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TEACHER’S GUIDE

Grades 3 to 8




Crazy Horse and the Lakota Sioux Indians
Great Native American Leaders Series


Subject areas: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies
Synopsis: Chronicles Crazy Horse’s long struggle to protect Lakota land rights and remain free. Includes his early battles against Fetterman along the Bozeman trail and his victory in the Battle of the Little Bighorn. Shows how the warrior was held back by his own people when the Lakota Chiefs aided the United States Army in his capture and arrest.
Learning Objectives:
Objective 1) Students will be able to describe the culture and lifestyle of the Lakota Sioux before westward expansion, including their religious beliefs and spiritual ties to the Black Hills of South Dakota.
Objective 2) Students will be able to discuss the Lakota Sioux tribe’s conflicts with the United States over land rights, including the struggles caused by the construction of the Bozeman Trail and settlers’ illegal prospecting of the Black Hills.
Objective 3) Students will be able to discuss the Lakota victory in the Fetterman Fight and how the United States government responded to the defeat.
Objective 4) Students will be able to explain why Crazy Horse split from Red Cloud to join Sitting Bull and the Hunkpapa.

Objective 5) Students will be able to explain the significance of the Battle of the Little Bighorn, especially how the battle influenced the Lakota tribe’s standing with the United States government.
Objective 6) Students will be able to discuss the tension between the free Lakota and the reservation Lakota and how this disunity eventually led to the capture of Crazy Horse.
Pre-Viewing Discussion and Activities:
1) Define: sacred, commune, Great Spirit, holy men, treaty, vision, war chief, raid, massacre, westward expansion, pursue, abandon, agency, prospecting, violation, protest, negotiation, Sun Dance, skin offering, reservation, refuge, capture and scaffold.
2) Locate the Black Hills on a map.
3) Explore the concept of freedom. What does it mean to be free? What basic rights are essential to freedom?
Post-Viewing Discussion:
1) What is the significance of the Black Hills in Lakota culture? What did Lakota Warriors do in the Black Hills? Why were White settlers interested in the Black Hills? What was the Lakota reaction to this?

2) Describe Crazy Horse’s vision as a young boy. What was the warrior doing in the vision? What held the warrior back? In what specific ways did Crazy Horse’s vision become reality?


3) Why did the United States government build the Bozeman Trail? Where was the trail located? How did the Lakota respond to the United States Army’s presence along the trail?
4) What was the compromise Red Cloud made with the United States government? Why did he make this compromise? How did Crazy Horse feel about Red Cloud’s decision? How would you describe Red Cloud’s priorities as a leader? How would you describe Crazy Horse’s priorities as a leader?
5) Why did George Armstrong Custer lead people into the Black Hills? Was this legal? What was President Grant’s solution to the treaty violation?
6) Why was the Battle of the Little Bighorn significant? How did the battle affect the free Lakota? The Lakota who lived on the reservation?
7) Why did the warriors split up after the Battle of the Little Bighorn? Where did they go? Would the outcome have been different if they had stayed together?
8) How would you describe Crazy Horse’s attitude towards the Lakota on the reservation? How did the reservation Lakota feel about him?
9) Who helped the United States Army capture Crazy Horse? What were their motivations for helping the United States Army? Who was Little Big Man? Why did Crazy Horse attack him?
Additional Activities:
1) In small groups, assign students to design memorials for Crazy Horse. Direct students to consider including some sort of art or poetry in their memorials and select a location for them. After each group has presented their memorial ideas, show students pictures of the Crazy Horse Memorial that is currently in progress. Photographs and information are available at www.crazyhorse.org.
2) Have students write journal entries either as young Lakota following Red Cloud to live on a reservation or young Lakota following Crazy Horse. Guide students to think about the different experiences of each group, including lifestyle, security, attitudes towards the U.S. Army, how they were affected by the Battle of the Little Bighorn, and their feelings towards the other group.
Related New Dimension Media Titles:


FOR INFORMATION, OR TO ORDER CONTACT:

NEW DIMENSION MEDIA

A QUESTAR COMPANY

w w w . n d m q u e s t a r . c o m


680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611

800.288.4456

TEACHER’S GUIDE

Grades 3 to 8




Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce Indians
Great Native American Leaders Series


