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Table of Contents
Topic page

Regions/States/Cities 2

Reconstruction & Jim Crow 5

Great Plains & American Indian (Westward Expansion) 12

Industrialization & Immigration 18

Spanish American War, Teddy Roosevelt, Panama Canal 27

Early 20th Century (Transportation, Communication & Electrification) 31

World War I 34

The Great Migration 36

Temperance & Prohibition 37

Women’s Suffrage 38

Harlem Renaissance & 1920s & 30s 39

Great Depression & New Deal 42

World War II 45

Post WWII Maps 53

Cold War 54

Changing Patterns in US Society After WWII & The Cold War 57

Civil Rights 58

Globalization & Peacetime Technologies 61

People You Gotta Know 63

Stuff you Gotta Know 68

World Map 70



Vocabulary section follows each topic

REGIONS


Noncontiguous

Pacific

Southwest

Rocky mountains

Midwest

Northeast

Southeast

Hawaii

Alaska


California

Oregon


Washington

Arizona

New Mexico

Texas

Oklahoma


Nevada

Utah


Colorado

Wyoming


Montana

Idaho



N. Dakota

S. Dakota

Nebraska

Kansas


Minnesota

Iowa


Missouri

Wisconsin

Michigan

Illinois


Indiana

Ohio


Maine

New Hampshire

Vermont

Massachusetts



Rhode Island

Connecticut

New York

New Jersey

Pennsylvania


Maryland

Delaware


Virginia

Tennessee

West VA

Kentucky


N. Carolina

S. Carolina

Georgia

Florida


Alabama

Mississippi

Louisiana

Arkansas



Cities

Noncontiguous Northeast

Honolulu, Hawaii Boston, Massachusetts

Juneau, Alaska New York City, New York

Pacific Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Seattle, Washington Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

San Francisco, California

Los Angeles, California



Southwest

Santa Fe, Mexico

San Antonio, Texas

Rocky Mountains

Denver, Colorado

Salt Lake City, Utah

Midwest

Chicago, Illinois

Detroit, Michigan

St. Louis, Missouri



Southeast

New Orleans, Louisiana

Atlanta, Georgia

Washington D.C.



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1. Noncontiguous 2. Pacific 3. Southwest 4. Rocky Mountains 5. Midwest 6. Southeast 7. Northeast

Vocabulary for Geography
compass rose………………..A symbol showing direction on a map.
cultural…………………………Dealing with the shared knowledge & values of a society.
economic………………………Has to do with the production, development & management

of material wealth. Usually referring to money.


hemisphere…………………..Half a sphere, for our use, half of the earth.
historically…………………….With reference to past events.
latitude……………….…………imaginary lines that measure distance north or south from the

earth’s equator.


longitude……………….………imaginary lines that measure distance from the prime

meridian in Greenwich England.


meridian…………………………An imaginary great circle on the earth’s surface that passes

through the North & South geographic poles.


noncontiguous………………..Not connected.
parallel……………………………Lines that are equal distance apart and that do not intersect.

for our use, latitude lines are referred to as parallel.


political…………………………..Dealing with the structure or affairs of government.
region…………………….………A specified district of territory.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Reconstruction

F

  1. Reconstruction was the time period in the United States after the Civil War.

  2. The dates of Reconstruction are 1865 – 1877.




  1. Reconstruction attempted to give meaning to the freedom that

the former enslaved African Americans had achieved.


  1. Reconstruction policies were harsh and created problems in the South.

This means that the way the government did things during Reconstruction that were tough on the South and many Southerners thought it was unfair and resented it. This resentment is what led to many of the problems.
ACTS YOU GOTTA KNOW


Reconstruction policies & problems
During Reconstruction between 1865 & 1877

  1. Southern military leaders could not hold office.

  2. African Americans could hold public office.


The Civil Rights Act of 1866 did the following

  1. African Americans gained equal rights as a result of the Civil Rights Act of 1866, the Act also authorized the use of federal troops for its enforcement.

Meaning that federal troops would occupy the South during Reconstruction to make sure the South followed the rules.
The Freedmen’s Bureau was formed in 1865

  1. The Freedmen’s Bureau was established to aid (help) former enslaved African Americans in the South.


Because of some of the harsh policies that were in place during Reconstruction

  1. Southerners resented Northern “carpetbaggers” who took advantage of the South during Reconstruction.

  2. S
    The Freedmen’s Bureau was formed in 1865 to help the newly freed slaves resettle and get the rights they deserved. It also helped with education, opening over 4,000 schools.
    outhern states adopted Black Codes to limit the economic and physical freedom of former slaves.


The Black Codes were adopted by the former slave states after the Civil War. They were in response to the end of slavery and were passed during the 1860s. Even though the Codes discriminated against African Americans and limited their rights, they are not the same thing as Jim Crow Laws. Black Codes were during Reconstruction. Jim Crow Laws did not start until the 1890s.

The Amendments

The 13th, 14th & 15th Amendments to the Constitution of the United States of America address the issues of slavery and guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.




