Te hohounga: Mai i te tirohanga Māori The process of reconciliation: Towards a Māori view



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Te hohounga: Mai i te tirohanga Māori


The process of reconciliation: Towards a Māori view

The delivery of conduct problem services to Māori
Lisa Cherrington, Ngati Hine, Ngapuhi

Report prepared for Ministry of Social Development, 30 June 2009

ISBN 978-0-478-33533-0 (online)

TABLE OF CONTENTS


TABLE OF CONTENTS 2

Background 8

Purpose of report 8

Na wai? Who is this report for? 9



SECTION 2: MAI I TE TIROHANGA MĀORI: TOWARDS A MĀORI VIEW 12

Introduction: Indigenous knowledge 12

Kōrero pūrākau: Māori mythology 13

Te Wehenga: Separation 14

Whānau as the focus 16

Towards a Māori view 19

Te Whare Tapa Wha: A Māori model of health 21

Te taha hinengaro 25

Te taha tinana 26

Te taha wairua 27

Wairua 27

Whakataunga: Conclusion 30

SECTION 3: WHAKAMANA TE TUAKIRI ME TE HONONGA: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 31

Introduction 31

Identity and connections 32

Practitioner, provider and policy considerations 35

PRACTIONER: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 35

Cultural competencies 35

Cultural competence: Awareness 39

Cultural competencies: Knowledge and skills 40

Te Ao Māori principles and protocols relevant to delivery of conduct problem programmes 40

Māori whānau will at times agree with what a doctor is saying to avoid small disagreements. This does not necessarily mean they agree with a clinician or that they will adhere to what has been recommended 47

silence by Māori whānau does not necessarily mean agreement 47

it is important to be guided by the patient and whānau about the need for customary Māori practises such as hongi and karakia (MOA, 2008). 47

Summary 56

PROVIDER: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 56

Kauapapa Māori 58

Bicultural 59

Generic programmes 60

AGCP, CAMHS and TRK 64

PROVIDER: CULTURAL SUPPORTS BEYOND PROGRAMME DELIVERY 65

Teina/ Tuakana 65

Support and connection to a turangawaewae, hapū and iwi 66

Support between sessions 67

POLICY: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 68

SECTION 4: DELIVERY OF CONDUCT PROBLEM PROGRAMMES: ADDITIONAL ISSUES 71

Introduction 71

THE DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF TE AO MĀORI PROGRAMMES 71

Development and implementation 71

Adapting generic programmes: Issues 74

Overseas research 74

New Zealand research 78

Conclusion 80

EVALUATION 81

Indigenous knowledge 81

Evidence-based research 83

Practice-based evidence 84

Evaluation of whānau ora 85

SECTION 5: DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSIONS 88

Purpose 88

Indigenous knowledge 88

Whānau ora 89



Mai i te tirohanga: Towards a Māori view 89

PART 6: RECOMMENDATIONS: TOWARDS RECONCILLIATION 95

PART 7: REFERENCES 101


EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Ka rere te hue mataati

The first shoot of the gourd stretches out
when an action is started it should be followed through until a result is produced (Mead & Grove, 2002: 182).



  1. The aim of this report is to gather knowledge and understandings that can contribute towards a Māori view of conduct problems, to ensure that Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau experiencing conduct problems receive the most effective and culturally enhancing interventions possible.




  1. Indigenous knowledge in action will be instrumental in the implementation, development and evaluation of Kaupapa Māori programmes as well as enhancing generic Māori cultural responsiveness.




  1. For indigenous knowledge to be effective, it needs to be included and maintained in a meaningful way, such as appropriate consultation and equity of funding for programme development.




  1. Mai i te tirohanga: Towards a Māori view is a Māori model developed by Te Roopu Kaitiaki that conceptualises conduct problems. At the centre is whānau ora, which is influenced by:

  • sociological factors (housing, employment, income, incarceration, health, education, identity and connection)

  • the political context (power, funding, legislation, political will and institutionalism)

  • the ability of Kaupapa Māori services and sectors (education, health, social development and justice) to enhance identity and connections.




