Table of Context: page 2



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World History Project

Neil Mistry

Table of Context

Table of Context: page 2

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi: page 3

Martin Luther King: page 5

Ronald Reagan: page 7

Joseph Stalin: page 9

Franklin Roosevelt: page 11

Adolf Hitler: page 13

John F Kennedy: page 15

Emperor Hirohito: page 17

Saddam Hessian: page 19

Pope John Paul II: page 21

Personal Statement: page 23

Reference: page 24

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

Mohandas Gandhi was born in Gujarat, India on October 1969. Gandhi’s father Karamchand Gandhi had more then 3 wives, which died through child birth. The fourth wife Putlibai stayed with Gandhi through his childhood and through many influence around resulted in his action in the future.

The Amritsar Massacre was a shooting by the British, which resulted in 400 Indians death and 1200 wounded. This event set the stage for Gandhi to become the leader of an independence movement. Gandhi attracted over a million followers from his teachings about Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. At this time the British had control of India and Gandhi weakened that control of the British by civil disobedience.

The British made it so that everyone in India had to buy from the government. Gandhi and his followers planned a boycott by refusing to buy British goods, attend British schools and paying taxes. The boycott was successful and the sales on British cloth dropped greatly. British were struggling with Gandhi’s civil disobedience because it took a big toll on British economy.

The salt march was a march with Gandhi and his followers walked 240 miles to the seacoast. There they made their own salt, to prevent buying salt from the British government. This was a peaceful protest and the people continued to march without defended themselves. This march resulted in 60,000 people including Gandhi arrested. The reason he is so famous is because he brought liberty to India and he believed in nonviolence.

Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King Jr was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia. Martin’s original name was Michael and was soon changed to Martin Luther for the honor of a German protestant Martin Luther. Martin attended Booker T. Washington high school and skipped 9th and 12th grade to go to Morehouse college. At the age of fifteen Martin started college, without officially graduating high school.

Around the 1950s there was a lot of segregation such as different schools for blacks and whites. Also blacks wouldn’t vote and this is where Martin Luther King stepped in. The Montgomery bus boycott was caused because Rosa Parks refused to give her sit and she was arrested. The boycott was lead by Martin and lasted for 385 days. The boycott got so intense that Martin’s house got bombed and he was arrested.

The March on Washington of 1963 this was planned in August 28. Martin was like Gandhi he believed in nonviolence so the police force attacked with the blacks refusing to defend themselves. This event is where Martin gave the “I have a Dream Speech”. Martin was assassinated at St. Joseph's Hospital by James earl Ray. He was captured in London 2 months after Martin’s assassination. The assassination resulted in many riots but Martin was an important Civil Right movement leader.

Ronald Reagan

Ronald Reagan was born in Tampico, Illinois on February 6, 1911. Ronald attended Dixon high school where he developed interest in acting and acting. His first job as a teenager was a life guard at Rock River. In 1926 Reagan saved 77 lives as a life guard and then he attended Eureka College. He played on a football team in his college and acted in school plays. After graduation Ronald became a radio sports announcer.

In the 1930s he moved to Los Angles in the 1930s and started his film making and television career. Making 52 films and started to gain in popularity. He starred In Knute Rockne and Kings Row which were famous films. He married Jane Wyman he had two children, Maureen and Michael. He married Nancy Davis who was an actress and they had two children.

In 1966 Ronald was elected governor of California by million of votes and was re elected in 1970. In 1980 Ronald won the Republican Presidential nomination. He finally won 489 electoral votes to Jimmy Carter and on 1981 he finally was president. Only 69 days into office he was shot by an assassin but recovered and returned to his duty. Because of this shooting Ronald became more popular. Ronald wanted to improve relation with the Soviet Union. He agreed on a treaty with the Soviet Union that would get rid of Intermediate range Nuclear Missiles. His main goals to gain peace and he did that by strength.

Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin, was born in Gori, Georgia on 21st December, 1879. He was his mother's fourth child to be born in less than four years. The first three died and as Joseph was prone to bad health, his mother feared on several occasions that he would also die. Reasonably, given this background, Joseph's mother was very protective towards him as a child. At sixteen he earned a scholarship to Georgian Orthodox.

