n1. Harris G. Mirkin, Rebellion, Revolution, and the Constitution: Thomas Jefferson's Theory of Civil Disobedience 13 Am. Stud. 61, 64 (1972) (arguing that Jefferson saw resistance as beneficial to society because it prevented the need for full-scale revolution. Acts of resistance "forced the society to deal with problems before they assumed proportions that would justify real revolution.").
n2. Henry David Thoreau, Walden and Civil Disobedience 227 (Owen Thomas ed., Norton Critical Editions 1966).
n3. Pamphlets of the American Revolution 191 (Bernard Bailyn ed., Cambridge, Mass., l965).
n4. Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Smith (Nov. l3, l787), reprinted in 12 The Papers of Thomas Jefferson 356 (Julian P. Boyd ed., 1955) [hereinafter "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Smith"].
n5. Paul M. Thompson, Is There Anything "Legal" About ExtraLegal Action? The Debate Over Dorr's Rebellion, 36 New Eng. L. Rev. 385, 387 (2002) (discussing the difference between resistance, revolution, and civil disobedience).
n6. Id. at 391.
n7. Id. at 392.
n9. Mirkin, supra note 1, at 62.
n11. Letter to John Jay (Nov. 27, 1775), reprinted in The Papers of Alexander Hamilton 176, 177 (Harold C. Syrett ed., New York, 1961) [hereinafter "Letter to John Jay"].
n12. Mirkin, supra note 1, at 61.
n13. Thompson, supra note 5, at 393.
n14. Id. at 393.
n17. See Mirkin, supra note 1, at 61.
n18. George Washington's Circular Letter to the States (June 8, l783), reprinted in Colonies to Nation, 1763-1789: A Documentary History of the American Revolution 436, 443 (Jack P. Greene ed., 1967) [hereinafter "George Washington's Circular Letter"] .
n19. Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison, reprinted in 12 The Papers of Thomas Jefferson 93 (Julian P. Boyd ed., 1955) [hereinafter "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to James Madison"].
n20. Mirkin, supra note 1, at 67.
n21. Id. at 63.
n22. Letter to Edmund Randolph (Aug. l9, l799), reprinted in The Works of Thomas Jefferson IX, 74 (Paul L. Ford ed., New York, l904-05) [hereinafter "Letter to Edmund Randolph"].
n23. Mirkin, supra note 1, at 72 fn. 5 (explaining that "most of Jefferson's famous revolutionary statements were made relatively early in his career, in support of Shays' Rebellion"). See also Letter from Thomas Jefferson to William Smith, supra note 4, at 356.
n24. Mirkin, supra note 1, at 62.
n25. Id. at 68.
n26. Id. at 63.
n27. Id. at 70.
n29. Francis Bowen, The Recent Contest in Rhode Island 64 (Boston, Otis, Broaders & Co., l844).
n30. Caleb C. Smith, Speech on the Memorial of the Democratic Members of the Legislature of Rhode Island 9 (l844).
n31. Bowen, supra note 29, at 64.
n33. Thompson, supra note 5, at 393.
n34. U.S. Const. art. IV, 4. However, the U.S. Constitution also provides U.S. citizens with the right to criticize, to protest, and to peaceably assemble, and the states must respect these rights and refrain from punishing the citizens from exercising their rights. The state is required, if necessary, to send out state troopers or police to protect a mass march of people who are protesting against the state itself. This occurred in Selma, Alabama. Abe Fortas, Concerning Dissent and Civil Disobedience 44 (l968).
n35. See Thomas P. Slaughter, The Whiskey Rebellion: Frontier Epilogue to the American Revolution (1986); The Whiskey Rebellion: Past and Present Perspectives (Steven R. Boyd ed., l985).
n36. See William W.H. Davis, The Fries Rebellion, l798-99 (l969).
n37. Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Abigail Adams, reprinted in 12 The Papers of Thomas Jefferson 174 (Julian P. Boyd ed., 1955) [hereinafter "Letter from Thomas Jefferson to Abigail Adams"].
n38. See Thompson, supra note 5, at 407-08 (discussing Dorr's Rebellion, the Dorrites' view of popular sovereignty, and the right of resistance in the United States in the eighteenth century).
