuits & Franciscans

1565 – 1st parish established in ______________________

1600’s – 1,000’s of ____________ converts; all comes to halt in 1700’s with ________ influence in area

1763 – Treaty of Paris – Florida becomes a ______________________



Spanish Missions: the SOUTHWEST

MUCH MORE SUCCESSFUL!! Stretched from ___________ to ____________ to ______________

Once ________________ was conquered by Spanish, discoverers turned northward

Bringing _____________________ with them

Typically no widespread martyrdom, but isolated incidents:

Fr. Juan Padilla was martyred in ___________ around ________________

Problems between the Native Americans and _________________ government

Because the missionaries were apparently associated with _____________, the natives often rejected or even attacked the missionaries.

Missionaries establish Indian communities: ______________ were given control over their own affairs

The missionaries taught ______________, established ______________, and transcribed the native language into a _____________ language

They also taught them modern _____________ techniques and industrial crafts

Between 1610 and 1767, 700,000 natives convertedmap of 21 missions of california showing exact location.

Much of the _____________ mission influence remains…

The California Missions: Notice the saints & which order they belong to:

______________________________________
Spanish Missions: St. Junipero Serra (1713-1784)


  • Spanish-born Franciscan, taught ______________ at University of Padua

  • After hearing of the need for missionaries in __________, Fr. Serra left without telling his ___________ where he was going; he would never see them again

  • A powerful preacher with a unique approach

    • First start by __________________ with Spanish goods, then _______________ the Gospel to them

  • Fought for the rights of the natives against the evils of ____________________________

    • Even walked to _______________________ to speak with governor

  • Founded 9 of the 21 ____________________ missions; traveled 24,000 miles while making 1,000’s of converts in his lifetime



  1. FRANCE IN THE NEW WORLD

Not as strong as the Spanish because France is not as ___________________

Jesuit missionaries accompanied French ______________________________

_________________ a common occurrence in French missions

Native Americans of this region were __________________


North American Martyrs

St. Issac Jogues, John de Brebeuf, and companions violently executed by the ___________ between 1642 and 1649



St. Kateri Tekakwitha, virgin

Native American, converted by _______________; rejected by her family for converting

Dies of ______________ in early 20’s

Going west…

Fr. Jacque Marquette and Joliet explore _____________________ into Mississippi River area

Lots of _________________________ evangelizing the natives

Eventually reaching down to _____________________________


FOREIGN EXPLORATION OF NORTH AMERICA



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