Stalin was one of the most powerful and murderous dictator in history. He was also leader of the Soviet Union for about 25 years. The regime of terror cause over 10 million death, but Stalin oversaw the war machine the defeated the Nazism. Stalin like Hitler is dictators that thirst for power. In 1939 the Soviet Union made a pact with Nazi Germany. Hitler eventually broke that pact by planning out the German invasion.

During the 1930s Stalin launched the Great Purge was a campaign sought to eliminate all communist party members and other citizens who threaten his powers. Thousands of Bolsheviks stood in trial that help set the Revolutionary war. They were either executed or sent to labor camps for crimes against soviet states. When the Great Purge ended in 1938 Stalin had total control of the Soviet Union government and the communist party.

Franklin Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882 in the Hudson Valley town of Hyde Park, New York. Roosevelt went to Grotan School which was a boarding school and his headmaster was a big influence to his life. Then he attended Harvard where he became a member of Alpha delta Phi.

Franklin D Roosevelt was known as the 32nd president of the United States. Theodore Roosevelt and Franklin Roosevelt are 5th cousins and were really close. Roosevelt had to deal with economic crisis such as the great depression and the World Wars. During the Great Depression which was the biggest economic crisis, he made a new deal to relieve the people that lost their jobs. He gave people hope even thought over 13 million people were unemployed.

After Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 Roosevelt organized preparation for the U.S to enter the War. He felt that the world would have peace depending on the relation between the United States and Russia. As the war continued Roosevelt soon died in April 12, 1945 because of his health. Roosevelt as been constantly ranked one of the greatest presidents along with Abraham Lincoln and George Washington.

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler was born at the Gasthof zum Pommer, which is an inn in Austria Hungary. As a child Hitler was close to his mother but he had a violent relationship with his father. His father beat him and he was poor as a student and his father wanted to follow in his footsteps. In 1905 Hitler lived in Vienna on an orphan pension. Hitler was rejected 2 times at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna because of his poor talent in art.

Hitler based his racial concept on Social Darwinism and many other aspects. Social Darwinism stated the survival of the fittest. The first victims were children’s with disabilities which occurred at a program called action T4. The Holocaust or also known as Final Solution of the Jewish question was leaded by Nazi leaders and Hitler. Hitler approved the Einsatzgruppen, which is the killed of squads through Poland and Russia. There was also evidence that Hitler and Himmler who was important in the Holocaust who decided on vast amount of death by poisonous gas. The final stage of the Holocaust was in 1942 when the Nazi built extermination camps which had gas which could kill 6000 people in a day. Over 6 millions Jews died in these camps and about 4 millions survived these death camps. Hitler goals was to control the whole world and he control half of the world. Hitler soon died in 1945 by suicide from a gunshot.



John F Kennedy

John F Kennedy was born at 83 Beals Street in Brookline, Massachusetts on May 29, 1917. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first 10 years of his life. He went to public school call Edward Devotion School from kindergarten to 3rd grade. Then through 4th grade Kennedy went to a private school for boys. Kennedy graduated from Harvard and has a degree on international affair. In 1940 he wrote a thesis which was titled Why England Slept, which became a bestseller.

John F Kennedy was the youngest president since he was assassinated on November 22, 1963. He entered the navy and in 1943 his boat got rammed by a Japanese destroyer. He lead the survivors to safety through the waters. In 1956 Kennedy almost gained the Democratic nomination for Vice President, and four years later was a first-ballot nominee for President. Millions of people watched his television debates with the Republican candidate, with Richard M. Nixon. Winning by a close margin in the popular vote, Kennedy became the first Roman Catholic President.

When he became president he set plans to get American moving again. He set plans for an economic program which expanded and lasted for a while since War World 2. After he died he still had plans to assault poverty. His main goals were to have equal rights.

Emperor Hirohito

Emperor Hirohito was born in the Aoyama Palace in 1901. Hirohito went to Peers school for boys from 1908-1914. Then he went to a special institution for crowned prince from 1914-1921. It’s said that he was the first Japanese to travel to Europe, United Kingdom, France, Italy, Netherland and Belgium. When he returned to Japan from his tour he became Regent of Japan. Hirohito married his cousin princess Nagako Kuni and had 5 daughters and 2 sons.

Japan attacked Manchuria in 1931 and the all of China 1937. It is said that Emperor Hirohito had no objective in attacking China. On 1938 Emperor authorized to use toxic gas by the Japanese army. During World War 2 Japan formed alliance with Germany, Italy which was known as Axis power. Some historians believe that Hirohito was hesitating when he made this decision.