Subject Area: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies
Synopsis: Told as a personal narration by a young member of the Nez Perce, this poignant and authentic treatment details the struggle between the Nez Perce wanting to keep their land, the government’s role in seizing it, and relentless pursuit of the often-bested United States soldiers to overpower them.
Learning Objectives:
Objective 1) Students should be able to detail the movements of the Nez Perce from their homeland to their end-point in Canada, as well as the specific conflicts and motives of the Nez Perce and the United States soldiers throughout their evasion and pursuit.
Objective 2) Students should be able to evaluate and give examples of the combat abilities and tactics of the Nez Perce.
Objective 3) Students should be able to imagine the thoughts and feelings of General Howard due to his unsuccessful pursuit of the Nez Perce, and the reaction of his commanding officer.
Objective 4) Students should be able to understand Chief Joseph’s ultimate decision to surrender, and discuss the United States government’s position prior to and after the final surrender.
Objective 5) Students should be able to detail Chief Joseph’s efforts to regain his people’s homeland after the final surrender.
Objective 6) Students should be able to consider the possible outcomes if the Nez Perce had been able to cross over the border into Canada.
Objective 7) Students should be able to compare the life of the Nez Perce before and after white European explorers, settlers, and soldiers came to their land.


Pre-viewing Discussion or Activities:

1) Define: missionary, measles, jagged, harmony, accuse, teepee, flee, energetic, mingled, bluff (land formation), council, and pleading.


2) Locate: the centralized Nez Perce area of Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana; Wallowa Valley; Salmon River; Clearwater River; Lolo Trail, Continental Divide, and Yellowstone National Park. Use a map of North America (topographical would be best) to show the distance (and difficulties to negotiate) of the route of the Nez Perce from the Wallowa Valley in Oregon to their final place of surrender in northern Montana. Point out how near they came to the Canadian border.
3) Discuss what students know about Native American Indian reservations. Ask for ideas on why and how they came to be. Ask if anyone has ever visited a reservation, and if so, to share their impressions with the class.

Post-viewing Discussion:
1) What was life like for the Nez Perce before the European explorers, settlers, and soldiers arrived? Give specific examples of how life was changed after each of these groups came?
2) What happened to the Nez Perce land after gold was discovered there? What did the U.S. government say to the white settlers about going to this area? What did one of the Nez Perce chiefs do that affected the control of their land? Then what happened to the Nez Perce people?
3) In 1876, the settlers accused a young Nez Perce boy of stealing a horse. The Nez Perce knew the settlers would probably attack them. What did Chief Joseph want his people to do? Why did the Nez Perce go to White Bird Canyon? What happened there? How did the Nez Perce at White Bird Canyon and at the Clearwater River outsmart General Howard and his soldiers? Why did the Nez Perce then leave their land and head for Montana? What did Chief Joseph want them to do?
4) What was it like for the Nez Perce on the Lolo Trail? Why do you think they kept going? What mistake did the Nez Perce make when they finally reached the end of the Lolo Trail? What happened as a result of this bad decision? Where did the Nez Perce decide to go next? Why?
5) What were General Howard’s thoughts and feelings after so much time spent and lives lost trying to capture the Nez Perce? What was the reaction of his commanding officer, General Sherman?
6) Why did Chief Joseph finally decide to surrender? What did the government promise Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce? Did they keep this promise? Where were the Nez Perce forced to live? What happened eight years later? Was the government’s promise ever kept?
7) Until his death, Chief Joseph worked to return his people to their homeland. What did he do to accomplish this goal? Was he successful?
8) How would you describe the abilities of the Nez Perce to fight the United States soldiers? Give specific examples.
9) Do you think the fate of the Nez Perce would have been different if they were able to outrun the soldiers and cross into Canada? Why?

Additional Activities:
1) Have students do a “Chief Joseph” keyword search on the Internet and report the relevant sites they have found. Divide the class into groups and assign one site for each group to explore. As possible follow-up activities, have each group member write a brief summary of the site they investigated, or have the group make an oral presentation of their findings. (Perhaps your class would like to develop a service project to help the Chief Joseph Foundation.)
2) Chief Joseph’s American Indian name was “Thunder Traveling to High Mountains.” Each name was carefully chosen to reflect positive qualities about the person. Think of someone you admire. What Native American name would you choose for this person? Explain the reason for your choice. (You may want to make an illustrated classroom display of the students’ choices.)

3) Divide the class into three groups: Nez Perce, United States soldiers, congressmen and congresswomen. Have each group discuss their feelings about and reasoning behind their decision to fight for the land or take control of it. Groups can develop a chart of their findings and/or debate their positions. An alternative activity is to have each student write a journal entry or a personal letter to a friend or family member, detailing his or her actions and thoughts on a specific day as they imagine it. Remind students they are to be writing as a Nez Perce, a soldier, or a congressman/woman.