  • The 13th Amendment

    • bans slavery in the US and all of its territories.







    • Guarantees equal protection under the law. This means that everyone is supposed to be protected by the law regardless of who they are.




    • Due Process – This means the government can’t take your life, liberty or property without going through certain steps to make sure it’s fair.




  • The 15th Amendment

    • Ensures all citizens the right to vote regardless of race, color or previous condition of servitude. So, it doesn’t matter what color you are or if you were ever a slave, if you are now a citizen, you have the right to vote. One thing to remember, this only applied to the men, women were still not allowed to vote.




These three amendments

guarantee equal protection under the law for all citizens.

They are called the Civil War Amendments.

Reconstruction ended with the Compromise of 1877.

There was a dispute about who won the 1876 election. This compromise was actually an informal agreement between the Democrats and Republicans. The Democrats, who were mostly in the south agreed to accept Rutherford B. Hayes as the president in return for the following:


  1. Removal of all federal soldiers from the southern states.




  1. Appointment of at least one democrat in Presidents Hayes’s Administration.




  1. Construction of another transcontinental railroad in the South.




  1. Legislation to help industrialize the South.


The actions of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass created lasting impacts.

Abraham Lincoln

  • His reconstruction plan called for reconciliation.




  • Preservation of the Union was more important to him than punishing the South.


Robert E. Lee

  • Urged Southerners to reconcile with Northerners at the end of the war and reunite as Americans when some wanted to continue to fight.




  • He became the president of Washington College, which is now known as Washington and Lee University.



Fredrick Douglass

  • Fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights.




  • Was a powerful voice for human rights and civil liberties for all.


Jim Crow Laws
Jim Crow Laws are laws that were passed in the south after reconstruction ended. The first Jim Crow Laws were made in the 1890s. The laws were passed to discriminate against African-Americans and to segregate them from white society. Even though other groups were also affected by the Jim Crow Laws, the American Indian for example, the Laws were directed at the African-Americans.
Jim Crow Laws were characterized by unequal opportunities in housing, employment, government and education. That means that because of the Jim Crow Laws African-Americans could not live where they wanted to, were not able to get good jobs, they were not always able to participate in the government by voting or running for office, and African American children had to go to different schools than the white children,
African-Americans responded differently to Jim Crow. The two best examples of this are Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Dubois.

1. Discrimination against African-Americans continued after

Reconstruction.


  1. Jim Crow laws institutionalized a system of legal

segregation.

That means that Jim Crow Laws made discrimination & segregation legal.


  1. Jim Crow laws were passed to discriminate against African-

Americans.
4. African Americans differed in their response to

discrimination and Jim Crow.



Some people did not know what to do, some felt that there

was nothing they could do and some were worried that if they

tried to do anything they or their family could be harmed.
5. Plessy v Ferguson was the Supreme Court case that made

“Separate but Equal” legal.



That means that because of Plessy v. Fergusson the law said it

was okay to have separate things as long as they were equal.


FACTS YOU GOTTA KNOW

Racial Segregation

1. Is separation based on race.




  1. Directed primarily against African-Americans, but other groups were kept segregated as well. (primarily means mainly)


Jim Crow Laws

1. Made discrimination practices legal in many communities

and states. (That means that the law said it was okay to discriminate

against peopl based on their race.)
2. Were characterized by unequal opportunities in the

Following:

1. housing

2. employment

3. government

4. education



This means that the Jim Crow Laws affected a persons life in those four areas. So, it affected where someone might be allowed to live, what type of job they could get, whether or not they were able to easily participate in government,(voting, running for office) and, what school they could go to.
P

eople You Gotta Know


1. Booker T. Washington

He believed that African-Americans could

achieve equality through Vocational Education.

He also accepted social separation.


IN OTHER WORDS

Booker T. Washington thought that African-Americans

could get equal rights if they learned a trade. He also was

okay with the races being separated socially as long as

they had equal rights when it came to housing, work,



education and government.

2. W.E.B. DuBois

He believed in full political, civil and

social rights for African-Americans.
IN OTHER WORDS

W.E.B. DuBois thought that everyone should be equal.

He wanted it to happen right away, he did not think anyone

should have to “gain” equal rights, it should be equal, period.


  • Both men worked hard for equality for African Americans, they just had different ideas on how to go about it.


Vocabulary for Reconstruction & Jim Crow
amendment……………..An addition or change to the US Constitution.
adoption………………….The act of formally approving or accepting a suggestion.
Black Codes……………..Laws enacted in the United States starting in 1865. The Codes

Were a reaction to the abolition of slavery.


bureau…………………….An office or department.
carpetbaggers……….…A person from the northern states who went to the South after

the Civil War to profit from Reconstruction. They were called

carpetbaggers because the suitcases many of them carried were made from old carpet pieces.
citizen…………………….A legally recognized inhabitant of a particular country.
civil liberties……………Individual rights protected by law from unjust government or

other interference.


Civil War…………………The war between the North & South in the United States. It

took place from 1861 – 1865.


compromise……………An agreement or settlement of a dispute that is reached by each

side giving in a little bit.


