Teaching American History for All mdusd/ucb h-ssp 11th grade lesson: Comparing and Contrasting the Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X



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Teaching American History for All

MDUSD/UCB H-SSP

11th grade lesson: Comparing and Contrasting the Speeches of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X

Grant Focus Question:

How did definitions of citizenship change from the 17th century to the 20th century?


11th Grade Yearlong Focus Question:

How have the powers of the United States federal government expanded or been limited since the Civil War?


Unit Focus Question:

What forms of social change resulted from the Civil Rights Movements?


Unit Working Thesis:

Although the 1960s saw many subordinated groups pursuing different goals, those groups were united in their demands for social change, political empowerment, and enforceable equal rights under the law.


Lesson Focus Question/Writing Prompt:
How were the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X similar and different as they worked to achieve a better future for black people in America?
Lesson Working Thesis:

Both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X had similar overarching goals of achieving equality, justice and freedom for blacks in America; however, their plans for achieving change were very different. On the one hand, Martin Luther King Jr. promoted integration between whites and blacks and worked for equality and equal access for all of American’s citizens, black and white. On the other hand, Malcolm X did not view blacks as citizens in America and he advocated that blacks separate from whites in America to create a separate nation.



Reading Strategy:

Passage Level: Differing Perspectives/ Point of View/ Debate:

Both passages side by side, p6 {Extra: Can use as a class set as a reference}

Martin Luther King excerpt “I have a Dream” for students, p7 and Teacher Key, p8

Malcolm X excerpt “God’s Judgment” for students, p9 and Teacher Key, p10

Writing Strategy Lesson:

Compare and Contrast Starter activity, p5

Structured Compare and Contrast paragraph, p13
Suggested Amount of Time:

1-2 days
Textbook:

Danzer, Gerald et al. The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21st Century. Evanston, Illinois: McDougal Littell Inc., 2006,
Other Resources:


  • Utube/ Google Video of Martin Luther King’s “I have a Dream” speech

  • Utube of Malcolm X “Ballot or Bullet” speech, search under dcourtney98 {unfortunately, there is not an audio or video clip of Malcolm X’s “God’s Judgment’ speech to match the lesson. This clip of Malcolm X starts off with the following passage, which lasts 1 minute, 8 seconds:

“..We are Africans, and we happen to be in America. We are not Americans. We are a people who formerly were Africans who were kidnapped and brought to America. Our forefathers weren't the Pilgrims. We didn't land on Plymouth Rock; the rock was landed on us.

We were brought here against our will; we were not brought here to be made citizens. We were not brought here to enjoy the constitutional gifts that they speak so beautifully about today. Because we weren't brought here to be made citizens--today, now that we've become awakened to some degree, and we begin to ask for those things which they say are supposedly for Americans, they look upon us with a hostility and unfriendliness.”



Context of the lesson in the unit:
Suggested Teacher Procedure:

2-3 minutes:



  • Welcome, introductions

  • Goal for the day- look at reading and writing

  • Overview / Review of civil rights movement—set context, system of slavery, constitution, civil war & amendments, 100 years later, still not equal

7 minutes:



  • Start off with pictures of both men- what do you know? How are the men similar? What words describe the men? How are they different? Use a list of terms (integrationist, separatist, religious, persuasive speaker, good leader, broke laws and spent time in jail, assassinated…) or prior knowledge, depending on class. Brainstorm list on worksheet, page 1 and discuss as a class

    • Students work alone, then share ideas in pairs/small groups.

    • Teacher elicits answers from students and fills in chart on overhead

  • Formal Introduction—both men wanted change, they just achieved it in different ways. While the men had similar goals of achieving equality, justice and freedom for African Americans, their methods were very different.

  • Today we will look at parts of speeches from both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X to see what they wanted and how they went about achieving their goals.

30-40 minutes:



  • Step 1- Explain the scene:

    • Explain the chart—It is a perspectives/debate chart where they will be able to focus on one key idea and see how both men viewed this idea. They will write & mark up the speeches as they search for the different ideas and we will do this as a class first. Later, we will compare and contrast these men based on the ideas we have entered in the chart.

    • Look at the historic context of both speeches. Go over the dates, the name of the speech, who was in the audience, and the setting or place of the speech.

  • Step 2- Read the speeches

    • Students read through both speeches silently and underline one phrase or word from each speech that is important.

    • Students share in pairs/small groups the phrase/word they underlined for each speech and explain why they chose the phrase/word. Model first—In MLK’s speech, I believe the phrase “______” is important because…

      • {Or, alternatively, have students read one speech and talk about what they underlined then the other speech and talk about what they underlined.}

    • Elicit answers from students and underline the word/ phrase in the speeches on overhead.