On November 3rd Nagano explain the Hirohito about the plan to attack Pearl Harbor. Two days later Hirohito approved the plan to attack Pearl Harbor in a conference. On December of 1941 Japan struck US Fleet in Pearl Harbor and began the attack on Malaysia. Hirohito took a major interest in increasing military power and continues attacking US. After many battles Japan was near defeat and in 1987 Hirohito died from stomach cancer. This day the Showa era ended and a new era for Japan began.

Saddam Hussein

Saddam Hussein born in a town called Al Awja. His mother, Subha Tulfah al-Mussallat was the one who named Saddam which means “one who confronts”. Saddam never knew his father who disappeared for 6 months before her was born. His mother remarried and Suddam gained 3 half brothers. In 1958 Saddam joined the Ba’ath party.

Saddam is a dictator of Iraq from 1979 to 2003 ended at 2003 because the United States overthrown his regime. Saddam launched his political career in 1958 by killing a supporter of Iraqi ruler Abdul-Karim Qassim. Saddam gained in the ranks after a Baath coup, and by 1979 he was Iraq's president and dictator. He led war against Iran for decades and his force invaded country called Kuwait. Then he gains a lot of pressure when George W Bush went into play. The invasion was stopped by US troops as well as British troops on March of 2003.

After US overthrown Saddam and his invasion he disappeared, but US force found him in an Underground Pit on a farm near a town called Tikrit. Late in 2005 Saddam went into trial in Iraq for the death in 1982 of over 140 men. On November 5, 2006 Saddam was convicted and sentenced to death by hanging.

Pope John Paul II

Pope John was porn in Polish in a town called Wadowice. His mother died in 1929 when he was just 8 years old. John was athletic he played soccer as goalkeeper. His school soccer games were set up as Catholics vs. the Jews. In 1938 John and his father moved to Krakow where he went to Jagiellonian University. He volunteer as a Liberian and did military services. He learned about 12 foreign languages. After his father’s death he wanted to study priesthood. On 1944 John was knocked by a German truck.

John was one most traveled world leaders in history visiting 129 countries. The languages he knows are Polish, English, Spanish, Portuguese, Croatian, Latin, and Ancient Greece. After World War 21 he began his studies in Krakow and he moved back to Poland. On July 4, 1958, he was appointed titular bishop of Ombi and auxiliary of Krakow by Pope Pius XII, and was promoted September 28, 1958, in Cathedral, Krakow, by Archbishop Eugeniusz Baziak. On January 13, 1964, he was appointed archbishop of Krakow by Pope Paul VI.

As pope his most important role was his teachings about Christianity. On March 2005 Pope John got a fever called septic shock, which is widespread. April 2005 Pope John said his last words which were “Let me go to the house of the father”. He died in a private apartment of heart failure.

Personal Statement

I have learned much information about leaders I didn’t know about before such as Gandhi and Martin Luther King were compared because they didn’t believe in violence. No matter how much they got hit or beaten they didn’t fight back such as the March on Washington and the salt march. The peaceful protest worked for both these world leaders as using the boycott as protest worked well. I never knew the Pope John traveled the most amongst the World Leaders. As I was looking for research for Saddam Hessian I found a video of his execution which I have never seen before. I also never knew the emperor Hirohito was the Japanese emperor that approved the attack on Pearl Harbor. I also found that was really fascinating to me was the John F Kennedy was elected the youngest president and died as the youngest.

References

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahatma_Gandhi

http://www.sscnet.ucla.edu/southasia/History/Gandhi/gandhi.html

Martin Luther King

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Martin_Luther_King,_Jr.

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio.html

Ronald Reagan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan

Joseph Stalin

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ronald_Reagan

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/RUSstalin.htm

Franklin Roosevelt

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt/

Adolf Hitler

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/hitler.html

John F Kennedy

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy

http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/JohnFKennedy/

Emperor Hirohito

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hirohito

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWhirohito.htm

Saddam Hessian

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saddam_Hussein

http://www.who2.com/saddamhussein.html

Pope John Paul II

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pope_John_Paul_II

http://www.vatican.va/news_services/press/documentazione/documents/santopadre_biografie/giovanni_paolo_ii_biografia_breve_en.html






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