  1. Facilitating access to a secure identity and strong connections is regarded as imperative in a Te Ao Māori view of conduct problem interventions. Interventions with Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau exhibiting conduct problems need to come from a whānau ora focus. This also requires a holistic approach to understanding, assessing and providing treatment or interventions.




  1. To facilitate whānau ora the position of a whānau therapist/ advocate/ liaison worker, whose role is to engage with whānau and work collaboratively across all sectors, must be considered. Given the complexity of issues whānau may present with, such a position requires core specialised cultural and clinical skills. Workforce development issues related to upskilling, training and retaining Māori kaimahi (workers) into such a position need to be identified.




  1. Te Whare Tapa Wha (Durie, 1985) is a Māori model of wellbeing that has been used in Kaupapa Māori and generic services and sectors. It is a holistic framework that has the potential to be used in both Kaupapa Māori and generic programmes, addressing conduct problems for Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau.




  1. Cultural competency training and cultural supervision is required to increase awareness, knowledge and skills for Māori and non-Māori practitioners working in the area of conduct problems. In particular, competencies in relation to enhancing Māori identity, facilitating whakawhanaungatanga (relationship building) and utilising Māori models of wellbeing are essential.




  1. A review is urgently required to identify what programmes currently exist in the community relevant to Māori and whānau ora that could form a basis for the development of a Kaupapa Māori conduct problem programme in addition to enhancing generic conduct problem programmes.




  1. The desire and right by Māori to know what works best so that the best Kaupapa Māori programmes can be designed, implemented and evaluated requires a major investment in terms of funding and workforce development issues.




  1. Careful consideration needs to be made about the most effective use of resources. A detailed plan is required for the further development, implementation and evaluation of Kaupapa Māori programmes. This plan will also need to consider funding and timelines.




  1. The further development of Kaupapa Māori programmes and cultural responsiveness of generic service providers needs to ensure that programmes:

  • take an integrated and holistic approach

  • involve Māori in design and delivery

  • provide information on participation and outcomes from a Māori perspective.




  1. In addition to honouring meaningful consultation, discussion of generic programme content and efficacy issues for Māori, a review of generic programmes relevant to conduct problems and Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau involved needs to occur.




  1. The use of the Hua Oranga (Kingi & Durie, 2000), a Māori mental health outcomes measure, has the potential to assist the assessment of wider outcomes for generic conduct problem programmes and to help establish a framework to assess any developed Kaupapa Māori conduct problem programmes.




  1. In order to evaluate whānau ora outcomes, further clarification is required on indicators of whānau ora. More research is needed to identify whānau ora outcome measures, to capture information relating to housing, employment, incarceration, health, education, identity, connection, involvement of Kaupapa Māori services and other sector involvement.




  1. At a policy level, the enhancement of identity and connections that ensure Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau receive the most effective and culturally enhancing interventions possible can be assured by:

  • investment in implementing and/or developing Kaupapa Māori

programmes based on indigenous knowledge and best practice evidence from a Māori perspective

  • meaningful consultation about generic programmes including inspection of programme content and adaptations as recommended

  • equity of funding for Kaupapa Māori programmes.

SECTION 1: INTRODUCTION
Tohu tamariki (Children’s gifts)

Tamariki: Tama is derived from Tama-te-ra the central sun, the divine spark; ariki refers to senior-most status; and riki on its own can mean smaller version. Tamariki is the word for children. Children are the greatest legacy the world community has. There are many gifts that little children have…They are: creativity, imagination, innocence, affection, laughter, tears, healing, honesty, facial communication, intuition, energy, mimicry…

people and anything else only become less than perfect when compared to someone or something else, or when influenced by negative forces. (Pere, 1991: 4)






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