Teacher Notes- chapter 4, Section 3



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Teacher Notes- Chapter 4, Section 3

  1. Life Under Slavery

    1. Suffering Cruel Treatment

      1. Men women and children all suffered under horrible condition while enslaved.

      2. ‘Overseers’ watched over the slaves to make sure they were completing their work and completing it quickly.

      3. Many slaves were not able to read or write, so if their loved ones were taken away, they had no way of ever communicating with them again.

    2. Surviving Through Spirit and Strength

      1. It was hard for slaves to maintain both their hope and dignity while in slavery.

        1. They coped by maintaining their family networks in any way they could- such as through naming children.

        2. They also found hope in their religion which mixed both African and Christian beliefs.

    3. Resisting Slavery

      1. Resistance from African Americans took many forms, such as sabotage and escape.

        1. Slaves escaped both to the North and to Mexico.

        2. The constantly changing escape route network became known as the Underground Railroad.

      2. Others violently resisted enslavement, through slave revolts.

        1. Over 200 significant slave revolts took place in the first half of the 1800s.

          1. Denmark Vesey (a freedman) came up with a plan to lead a massive revolt around Charleston, SC. He was angered when his church was shut down.

          2. His plans were leaked and he and several followers were hanged.

        2. Nat Turner led a slave revolt in 1831—Nat Turner’s Rebellion.

          1. Killed 60 people on their way to an armory to get more weapons.

          2. Eventually captured and executed.

        3. Southerners were afraid of other rebellions so laws became stricter, such as slaves not being able to read and write.

          1. Did, however, inspire some Northerners to work against slavery.

  2. The Lives of Free African Americans

    1. African Americans who were free still faced discrimination in cities.

    2. Free African Americans were seen as a concern for Southerners because they thought freed blacks would be an inspiration to those enslaved.

      1. Formed the America Colonization Society to send freed blacks to west Africa (today, Liberia).

        1. African-Americans were wary of this though—taking away most able blacks who could lead an uprising.

        2. Many blacks had been born in U.S. not in Liberia.

  3. The Fight Against Slavery

    1. Garrison Demands Emancipation

      1. William Lloyd Garrison: a printer from Boston who published an antislavery newspaper known as The Liberator.

        1. Use of moral suasion to alter peoples’ opinions.

        2. Founded American Anti-Slavery Society.

    2. Many Abolitionists Spread the Word

      1. Notable abolitionists: Theodore Weld, Angelina and Sarah Grimke (daughters of a slaveholder) and Frederick Douglass.

  4. Working Against Abolition

    1. Southerners Cling to Slavery

      1. Reasons FOR slavery:

        1. Needed to support the agricultural economy.

        2. Slaves were a superior labor force to that in the North.

        3. Christianity supports slavery

      2. As abolitionism grew, so too did the fight of the Southerners to keep slavery.

    2. Northerners Resist Abolition

      1. Some Northerners did not support abolition because they feared African Americans would take their jobs.

      2. If there was no slavery, how would the South provide cotton to northern industries?

      3. Some northerners did not want to get involved

        1. Southerners pushed a Gag Rule through Congress--- prohibiting the talking about slavery.

          1. In place from 1836 to 1844.

    3. Slavery Divides the Nation

      1. Continues to widen regional differences—based off of culture.

Teacher Notes- Chapter 4, Section 4



  1. Women Work for Change

- Women were sharply limited in their role in the public sphere. They were supposed to make a difference in the home, supporting their husbands and their children to become good citizens.

    1. Women Face Limits

      1. Lack legal and economic rights; very few opportunities for formal education.

      2. Other groups (such as Native Americans, African Americans and Mexican Americans) provided women with power.

    2. Women Lead Reform Efforts

      1. Drive for reform after the Second Great Awakening provided women with new opportunities.

        1. Some women were leaders in reform movements—i.e. Dorothea Dix and Catharine Beecher.

      2. Women also played a role in the abolition movement, like Sojourner Truth.

    3. Women Enter the Workplace

      1. Economic opportunity for women to get out of the home and into the factories.

        1. Wages sometimes went to male family members--- still some independence.

  1. Women Begin the Fight for Rights

- Women did not make strides for reform until the 1830s when middle class women started hiring poor women to take care of their daily duties. This allowed them more time to think about how they could better society.

    1. The Origin of the Women’s Rights Movement

      1. Women equated their lack of power with the lack of power of slaves.

        1. These women, including women of the abolition movement, started the women’s movement: working for greater rights and opportunities for women.

      2. Often published their viewpoints on equality in pamphlets and newsletters.

    2. Women Disagree on Aims

      1. Women disagreed on how active they should be in the public and how much leadership they should take.

      2. Two notable women in the movement: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott.

        1. Wanted to take a dramatic step to advance women’s rights.

  1. Women Convene in Seneca Falls

- Mott and Stanton organized the first Women’s Rights Convention: Seneca Falls Convention.

  • Attracted hundreds of men and women, including Frederick Douglass.

  • Penned a ‘Declaration of Sentiments’ modeled after the Declaration of Independence

    1. The Seneca Falls Convention Inspires Women

      1. Inspired many young women, including Amelia Bloomer.

        1. Published a newspaper, known as The Lily that advocated equality for women—including wearing pants!

      2. Another woman was Susan B. Anthony—she had been active in the temperance and abolition movements—pushed for one central goal: women’s suffrage.

    2. Women Make Some Gains

      1. In 1848 (same year as Seneca Falls), NYC passed the Married Women’s Property Act which guaranteed property rights for women later be a model for other laws.


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