  • Step 3- Deconstruct the speeches and fill in the chart: Teacher model

    • Start with MLK’s speech. Have students look at the chart and tell them they are looking for what MLK thought, said, or believed about #1) living in America and being American. They will put a circle around any words or phrases that give clues. Tell them they will start with the pronouns—we, our, he, she, him, her—in order to understand what MLK thought about America and being American. MLK: “we” “our”= black and white people

    • Read through the first paragraph and model circling the pronouns. Go through vocabulary as you read, writing the meaning on the overhead, and probe the students for connections regarding: the opening choice of words referring to a Lincoln speech (“Five score years ago,”) the next reference to Abe Lincoln & the setting (“whose symbolic shadow”), and Lincoln’s actions (“Emancipation Proclamation”).

    • Have students discuss who is meant by “we” and “our” (blacks and whites) and write the answers in the chart.

    • Do the same for Malcolm X’s first paragraph, noting “we” “our” (blacks) vs. “her” his” (whites)

  • Step 4- Deconstruct the speeches and fill in the chart: Teacher model with guided practice and independent practice

    • Introduce the remaining topics that are to be compared between the two men on the chart: 2) Blacks and Whites working together (students will use a squiggly line) and 3) the goal/s for blacks in America (students will put a box around)

    • Read the remaining 2 paragraphs aloud. Could use a “cloze” style of reading here where the teacher pauses before a word and the students must orally say the next word in the sentence before the teacher continues.

    • Teacher clarifies vocabulary, asking students for help and ideas.

    • Teacher asks for input from students and models using the squiggly line on the overhead before transferring information into the chart to answer 2)blacks and whites working together.

    • Teacher allows students to work in pairs or small groups to complete the chart.

10-15 minutes



  • Step 5- Homework or Day 2 class work- Compare/Contrast paragraph

    • Students will use the cue words for compare/contrast and perspectives to write a paragraph where they will compare and/ or contrast Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X on one or more of the areas they covered in depth on the chart.

    • Students will underline all words that are cue words for compare/contrast or perspective.


History-Social Science Content Standards:
11.10 Students analyze the development of federal civil rights and voting rights.

4. Examine the roles of civil rights advocates (e.g., A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, Thurgood Marshall, James Farmer, Rosa Parks), including the significance of Martin Luther King, Jr. 's "Letter from Birmingham Jail" and "I Have a Dream" speech.

6. Analyze the passage and effects of civil rights and voting rights legislation (e.g., 1964 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act of 1965) and the Twenty-Fourth Amendment, with an emphasis on equality of access to education and to the political process.


Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills:

Historical Research, Evidence, and Point of View


  1. Students construct and test hypotheses; collect, evaluate, and employ information from multiple primary and secondary sources; and apply it in oral and written presentations.

Historical Interpretation


  1. Students show the connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments.

  1. Students interpret past events and issues within the context in which an event unfolded rather than solely in terms of present-day norms and values.

  2. Students understand the meaning, implication, and impact of historical events and recognize that events could have taken other directions.


Reading/Language Arts Content Standards:
1.0 Word Analysis, Fluency, and Systematic Vocabulary Development
2.0 Reading Comprehension (Focus on Informational Materials)

2.1 Analyze both the features and the rhetorical devices of different types of public documents (e.g., policy

statements, speeches, debates, platforms) and the way in which authors use those features and devices.

Patterns, arguments, and positions advanced.

  1. Writing Strategies

Organization and Focus
1.1 Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments.
Research and Technology
1.7 Use systematic strategies to organize and record information

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

2.2 Write responses to literature:
a. Demonstrate a comprehensive understanding of the significant ideas in works or passages.

b. Analyze the use of imagery, language, universal themes, and unique aspects of the text.


c. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed references to the text and to other works.

d. Demonstrate an understanding of the author's use of stylistic devices and an appreciation of the effects created.


e. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and complexities within the text.
Passage Level Strategy: Compare and Contrast the Perspectives of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X
NAME_______________________________________________

Lesson Question: How were the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X similar and different as they worked to achieve a better future for black people in America?
How were the men similar? Both Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X thought, said or believed:




How were the men different?




