Sw 15: the cuban revolution: chronology

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War of independence begins


US beats Spain in war


Cuban Constitution, with Platt amendment, adopted


Cuba "independent"


US Cuban Reciprocity Treaty signed


August: President Gerardo Machado overthrown

September 4: Army Sgt. Fulgencio Batista's coup

Platt amendment repealed

New US Cuban Reciprocity Treaty signed

US Jones Costigan Sugar Act enacted


Cuba's Sugar Coordination Act enacted


New Cuban Constitution approved

Batista elected President

Opposition wins free elections; Batista steps down; Auténtico party's Ramón Grau becomes President


Fidel Castro trains to invade Dominican Republic


Auténtico party's Carlos Prío elected President

Fidel Castro involved in Bogotá, Colombia, riots

March 10: Batista's new coup

July 26: attack on Moncada barracks, city of Santiago


Batista grants amnesty to Fidel Castro

Revolutionary Directorate founded

November December: demonstrations + brief general strike


April: Col. Ramón Barquín's coup attempt fails

April 29: attack on Goicuría barracks fails

Fall: Revolutionary Directorate assassinates several key government officers

November 30: uprising in city of Santiago

December 2: "Granma" yacht shipwreck; Castro, associates seek refuge in Sierra Maestra mountains


February 17: Herbert Matthews interviews Castro in Sierra Maestra

March 13: Revolutionary Directorate attacks presidential palace; Batista survives; José Antonio Echeverría killed

May: "Corinthia" yacht expedition fails

June: Earl Smith sworn in as US ambassador to Cuba

July 12: Sierra Maestra Manifesto signed

July 30: Frank País killed

September: Uprising at Navy's base in Cienfuegos fails

September: US Freeport Sulphur announces massive investments to develop Cuban nickel

October: Revolutionary Directorate opens Escambray mountains front

November: Miami Pact signed

December: Fidel Castro denounces Miami Pact


March 14: US cuts off weapons sales to Cuban government

March: Raúl Castro opens Sierra Cristal mountains front

April 9: general strike fails

May 25: Army opens Sierra Maestra general offensive

May: Cuban Air Force planes refueled at US base at Guantánamo; rebels protest

June 27: Raúl Castro takes US citizens as hostages

July: Some US troops from Guantánamo guard installations inside Cuba; rebels protest; US troops return to base

July: In Escambray mountains, Eloy Gutiérrez Menoyo splits off from Revolutionary Directorate

July 20: Caracas Pact signed

August 18: Army ends general offensive at Sierra Maestra

August: Ernesto Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos leave Oriente province to begin invasion of Camagüey and Las Villas provinces

September: Castro negotiations with Gen. Eulogio Cantillo

November: National elections; Batista claims win for his candidate, Andrés Rivero Agüero

December 9: William Pawley mission to get Batista to resign

December 28: Castro Cantillo agreement

December 30: Armored train surrenders to rebels in Las Villas

December 31: Guevara forces seize city of Santa Clara New Year's eve: Batista flees

January 2: Remainder of old regime disintegrates

January 8: Fidel Castro enters Havana

January: Trials and executions of Batista regime officers begin

April: Castro announces no elections to be held soon

April: Castro visits US; meets Richard Nixon; announces Cuba seeks no US funds

April 25: Castro speaks at Harvard

May: Cuba enacts land reform law

June 11: US note over Cuba's land reform

June: First Cuban Cabinet crisis

June: Chief of Cuba's Air Force, Díaz Lanz, defects to US

July 17: President Manuel Urrutia forced to resign

Fall: Militia created

October 16: Soviet envoy Alexeev meets Fidel Castro

October 18: University students' elections

October 19: Commander of Camagüey province Huber Matos resigns

October 21: Huber Matos arrested

October 21: Díaz Lanz overflies Havana

October 26: F. Castro says Díaz Lanz bombed Havana; blames US

November: Labor union congress

November: Second major Cabinet crisis

January: US recalls Ambassador Bonsal; later re opens talks

February : Anastas Mikoyan in Havana; Soviet Cuban Treaty signed

March 1: Eisenhower asks Congress for discretion to cut sugar quota

March 4: Belgian weapons ship "La Coubre" explodes in Havana harbor; Castro blames US

