Terms Chapter 24 peninsulares Latin Americans born in Spain creoles

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Terms Chapter 24

peninsulares Latin Americans born in Spain

creoles Spaniards born in Latin America

mulattos Africans or people of mixed European and African ancestry

conservative People who supported the monarchy

liberal People who wanted to give more power to elected legislatures

radical People who wanted to end the rule by kings and give full voting rights to all people

nationalism Belief that a person’s loyalty belongs to the nation itself instead of to the nation’s ruler

nation-state Country with its own independent government

the Balkans Region including all or part of present-day Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey, and former Yugoslavia

Russification A policy of forcing Russian culture on ethnic groups in the Russian Empire

realpolitik Tough, practical politics

kaiser Emperor

romanticism Movement in art and ideas that focused on nature and the thoughts and feelings of individuals

realism Movement in art that tried to show life as it really was

impressionism Style of art using light and light-filled colors to produce an


Terms Chapter 26

suffrage Right to vote

Chartist movement Movement in England to give the right to vote to more people and to obtain other rights

Third Republic Government formed in France after Napoleon III was exiled

Dreyfus affair Events surrounding the framing of a Jewish officer in the French army

anti-Semitism Prejudice against Jews

Zionism Movement to establish a separate homeland in Palestine for the Jews

Maori Polynesian people who settled in New Zealand

Aborigine Native people of Australia

penal colony Place where convicts are sent to serve their sentences as an alternative to prison

home rule Local control over domestic affairs

manifest destiny Belief that the United States would rule the land from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean

segregation Separation by race

assembly line Arrangement by which a product in a factory is moved from worker to worker, with each worker completing a single step in the task

Charles Darwin Scientist who developed the theory of evolution

theory of evolution Theory that all life on earth developed from simpler forms of life

mass culture Art and entertainment appealing to a large audience
Terms Chapter 28

Opium War War between Britain and China over the opium trade

extraterritorial rights Rights of foreign residents to follow the laws of their own government rather than those of the host country

Taiping Rebellion Rebellion against the Qing Dynasty

sphere of influence Area in which a foreign nation controls trade and investment

Open Door Policy Policy proposed by the United States giving all nations equal opportunities to trade in China

Boxer Rebellion Rebellion aimed at ending foreign influence in China Treaty of Kanagawa Treaty between the United States and Japan opening trade between the two nations

Meiji era Period of rule by Emperor Mutsuhito from 1867 to 1912

Russo–Japanese War War between Russia and Japan fought in 1904

Monroe Doctrine U.S. statement of opposition to European influence in the Americas

Spanish–American War War fought between the United States and Spain in 1898, in which the Americans supported the Cuban fight for independence

Panama Canal Man-made waterway connecting the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

Roosevelt Corollary Statement that the United States had the right to exercise “police power” in the Western Hemisphere

La Reforma Movement in Mexico aimed at achieving land reform, better education, and other goals

Porfirio Díaz Dictator who came to power after Juárez.
Terms Chapter 30

Bolsheviks Group of revolutionaries led by Lenin

Lenin Leader of the Bolsheviks and first ruler of the Soviet Union

soviet Local governing council

Communist Party A political party practicing the ideas of Karl Marx and Lenin

Joseph Stalin Revolutionary leader who took control of the Communist Party after


totalitarianism Government that has total control over people’s lives

command economy Economy in which the government makes all the economic decisions

Five-Year Plans Plans to develop the Soviet Union’s economy

Kuomintang Nationalist Party of China that overthrew the Qing Dynasty

May Fourth Movement Chinese nationalist protest against China’s fate as decided by the Treaty of Versailles

Mao Zedong Leader of the Communist revolution in China

Jiang Jieshi Leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party

Long March Escape of Communists to safety after being surrounded by Nationalist Forces

Rowlatt Acts Laws to prevent Indians from protesting British actions

Mohandas K. Gandhi Leader of the movement for Indian independence from Britain

civil disobedience Disobeying the law for the purpose of achieving some higher goal

Salt March A march to the sea to protest British salt tax

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