ONE word to describe Martin Luther King Jr. is:

ONE word to describe Malcolm X. is:



Martin Luther King Jr believed whereas Malcolm X believed

Passage Level Strategy: Compare and Contrast the Perspectives of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X
Excerpt of Martin Luther King’s “I have a Dream” Speech, 8/28/63 Excerpt of Malcolm X’s “God’s Judgment” Speech, 12/4/63

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation…. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free…When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a … promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
…I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.”
…And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring…from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"


How can America atone for her crimes? The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that a desegregated theater or lunch counter won't solve our problems. Better jobs won't even solve our problems. An integrated cup of coffee isn't sufficient pay for four hundred years of slave labor, and a better job in the white man's factory or position in his business is, at best, only a temporary solution. The only lasting or permanent solution is complete separation on some land that we can call our own.
…Part of what she is worth belongs to us. We will take our share and depart, then this white country can have peace…Give us our share in gold and silver and let us depart and go back to our homeland in peace. We want no integration with this wicked race that enslaved us. We want complete separation from this race of devils. But we should not be expected to leave America and go back to our homeland empty-handed. After four hundred years of slave labor, we have some back pay coming, a bill owed to us that must be collected.





Passage Level Strategy:

Compare and Contrast the Perspectives of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X


Excerpt:

Martin Luther King’s “I have a Dream” Speech
Background information

Date: August 28, 1963

Audience:
Setting/ Place:


Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation…. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free…When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a … promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.

…I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.”

…And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring…from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"


KEY: Passage Level Strategy

Compare and Contrast the Perspectives of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X


Excerpt of Martin Luther King’s “I have a Dream” Speech, 8/28/63

Background information

Audience: Black and White people



(estimates state 250,000 total, 75,000 white)

Setting/ Place: March on Washington to apply pressure on Congress to pass



the Civil Rights Act. Washington D.C., “the Mall”-public setting, Lincoln Memorial
America

20 years (5X20= 100 years ago) 1863, Lincoln: Freed the slaves in areas

still rebelling against the North in the Civil War

Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation…. But one hundred years later, the Negro still is not free…When the architects of our republic wrote the magnificent words of the Constitution and the Declaration of Independence, they were signing a … promise that all men, yes, black men as well as white men, would be guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. How does MLK view this promise? Belonging to a person, cannot be taken away

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: "We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.”

And when this happens, when we allow freedom to ring, when we let it ring…from every state and every city, we will be able to speed up that day when all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing in the words of the old Negro spiritual, "Free at last! Free at last! Thank God Almighty, we are free at last!"

Passage Level Strategy:

Compare and Contrast the Perspectives of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X


Excerpt of Malcolm X’s “God’s Judgment” Speech

Background information

Date: December 4, 1963

Audience:
Setting/ Place:



How can America atone for her crimes? The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that a desegregated theater or lunch counter won't solve our problems. Better jobs won't even solve our problems. An integrated cup of coffee isn't sufficient pay for four hundred years of slave labor, and a better job in the white man's factory or position in his business is, at best, only a temporary solution. The only lasting or permanent solution is complete separation on some land that we can call our own.

…Part of what she is worth belongs to us. We will take our share and depart, then this white country can have peace…Give us our share in gold and silver and let us depart and go back to our homeland in peace. We want no integration with this wicked race that enslaved us. We want complete separation from this race of devils. But we should not be expected to leave America and go back to our homeland empty-handed. After four hundred years of slave labor, we have some back pay coming, a bill owed to us that must be collected.



KEY: Passage Level Strategy:

Compare and Contrast the Perspectives of Martin Luther King and Malcolm X

Excerpt of Malcolm X’s “God’s Judgment” Speech, 12/04/63

Background information

Date: December 4, 1963: after the assassination of JFK, 4 + months after MLK’s

Audience: Predominantly Black people, smaller crowd

Setting/ Place: NYC, he lived in Harlem as a youth



Leader of the Nation of Islam,

make up Malcolm X’s source for ideas, thought of as a prophet and great leader

How can America atone for her crimes? The Honorable Elijah Muhammad teaches us that a desegregated theater or lunch counter won't solve our problems. Better jobs won't even solve our problems. An integrated cup of coffee isn't sufficient pay for four hundred years of slave labor, and a better job in the white man's factory or position in his business is, at best, only a temporary solution. The only lasting or permanent solution is complete separation on some land that we can call our own. amount owed

Part of what she is worth belongs to us. We will take our share and depart, then this white country can have peace…Give us our share in gold and silver and let us depart and go back to our homeland in peace. We want no integration with this wicked race that enslaved us. We want complete separation from this race of devils. But we should not be expected to leave America and go back to our homeland empty-handed. After four hundred years of slave labor, we have some back pay coming, a bill owed to us that must be collected. Africa money owed



NAME_____________________________________

Passage Level Strategy Chart: Differing Perspectives / Point of View / Debate

Lesson Question: How were the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X similar and different as they worked to achieve a better future for black people in America?
Use the excerpts from the speeches to find the messages of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X.