4) For this activity, you will need string and a United States map. Show students the map legend for distance ratio. Have students determine and measure the amount of string needed to represent the 1,400-mile journey of the Nez Perce. Using your hometown as the central point, extend the string in several directions. This should give students familiar reference points, and so, a better understanding of how far the Nez Perce traveled.
Related New Dimension Media Titles:

  • Native Americans Before Columbus Series

  • More Than Bows and Arrows

  • Legacy of the Mound Builders

  • Mesa Verde National Park

  • Great Native American Nations



FOR INFORMATION, OR TO ORDER CONTACT:

NEW DIMENSION MEDIA

A QUESTAR COMPANY


w w w . n d m q u e s t a r . c o m

680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611

800.288.4456

TEACHER’S GUIDE

Grades 3 to 8




Geronimo and the Apache Indians
Great Native American Leaders Series


Subject areas: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies
Synopsis: Depicts Geronimo’s determination to resist defeat by the U.S. and Mexican armies and guide his people to freedom on their traditional lands. Chronicles Geronimo’s escapes from the San Carlos Reservation and the pursuits of the U.S. Army until his final surrender in 1886. Discusses the fate of the Chiricahua Apache after the surrender as well as Geronimo’s lifelong commitment to obtaining freedom and a homeland for his people.
Learning Objectives:
Objective 1) Students will be able to describe Chiricahua Apache life in the tribe’s native land before they were pressed onto reservations by the United States government.
Objective 2) Students will be able to document the life of Geronimo, the events that thrust him into leadership and his lifelong commitment to the freedom of his people. Students will also be able to explain how Geronimo embodied the essence of Apache values.
Objective 3) Students will be able to discuss the U.S. policy of relocating Native Americans to reservations and how this policy impacted the Chiricahua Apache.
Objective 4) Students will be able to describe conditions on the San Carlos Apache reservation and explain why the Chiricahua did not want to live there.
Objective 5) Students will be able to chronicle Geronimo’s escapes from San Carlos and his evasion of the U.S. Army.
Objective 6) Students will be able to outline the terms of Geronimo’s final surrender.
Objective 7) Students will learn about the Chiricahua Apaches’ exile in Florida and their time as prisoners of war in Fort Sill, Oklahoma. Students will also be able to discuss Geronimo’s ongoing efforts to obtain a homeland for his people.

Pre-Viewing Discussion and Activities:
1) Define: subdue, medicine man, warrior, bounty hunter, reservation, fled, posse, arrest, border, stronghold, telegraph, surrender, travoy, humiliated, successor, truce, escape, mystical, dispatched, exile and homeland.
2) Locate southern Arizona and New Mexico on a map. Discuss the climate, weather and geographical characteristics of the area.
Post-Viewing Discussion and Activities:
1) What was Geronimo’s role in the Chiricahua Apache tribe? What events in his life prepared him to lead his people? What inspired him to lead battles against the Mexicans? How would you describe Geronimo’s fight against the Mexicans? Against the Americans?

2) What land did Cochise and Geronimo agree to accept as the Chiricahua reservation? Did the U.S. Government keep their agreement with the Chiricahua concerning their reservation? Why did the U.S. Government want to move all of the Apache to San Carlos? What was the problem with this plan?


3) Why did the Chiricahua refuse to move to the San Carlos Reservation? Where did they go instead? What was the U.S. Government’s response to this? How did John Clum finally relocate the Chiricahua?
4) Where did Geronimo and his people escape to after being forced to move to San Carlos? How long did they remain free? Who pursued them at this time? Why did Geronimo decide to surrender? What happened to the Chiricahua after this surrender?
5) Describe the conditions of San Carlos. What type of work were the Chiricahua expected to do in San Carlos? What type of work did they do in their traditional homeland? Why were the Chiricahua unhappy in this land?
6) How did Geronimo and his followers avoid capture by both the U.S. Army and the Mexican Army for so long? In what ways were they better equipped to survive in the mountains of Mexico than their pursuers?
7) After Geronimo’s surrender, where were the Chiricahua men taken? Where were the Chiricahua women and children taken? Where were many of the children taken? Why were the children taken to the Carlisle Indian School? How long did the Chiricahua remain in Florida? Where were they sent after Florida?
8) Why do you think President Roosevelt invited Geronimo to participate in his inaugural parade? What message did this action send to the American people? To Native Americans? What did Geronimo ask of President Roosevelt? Why might this request have been denied?
Additional Activities:
1) Have students write a persuasive letter from Geronimo to President Roosevelt requesting a homeland for the Chircahua Apache.
2) On a map, retrace Geronimo’s movements from the Chiricahua homeland in southern Arizona and New Mexico near the Chiricahua Mountains to the Warm Springs Apache reservation, the San Carlos reservation, Mexico, the San Carlos reservation, Mexico, Los Embudos Canyon, Skeleton Canyon, Fort Bowie, Fort Marion and Fort Pickens in Florida and Fort Sill in Oklahoma. Review the important events that happened in each location.
Related New Dimension Media Titles:

  • Great Native American Nations Series

  • Native Americans Before Columbus Series

  • More than Bows and Arrows

  • Legacy of the Mound Builders

  • Mesa Verde National Park


FOR INFORMATION, OR TO ORDER CONTACT:

NEW DIMENSION MEDIA

A QUESTAR COMPANY


w w w . n d m q u e s t a r . c o m

680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611

800.288.4456

TEACHER’S GUIDE


Grades 3 to 8




Quanah Parker and the Comanche Indians
Great Native American Leaders Series


Subject areas: Social Studies, US History, Native American Studies, Multicultural Studies
Synopsis: Depicts Quanah Parker’s leadership as a young warrior defending Comanche land rights and freedoms, and later as a Chief advocating for his people’s religious freedoms and position in the new society. Reveals how Parker lived between White American society and traditional Comanche society, achieving great success in both worlds.
Learning Objectives:

Objective 1) Students will be able to describe Comanche life and how it was changed by interaction with Europeans, from the introduction of horses and gunpowder to the loss of land to the United States Army.
Objective 2) Students will be able to summarize the events in the life of Cynthia Ann Parker, the mother of Quanah Parker.
Objective 3) Students will be able to explain how westward expansion impacted the Comanche and discuss the Medicine Lodge Creek treaty, in which most Comanche leaders lost their land.
Objective 4) Students will be able to detail Quanah Parker’s leadership as a warrior fighting against westward expansion into Comanche land.
Objective 5) Students will be able to summarize Quanah Parker’s contributions as Comanche Chief, including his success as a cattle rancher, his position on the Court of Indian Offenses, and his political influence.
Objective 6) Students will understand how Quanah Parker lived both in the Comanche society and the White American society and how he used this position to help his people.
Pre-Viewing Discussion and Activities:
1) Define: captured, raid, settlement, chief, treaty, exchange, wagon train, subdue, scouts, vow, outraged, canyon, escaped, desperate, messiah, sun dance, target, fury, slaughtered, surrender, reservation, ranching, graze, undisputed, traitor, hallucinatory, visions, peyote, cattlemen, teepee, polygamy, boomers, communal land, inaugural, celebrity, powwow, healing ceremony, and shaman.
2) Locate the Great Plains area on a map and discuss westward expansion. When did settlers begin to move to that area? What were the settlers seeking? Who lived in the plains before the settlers arrived? How did westward expansion affect the people who already inhabited this land?
Post-Viewing Discussion and Activities:
1) How did Cynthia Ann Parker come to live with the Comanche? At what age was she returned to her family? How did she feel about leaving the Comanche?

2) In what specific ways did the arrival of White settlers change Comanche life? What new things did the Spanish introduce to the Comanche? How did these items impact the Comanche way of life?


3) How would you characterize Quanah Parker’s feelings towards Whites early in life? Later in life? What factors led to this change?
4) Who was Eschiti? What did he claim about himself? Why were the Comanche eager to put their faith in him? What was his medicine intended to do? What happened in the attack on Adobe Walls? What was the result of this defeat?
5) What is peyote? What plant does it come from? What is the purpose of peyote in Native American religion? What was Quanah Parker’s stance on peyote use?
6) Give examples of how Quanah Parker adapted to White American society. How did these changes impact his position as a Native American leader? In what specific ways did he maintain his Comanche culture? How did this impact his position?
7) In what specific ways did Quanah Parker help his people later in life? How did he achieve these things? Why do you think Quanah Parker was able to influence both the Comanche and White Americans?
Additional Activities:
1) Have students write Cynthia Ann Parker’s story from her point of view. Guide students to consider her feelings about being captured by the Comanche, her life with the Comanche, and her feelings about being returned to her parents.
2) Make a list comparing the views of the Comanche and the White settlers. Make columns for land use, use of natural resources, buffalo hunting, and religious practices. After filling in the list, have a discussion about whether these two cultures could have co-existed on the same land. Discuss the compromises that would have needed to be made in order to co-exist.
3) Hold a debate about the use of peyote in Native American religion. Have half of the class advocate the protection of peyote use for religious purposes. The other half of the class should argue against legal protection. You may want to discuss Employment Division v. Smith, a case concerning employees who were discharged for violating their employer's policy prohibiting its employees from using illegal nonprescription drugs after using peyote in a religious ceremony.
Related New Dimension Media Titles:

  • Great Native American Nations Series

  • Native Americans Before Columbus Series

  • More than Bows and Arrows

  • Legacy of the Mound Builders

  • Mesa Verde National Park

FOR INFORMATION, OR TO ORDER CONTACT:
NEW DIMENSION MEDIA

A QUESTAR COMPANY

w w w . n d m q u e s t a r . c o m

680 N. Lake Shore Drive, Suite 900, Chicago, IL 60611

800.288.4456


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