SECTION 2: MAI I TE TIROHANGA MĀORI: TOWARDS A MĀORI VIEW 12
Introduction: Indigenous knowledge 12
Kōrero pūrākau: Māori mythology 13
Te Wehenga: Separation 14
Whānau as the focus 16
Towards a Māori view 19
Te Whare Tapa Wha: A Māori model of health 21
Te taha hinengaro 25
Te taha tinana 26
Te taha wairua 27
Whakataunga: Conclusion 30
SECTION 3: WHAKAMANA TE TUAKIRI ME TE HONONGA: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 31
Identity and connections 32
Practitioner, provider and policy considerations 35
PRACTIONER: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 35
Cultural competencies 35
Cultural competence: Awareness 39
Cultural competencies: Knowledge and skills 40
Te Ao Māori principles and protocols relevant to delivery of conduct problem programmes 40
Māori whānau will at times agree with what a doctor is saying to avoid small disagreements. This does not necessarily mean they agree with a clinician or that they will adhere to what has been recommended 47
silence by Māori whānau does not necessarily mean agreement 47
it is important to be guided by the patient and whānau about the need for customary Māori practises such as hongi and karakia (MOA, 2008). 47
PROVIDER: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 56
Kauapapa Māori 58
Generic programmes 60
AGCP, CAMHS and TRK 64
PROVIDER: CULTURAL SUPPORTS BEYOND PROGRAMME DELIVERY 65
Teina/ Tuakana 65
Support and connection to a turangawaewae, hapū and iwi 66
Support between sessions 67
POLICY: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS 68
SECTION 4: DELIVERY OF CONDUCT PROBLEM PROGRAMMES: ADDITIONAL ISSUES 71
THE DEVELOPMENT, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF TE AO MĀORI PROGRAMMES 71
Development and implementation 71
Adapting generic programmes: Issues 74
Overseas research 74
New Zealand research 78
Indigenous knowledge 81
Evidence-based research 83
Practice-based evidence 84
Evaluation of whānau ora 85
SECTION 5: DISCUSSION/ CONCLUSIONS 88
Indigenous knowledge 88
Whānau ora 89
Mai i te tirohanga: Towards a Māori view 89
PART 6: RECOMMENDATIONS: TOWARDS RECONCILLIATION 95
PART 7: REFERENCES 101
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Ka rere te hue mataati
The first shoot of the gourd stretches out …when an action is started it should be followed through until a result is produced (Mead & Grove, 2002: 182).
The aim of this report is to gather knowledge and understandings that can contribute towards a Māori view of conduct problems, to ensure that Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau experiencing conduct problems receive the most effective and culturally enhancing interventions possible.
Indigenous knowledge in action will be instrumental in the implementation, development and evaluation of Kaupapa Māori programmes as well as enhancing generic Māori cultural responsiveness.
For indigenous knowledge to be effective, it needs to be included and maintained in a meaningful way, such as appropriate consultation and equity of funding for programme development.
Mai i te tirohanga: Towards a Māoriview is a Māori model developed by Te Roopu Kaitiaki that conceptualises conduct problems. At the centre is whānau ora, which is influenced by:
the political context (power, funding, legislation, political will and institutionalism)
the ability of Kaupapa Māori services and sectors (education, health, social development and justice) to enhance identity and connections.
Facilitating access to a secure identity and strong connections is regarded as imperative in a Te Ao Māori view of conduct problem interventions. Interventions with Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau exhibiting conduct problems need to come from a whānau ora focus. This also requires a holistic approach to understanding, assessing and providing treatment or interventions.
To facilitate whānau ora the position of a whānau therapist/ advocate/ liaison worker, whose role is to engage with whānau and work collaboratively across all sectors, must be considered. Given the complexity of issues whānau may present with, such a position requires core specialised cultural and clinical skills. Workforce development issues related to upskilling, training and retaining Māori kaimahi (workers) into such a position need to be identified.
Te Whare Tapa Wha (Durie, 1985) is a Māori model of wellbeing that has been used in Kaupapa Māori and generic services and sectors. It is a holistic framework that has the potential to be used in both Kaupapa Māori and generic programmes, addressing conduct problems for Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau.
Cultural competency training and cultural supervision is required to increase awareness, knowledge and skills for Māori and non-Māori practitioners working in the area of conduct problems. In particular, competencies in relation to enhancing Māori identity, facilitating whakawhanaungatanga (relationship building) and utilising Māori models of wellbeing are essential.
A review is urgently required to identify what programmes currently exist in the community relevant to Māori and whānau ora that could form a basis for the development of a Kaupapa Māori conduct problem programme in addition to enhancing generic conduct problem programmes.
The desire and right by Māori to know what works best so that the best Kaupapa Māori programmes can be designed, implemented and evaluated requires a major investment in terms of funding and workforce development issues.
Careful consideration needs to be made about the most effective use of resources. A detailed plan is required for the further development, implementation and evaluation of Kaupapa Māori programmes. This plan will also need to consider funding and timelines.
The further development of Kaupapa Māori programmes and cultural responsiveness of generic service providers needs to ensure that programmes:
provide information on participation and outcomes from a Māori perspective.
In addition to honouring meaningful consultation, discussion of generic programme content and efficacy issues for Māori, a review of generic programmes relevant to conduct problems and Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau involved needs to occur.
The use of the Hua Oranga (Kingi & Durie, 2000), a Māori mental health outcomes measure, has the potential to assist the assessment of wider outcomes for generic conduct problem programmes and to help establish a framework to assess any developed Kaupapa Māori conduct problem programmes.
In order to evaluate whānau ora outcomes, further clarification is required on indicators of whānau ora. More research is needed to identify whānau ora outcome measures, to capture information relating to housing, employment, incarceration, health, education, identity, connection, involvement of Kaupapa Māori services and other sector involvement.
At a policy level, the enhancement of identity and connections that ensure Māori tamariki, taiohi and whānau receive the most effective and culturally enhancing interventions possible can be assured by:
investment in implementing and/or developing Kaupapa Māori
programmes based on indigenous knowledge and best practice evidence from a Māori perspective
meaningful consultation about generic programmes including inspection of programme content and adaptations as recommended
Tamariki: Tama is derived from Tama-te-ra the central sun, the divine spark; ariki refers to senior-most status; and riki on its own can mean smaller version. Tamariki is the word for children. Children are the greatest legacy the world community has. There are many gifts that little children have…They are: creativity, imagination, innocence, affection, laughter, tears, healing, honesty, facial communication, intuition, energy, mimicry…
…people and anything else only become less than perfect when compared to someone or something else, or when influenced by negative forces. (Pere, 1991: 4)