n39. Id. at 409.
n41. Id. at 410.
n42. H.R. Rep. No. 546, at 39 (l844).
n43. Thompson, supra note 5, at 410.
n44. Id. at 410-11.
n45. See Paul Finkelman, Turning Losers into Winners: What Can we Learn, if Anything, From the Antifederalists? 79 Tex. L. Rev. 849 (March 2001).
n46. Id. at 853. Finkelman believes that the anti-federalists, known as the "loyal opposition" were "people with little faith, limited vision and to a great extent, horrifying notions of how society ought to work and government ought to operate." Id. at 856.
n47. Id. at 892.
n48. Id. at 893.
n51. Finkelman, supra note 45, at 894.
n52. Thompson, supra note 5, at 424.
n54. See The Rhode Island Question: Arguments of Messrs. Whipple and Webster in the Case of Martin Luther Plaintiff in Error, Versus Luther M. Borden and Others 1, 40 (Charles Burnett ed., l848).
n55. Luther v. Borden, 48 U.S. 1, 25 (l849).
n56. William Sloane Coffin, Jr. & Morris I. Leibman, Civil Disobedience; Aid or Hindrance to Justice? 14 (1972).
n57. Id. at 13.
n58. Id. at 12.
n59. Id. at 13.
n60. Martin Luther King, Jr., Letter from Birmingham Jail, reprinted in The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr. 187 (Clayborne Carson ed., 1998) (explaining why civil disobedience is more effective than waiting for Congress to pass new laws). See also Susan Tiefenbrun, Semiotics and Martin Luther King's Letter From Birmingham Jail, 4 Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature 255 (1992) [hereinafter "Tiefenbrun on Letter from Birmingham Jail"].
n61. King, supra note 60, at 193.
n62. See Tiefenbrun on Letter from Birmingham Jail, supra note 60, at 274.
n63. King, supra note 60, at 193.
n64. See id. (citing St. Thomas Aquinas).
n65. Sloane & Leibman, supra note 56, at 1.
n66. Id. at 2.
n67. Fortas, supra note 34, at 18.
n68. Sloane & Leibman, supra note 56, at 14.
n69. Id. at 12.
n71. Archibald Cox, Civil Rights, the Stimulus of Protest, 40 N.Y. State B.J. 161, l69 (l968).
n72. Blacks Law Dictionary 238 (7th ed. 1999).
n74. See Sloane & Leibman, supra note 56, at 23: "These doctrines of civil disobedience have been eroding our civilization in recent years. In action they have led to what I call brinkmanship. In other words, they have encouraged people to express discontent - with the system, with the laws, with government officials and policies, and with ideas - by organizing mass groups that create the potential for violence and law-breaking. This severely strains the necessary function of social order almost to the breaking point."
n75. Fortas, supra note 34, at 61-64.
n76. Id. at 61-62.
n77. Id. at 63.
n78. See Susan Tiefenbrun, A Semiotic Approach to a Legal Definition of Terrorism, 9 ILSA J. Int'l & Comp. L. 365 (2003).
n79. Fortas, supra note 34, at 59.
n80. Id. at 60.
n81. Id at 61.
n82. King, supra note 60, at 193.
n84. Id. at 194.
n85. See Fortas, supra note 34, at 59.
n86. Id. at 60.
n87. Adam Winkler, A Revolution Too Soon: Woman Suffragists and the "Living Constitution," 76 N.Y.U. L. Rev., 1456, 1507 (2001).
n88. Id. at 1507.
n90. Id. at 1512.
n91. Id. at 1512-13.
n92. Winkler, supra note 87, at 1513.
n93. Mahatma Gandhi, Non-Violent Resistance 175 (l961).
n94. See Fortas, supra note 34, at 61 (discussing Gandhi's form of protest which is not directed to an unjust law but to a government policy).
n95. Lawrence R. Velvel, Undeclared War and Civil Disobedience: The American System in Crisis 191 (1970) (claiming that violence is necessary in order to bring about change because people do not listen to reasonable arguments). Cf. Fortas, supra note 34, at 80 (claiming that violence "is never defensible ... where there [are] alternative methods of winning the minds of others to one's cause and securing changes in the government or its policies").