Constitution…………….The US Constitution is the document that provides the framework

for the organization of the United States government.


constraint………………..A limitation or restriction.
discriminate…………….To treat differently based on race, gender, class or category.
discrimination………….The policy or practice of treating someone differently based on

race, gender, class or category.


era…………………………A distinct period of history with a particular feature or

characteristic.


human rights…………..Rights that are believed to belong to every person.
illegal……..………………Against the law.
impact………….……….The effect or influence of a person, thing or action on

something else.


institutionalized..…….established in practice or custom.

Jim Crow Laws……………..Laws that were made starting in the 1890’s in the US to

discriminate against African Americans.
legacy…………………..………Something that is handed down from one to another.
legal………………………..……Allowed by law.
military………………..……….The armed forces of a country.
NAACP………………………….National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

An organization cofounded by W.E.B. DuBois in 1909.


policy……………………………A course of action adopted by a government, business or

individual.


prejudice……………………….A dislike, hostility, or unjust preconceived opinion that is

not based on reason or actual experience.


public office…………………..An office or job that serves the public, like mayor, senator,

Judge or something similar.


racial…………………………….relating to race.
reconciliation…………………The restoration of friendly relations. It’s like making up with a

friend after a fight.


Reconstruction………………The time period in the US after the Civil War, during which

The Confederacy were controlled by the federal government.

It lasted from 1865-1877.
resent………………….……….To feel bitterness or indignation.
segregate……………………..To separate based on race, gender, class or category.
segregation…………………..The policy or practice of separating based on race, gender,

class or category.


servitude………………………The state of being a slave.
Supreme Court………….….The highest court in the United States. It has nine justices

and has jurisdiction over all other courts in the US.


vocational education…..…training for a specific trade or industry.

The Great Plains


The highlighted part of this map shows the area known as the Great Plains. In 1862, the United States opened up the Great Plains to settlers through the Homestead Act. This gave people 160 acres of land for about $10.00 if they would live on the land and farm it for 5 years. The government did this so that people would move there.




FACTS YOU GOTTA KNOW


  1. During the 19th century, people’s perception and use

of the Great Plains changed.


    1. Technological advances allowed people to live in more challenging environments.




    1. Because of new technologies, people saw the Great Plains not as a “treeless wasteland” BUT AS “a vast area to be settled.”




Physical Features and Climate of the Great Plains

(what the Great Plains looked like and what the weather was like)
1. The Great Plains were flatlands that gradually rose from east to west.

(The Rocky Mountains were in the west, that is why the land rose.)
2. The land was eroded by wind and water.
3. There was low rainfall.
4. There were frequent dust storms.
The description above doesn’t make the Great Plains look like a nice place to live. It was very hard and challenging to survive there. Besides all of the stuff above, the Great Plains didn’t have lots of trees, so there wasn’t much wood to make houses or fences with. The land on the Great Plains was hard and would easily break the wooden plows the farmers used. There wasn’t much rain so it was hard to make things grow. Before the Civil War, people thought of the Great Plains as a treeless wasteland. Then things started to change. There were new inventions, and people made adaptations to their lives and tools to make life easier on the Plains.

Inventions/Adaptations
1. Barbed Wire – This made it easier to make a fence because you didn’t need as much wood.
2. Steel Plows – This made the plow better by making the part that goes in the ground out of steel. Now it would not break as easily.
3. Dry Farming – This is a method of farming in dry areas that allows the farmer to

get the most out of the moisture in the soil.
4. Sod Houses – This made it easier for the farmers to build houses. They used sod to make their houses because there were not many trees.



5. Beef Cattle – The farmers and ranchers got the idea for this from the buffalo. They were looking for an animal that could live well on the Plains and longhorn cattle were close to the buffalo that had lived on the

Plains for thousands of years.
6. Wheat Farming – Wheat grows very well in the Great Plains, one type of wheat

the farmers used was a Russian wheat brought here by Russian

immigrants.
7. Windmills – This helped farmers pump water out of the deep wells they needed to be able to reach the water underground.

8. Railroads – This was a new technology and made it easier for the people to get supplies in and out of the Plains. It also made transportation easier. The best example is the Transcontinental Railroad that connected the east and west parts of the country.

Reasons for Westward Expansion
1. Opportunities for land ownership.

The Homestead Act gave many people a chance to own their own land.
2. Technological advances, including the Transcontinental Railroad.

Technology made life on the Great Plains easier. The railroad made it easier to get

things into and out of the Great Plains.
3. Possibility of wealth created by the discovery of gold and silver.

Gold was discovered in the Black Hills of the Dakotas, and silver in Colorado.

Some people went west hoping to get rich.
4. Adventure

These guys just wanted to have fun!
5. A new beginning for former slaves.

The Civil War and slavery was over, many former slaves went west to start over.




Know the following:
Immigrants

Two groups of immigrants that were discriminated against were the Irish and the Chinese. Both of these groups worked on the Transcontinental Railroad.

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