March 17: Eisenhower authorizes CIA to begin to train Cuban exiles for military actions

June: Foreign oil refineries refuse to refine Soviet oil; Cuban government seizes them

July 6: US cuts Cuba's sugar quota

July: USSR will purchase all Cuban sugar the US will not buy; offers military support

July: Cuba expropriates all US property

August: Cuban Women's Federation founded

August: US government begins plots to assassinate Fidel Castro

September: Committees for the Defense of the Revolution founded

January: US Cuban relations broken

April: Bay of Pigs invasion defeated; revolution proclaimed "socialist"

May: Private schools expropriated

July: ORI (embryonic new communist party founded)

September: 131 Catholic priests deported

September: Cuba pulls out of International Sugar Agreement

Second half: Nationwide literacy campaign

December: Fidel Castro calls himself "Marxist Leninist"

January: Organization of American States expels Cuban government

January: tenure abolished at universities

March: National Directorate of ORI announced; Aníbal Escalante dismissed as ORI Organization Secretary; prices frozen and rationing imposed

July: Gen. Raúl Castro travels to Moscow to negotiate more military support

October: missile crisis; migration to US stopped


First half: sharp decline in Cuban sugar output and exports

June: Castro announces renewed emphasis on sugar production

June: Alberto Mora opens "great debate" over economy, attacks Guevara=s views

October: Second agrarian reform law; expropriates rural middle peasant land

October: Cuban troops cross Atlantic ocean to join Algerian troops to fight Morocco

November: compulsory military service required

Fall: Venezuelan government discovers weapons sent from Cuba to Venezuelan guerrillas


January: USSR raises sugar price, and fixes it until 1970

March: Marcos Rodríguez trial (death penalty); PSP embarrassed

July: Organization of American States imposes collective sanctions on Cuba for "aggression" against Venezuela; mandates break in relations and hemispheric trade embargo

Mid year: abortion law liberalized

Mid year: trade relations improve with Canada, Britain, France, Japan, Spain

December: suicide attempts branded counterrevolutionary

First quarter: "great debate" over economy ends; economic growth resumes; Guevara criticizes nature of Soviet economic aid, resigns all government and party posts, goes to Congo (at one point also called Zaire) to fight alongside guerrillas

Spring: 20,000 US troops land in Dominican Republic to prevent a "second Cuba"

Mid year: Castro acknowledges holding 20,000 political prisoners

Mid year: last counterrevolutionary insurgencies defeated

October: Political Bureau, Secretariat, and Central Committee of new Communist party appointed

November: founded UMAP military camps for homosexuals and others

Fall: migration to US resumes under agreement

Late: Cubans begin to train Angolan MPLA guerrillas


January: Tricontinental conference to assist revolutions held in Havana; Castro denounces Chinese government over trade and political disputes

November: Guevara arrives in Bolivia to launch guerrilla war

End: Castro endorses primacy of moral incentives and economic centralization


March: Castro denounces Venezuelan Communist party for treason

March: property compensation agreements with Swiss and French

May: Cuban fighters captured in Venezuela, alongside guerrillas

First half: economic growth good

Mid year: UMAP abolished

October: Guevara, other Cubans, killed in Bolivia

End: national budget and financial auditing discontinued


January: Oil rationing tightened; "microfaction," led by Aníbal Escalante and linked to USSR, discovered in Cuban communist party, punished by imprisonment

March: "Revolutionary Offensive" launched; grocery stores, street vending, etc., become state firms; bars closed; private sales of peasant produce banned; role of money and profits denounced; emphasis on "voluntary work," mass campaigns

Mid year: economic collapse under way

Mid year: Labor Ministry announces job segregation by gender

August: Castro endorses Soviet intervention in Czechoslovakia

October: Cuba rejoins International Sugar Agreement

Mid year: campaign on "idle woman" question

Second half: 1970 harvest begins early; economic situation grave

End: relations improve with Chile, Peru


Giant harvest


March: poet Heberto Padilla arrested, later "confesses"

April: First National Congress on Education and Culture

End: redirection of economic strategy, return to material incentives, financial auditing

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