Technical Editing



Download 101.97 Kb.
Date conversion29.05.2016
Size101.97 Kb.

For use with Technical Editing, 4th ed. (© Pearson Education 2006)

Technical Editing

Chapter 10 Grammar and Usage

Discussion and Application

1. Parts of speech

Identify the parts of speech of all the underlined words in the following sentences. If necessary, consult a dictionary or a handbook of grammar and usage. Note with regard to sentence 3 that a gerund (noun formed from a verb) can take an object just as a verb can.



1A genome is all the genetic material in the chromosomes of an organism. 2The human genome includes about three billion base pairs that make up human DNA. 3The Human Genome Project, completed in 2003, was a 13-year, international effort to identify the 20,000-25,000 human genes and make them accessible for further biological study. 4This research has catalyzed biotechnology.


word

part of speech

word

part of speech

A




The




genome




Human




is




Genome




all




Project




the




completed




genetic




in




material




2003




in




was




the




a




chromosomes




13




of




year




an




international




organism




effort










to




about




identify




three










billion




make




base




them




pairs




accessible




that




for




make




further




up




biological




human




study




DNA











2. Sentence parts


For each of the sentences in application #1:

a. Identify the simple subject, complete subject, complete predicate, and modifiers.

b. Identify the type of verb (transitive, intransitive, linking, to be) and complement, if any.

You can copy and paste from the original sentence.






simple subject

complete subject

complete predicate

modifiers

type of verb

A genome is all the genetic material in the chromosomes of an organism.
















The human genome includes about three billion base pairs that make up human DNA.
















The Human Genome Project, completed in 2003, was a 13-year, international effort to identify the 20,000-25,000 human genes and make them accessible for further biological study.
















This research has catalyzed biotechnology.

















3. Sentence patterns

Describe the predicate in each of the following sentences. Identify whether the verb is transitive, intransitive, linking, or to be. If necessary, consult a dictionary.

Identify whether the remainder of the predicate consists of a direct object, a subject complement, or an adverb (or adverbial phrase).

When you find subject complements, determine whether they are nouns or adjectives. Note that some verbs can be either transitive or intransitive.



sentence

verb type (transitive, intransitive, linking, to be)

predicate after the verb (direct object, subject complement, etc.)

tense (time of action: present, past)

a. The Dow Jones Industrial Average fell by 53 points.










b. I will lie down.










c. She laid the newspaper down.










d. A virus is a pathogen.










e. The accident occurred yesterday.










f. The program works well.










g. The students worked the algebra problems.










h. The marketing strategy seems successful.










i. All members are present.












4. Transitive and intransitive verbs


Sentences in a and b are both common, but which is “correct”?

a. She graduated from college.

b. She graduated college.

Is the verb “graduated” transitive or intransitive? (Check your dictionary.)




How does your answer define what should follow the verb?




How does “from college” function in sentence a?




How does “college” function in sentence b?




How would an editor determine the better choice of sentences?



5. Tense


a. For the sentences in application #3, identify whether the verb tense is present, past, or future.

b. Edit this paragraph with particular attention to verb tense.

When you replace verbs, select the “strikethrough” option in the format/font menu, and insert the new verb beside the old one.

We take great pleasure in welcoming you to our staff. We hope our relationship is one of mutual understanding and support. The owners had many years of experience in the operation of successful and profitable businesses. We were fortunate in the past with our choices for our staff, and we sincerely hope that you will follow in this path.


6. Subject and verb


The following sentences contain errors in the verb or complement.

For each sentence, first identify the simple subject and then the simple verb. (Remember that the grammatical subject may differ from the topic of the sentence.)



Mark these words (simple subject, simple verb, and subject complement in sentences with to be verbs) by changing them to boldface.

If the verb is a linking or to be verb, identify the complement.

Then identify and correct errors in subject-verb agreement or faulty predication. Make editorial changes in the second version of the sentence. (See the example in sentence a.)

a. The overall condition of the facilities are good to very good. [marked]



The overall condition of the facilities is good to very good. [corrected]

b. The resources dedicated to repair is minimal.



The resources dedicated to repair is minimal.

c. The record of all courses attempted and completed appear on the transcript.



The record of all courses attempted and completed appear on the transcript.

d. A wide range of extracurricular activities are available to students.



A wide range of extracurricular activities are available to students.

e. Shipment of factory sealed cartons are made from our warehouse via the cheapest and fastest way.



Shipment of factory sealed cartons are made from our warehouse via the cheapest and fastest way.

f. The benefit of the annuity to the investor will be a source of additional retirement income.