What they thought, said or believed about:

Point of View 1: Martin Luther King Jr.

Point of View 2: Malcolm X

1) put a circle around
What they thought, said or believed about:

living in America and

being American
Hint: Look for pronouns that refer to America or groups of people in America

Ex: “we” “our” “his” “her”


Quote/s:
This means he believed:


Quote/s:
This means he believed:


2) squiggly underline
What they thought, said or believed about:

blacks and whites working together?



Quote/s:
This means he believed:


Quote/s:
This means he believed:


3) put a box around
What they thought, said or believed about:

their goal/s for blacks in America



Quote/s:
This means he believed:


Quote/s:
This means he believed:






Done?

Answer the question:

How are their approaches different?






TEACHER KEY

Passage Level Strategy Chart: Differing Perspectives / Point of View / Debate

Lesson Question: How were the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X similar and different as they worked to achieve a better future for black people in America?
Use the excerpts from the speeches to find the messages of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X.

What they thought, said or believed about:

Point of View 1: Martin Luther King Jr.

Point of View 2: Malcolm X


1) put a circle around
What they thought, said or believed about

living in America and

being American
Hint: Look for pronouns that refer to America or groups of people in America

Ex: “we” “our” “his” “her”


“we”- both blacks and whites

“our republic” = America & all Americans: black and white

“they”= the forefathers

Constitution and Dec. of Ind. for “all men, yes, black men ad well as white men.”

This means he believed:

He and other black people were American and should have the same rights as other citizens as outlined in the Dec. Ind/ Const.

Blacks & = America

Whites



“her” “his”= white America

“us” “our” “we” = black America

“white government” / “White America”
This means he believed:

He and other black people were not a part of America because America is referred to as a white America only.




Blacks = not a part of America Whites = America




2) squiggly underline

What they thought, said or believed about:

blacks and whites working together?


“all men, yes black men as well as white men,”

“all of God's children, black men and white men, Jews and Gentiles, Protestants and Catholics, will be able to join hands and sing…: free at last”

This means he believed:

In working together towards integration



“wicked race that enslaved us.”

“complete separation”

“race of devils”

This means he believed:

In separation between whites and blacks


3) put a box around
What they thought, said or believed about:

their goal/s for blacks in America



“free”

“guaranteed the unalienable rights of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.”

“all men are created equal”

“free at last”

This means he believed:

Freedom and equal rights was owed to black people in America



“complete separation”

“we want no integration”

“We will take our share and depart, then this white country can have peace. Give us our share in gold and silver and let us depart and go back to our homeland in peace”

“We want no integration with this wicked race that enslaved us. We want complete separation from this race of devils”


This means he believed:

Separation was best



Two different Points of View:

How are their approaches different?

How does the tone or voice of the speech reflect each man’s personality?

{Extra question: How did their childhood influence their outlook on life?}



Answers will vary--objective
Lover, brings people together, passionate



Answers will vary--objective
speaks from the heart, passionate, divisive, controversial


NAME_____________________________________

Passage Level Strategy: Differing Perspectives / Point of View / Debate

Compare and Contrast Writing Activity using cue words

Part 1 Directions: Read the following cue words for “Point of View, Debate and Differing Perspectives,” and “Compare and Contrast” and read the example. Notice the use of cue words.

Cue Words Chart

Point of View

Debate

Differing Perspectives

Saying, thinking, feeling verbs: argued, believed, responded, agreed, disagreed, claimed,

pointed out, sided, etc

Signal words: however, also, furthermore, that, according to, etc


Compare/contrast

Mixed verbs: (compared to)

Signal words: on the other hand, however, although, similarly, as opposed to, not only,

Yet, besides, while, whereas, another, according to, both, etc


Contrast EX: While Malcolm X believed strongly that _________________, Martin Luther King Jr. opposed this idea. Martin Luther King Jr. argued that ___________. Also, whereas Martin Luther King Jr., advocated for _______, Malcolm X desired______...
Compare EX: Both men agreed that blacks in America deserved better opportunity; however, they approached achieving equality for blacks in America in different ways. Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. both pointed out “___________.” Furthermore, both men believed ________.

Lesson Question: How were the ideas of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X similar and different as they worked to achieve a better future for black people in America?
Part 2 Directions: To answer the question, choose one point from the chart and use the information in the chart (including quotes, if possible) to write a compare and/or contrast paragraph on the points of view of Martin Luther King Jr. and Malcolm X. Use cue words from the chart above to compare and/or contrast the two men. Underline all cue words for “Point of View/Debate/Differing Perspectives” and “Compare and Contrast.” You may also use other cue words you think of that are not in the chart!

_______________________________________________________________________________________________________.



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