The benefit of the annuity to the investor will be a source of additional retirement income.

g. The income from the annuity does not indicate that it will offset living expenses.



The income from the annuity does not indicate that it will offset living expenses.

h. The agriculture industry is susceptible to pest problems.



The agriculture industry is susceptible to pest problems.

i. Overloading on the library floor has moved approximately 20,000 volumes off campus to avoid structural damage to the building.



Overloading on the library floor has moved approximately 20,000 volumes off campus to avoid structural damage to the building.

j. The interaction between the chemical mechanism and the dynamic mechanism appears to be the two important factors behind the depletion of the ozone layer.



The interaction between the chemical mechanism and the dynamic mechanism appears to be the two important factors behind the depletion of the ozone layer.

k. The purpose of this section of the report is to increase the fatigue strength of an already welded joint.



The purpose of this section of the report is to increase the fatigue strength of an already welded joint.



7. Dangling modifiers


The following sentences contain dangling modifiers.

Identify the dangling modifier by converting it to boldface.

Edit the sentences by inserting missing subjects into sentences or by converting modifiers to clauses. You may create two sentences from one if necessary for clarity. Which of the original sentences are written with passive voice verbs?

a. When preparing copy for the typesetter or when correcting errors on the screen, the cursor can be easily moved with the mouse.

When preparing copy for the typesetter or when correcting errors on the screen, the cursor can be easily moved with the mouse.

b. Rather than make marks on the copy, the change can be placed in the computer for a faster and neater job.



Rather than make marks on the copy, the change can be placed in the computer for a faster and neater job.

c. The cost of production can be reduced by purchasing software and hardware for desktop publishing.



The cost of production can be reduced by purchasing software and hardware for desktop publishing.

d. A mosquito bit Lord Carnarvon on his left cheek five months after entering King Tut’s tomb.



A mosquito bit Lord Carnarvon on his left cheek five months after entering King Tut’s tomb.

e. Growing up to five feet long and weighing over 600 pounds, natives on the Moluceas Archipelago use the shells of the giant man-eating clam as children’s bathtubs.



Growing up to five feet long and weighing over 600 pounds, natives on the Moluceas Archipelago use the shells of the giant man-eating clam as children’s bathtubs.

f. By using lead-free gasoline, harmful lead oxides and lead chlorides and bromides are not released into the atmosphere as is the case with leaded (regular) gasoline.



By using lead-free gasoline, harmful lead oxides and lead chlorides and bromides are not released into the atmosphere as is the case with leaded (regular) gasoline.

Which of the original sentences are written with passive voice verbs? Identify the sentences by typing in their letters.








8. Misplaced modifiers


The following sentences contain misplaced modifiers. Edit to show where the modifier should go.

a. Only smoke in the break room.



Only smoke in the break room.

b. Racquets with safety thongs and bumpers are only allowed.

Racquets with safety thongs and bumpers are only allowed.

c. Journalists must be able to operate equipment used to produce the stories such as computers.

Journalists must be able to operate equipment used to produce the stories such as computers.

In your own words, explain the difference between a misplaced modifier and a dangling modifier.




9. Pronouns: case, number, antecedent

The following sentences include pronoun errors of various types. Identify the error by marking with boldface. Edit to correct the sentence.

a. A positive attitude allows the waitperson to laugh at oneself and learn from their mistakes.

b. If an investor wants to sell their shares of stock, they are sold at the market price at the time of sale.

c. He and myself will conduct a workshop on investments.



10. Usage

a. What issues of usage do sentences a and b raise? How should the sentences be edited for formal uses?

(1) Use the express lane if you have less than ten items.

Issue:

Use the express lane if you have less than ten items.

(2) The project to edit the employee handbook could be divided between several students.



Issue:

The project to edit the employee handbook could be divided between several students.

b. Consult your dictionary and handbook to determine what advice they may offer about usage on the following two issues:

(1) Hopefully: Is the adverb hopefully misused as a substitute for “it is hoped” as in the sentence “Hopefully, we will finish before Friday”? Define the grounds on which the use of hopefully could be considered a matter of usage rather than of grammar.

(2) “The reason is because…”: Check The American Heritage Dictionary under “because” for a usage note. Remembering sentence patterns with linking verbs and guidelines for subject complements, explain why the structure might be considered grammatically incorrect.

Discuss how usage rather than grammar may determine whether a structure is acceptable.



Hopefully:




The reason is because:




Usage and grammar:





The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2016
send message

    Main page