n96. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice 365 (l971).
n97. Id. at 371-73.
n98. Id. at 373.
n100. Id. at 374.
n101. Rawls, supra note 96, at 374.
n102. See Susan Tiefenbrun, On Civil Disobedience, Jurisprudene, Feminism and the Law in the Antigones of Sophocles and Anouilh, 11, 1 Cardozo Studies in Law and Literature 35, 36 (Summer 1999) [hereinafter "Tiefenbrun on Antigone"].
n103. Id. at 36.
n104. Leslie Gielow Jacobs, Applying Penalty Enhancements to Civil Disobedience: Clarifying the Free Speech Clause Model to Bring the Social Value of Political Protest into the Balance, 59 Ohio St. L.J. 185, 197 (1998) (discussing civil disobedience as expressive conduct not currently protected by the free speech clause of the U.S. Constitution).
n105. Sloane & Leibman, supra note 56, at 5 ("The Supreme Court decided that it was not King but the segregationists he opposed who were civilly disobedient.").
n106. Mark Edward DeForrest, Civil Disobedience: Its Nature and Role in the American Legal Landscape, 33 Gonz. L. Rev. 653, 654 (l997/l998).
n107. See Jacobs, supra note 104, at 197-98.
n108. See Rawls, supra note 96, at 366.
n109. See infra, text accompanying notes 145 to 164 for a discussion of the constitutionality of civil disobedience as a form of free speech.
n110. Carl Cohen, Civil Disobedience: Conscience, Tactics, and the Law 179 (1971) (protecting the "profound national commitment to the principle that debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust, and wide open, and that it may well include vehement, caustic, and sometimes unpleasantly sharp attacks on government and public officials" (quoting The New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254, 270 (l964)).
n111. Martha Minow, Breaking the Law: Lawyers and Clients in Struggles for Social Change, 52 U. Pa. L. Rev. 723, 741 (1991).
n112. Ronald Dworkin, Taking Rights Seriously 206 (l977).
n113. See Thoreau, supra note 2, at 227.
n114. Id. at 226.
n115. See Thoreau, supra note 2, at 231. See King, supra note 60, at l92: "We have waited for more than 340 years for our constitutional and God-given rights."
n116. See King, supra note 60, at 193: "You express a great deal of anxiety over our willingness to break laws ... How can you advocate breaking some laws and obeying others? The answer lies in the fact that there are two types of laws: just and unjust. I would be the first to advocate obeying just laws."
n117. Id. at 193-94: "One has not only a legal but a moral responsibility to obey just laws. Conversely, one has a moral responsibility to disobey unjust laws. I would agree with St. Augustine that "an unjust law is no law at all.' " Id. at 193. "Of course, there is nothing new about this kind of civil disobedience ... It was practiced superbly by the early Christians, who were willing to face hungry lions and the excruciating pain of chopping blocks rather than submit to certain unjust laws of the Roman Empire ... . In our own nation, the Boston Tea Party represented a massive act of civil disobedience." Id. at 194.
n118. See Fortas, supra note 34, at 111.
n119. King, supra note 60, at 193.
n120. See Tiefenbrun on Antigone, supra note 102, at 36.
n121. See generally id.
n122. Id. at 36-37.
n123. See Teresa M. Bruce, Neither Liberty Nor Justice: Anti-Gay Initiatives, Political Participation, and the Rule of Law, 5 Cornell J.L. & Pub. Pol'y 431, 479-94 (Spring 1996) (discussing the six legal theories requiring one to obey unjust laws).
n124. Id. at 480.
n125. Id. at 481-82.
n126. Id. at 482.
n128. Bruce, supra note 123, at 486-87.
n129. Id. at 487.
n132. Id. at 489.
n133. Rawls, supra note 96, at 115.
n134. Bruce, supra note 123, at 491.
n135. Id. at 492.
n138. Dworkin, supra note 112, at 206.
n140. Robert Bork, The Tempting of America: The Political Seduction of the Law 334 (l990).
n141. Id. at 335.
n142. Harrison Tweed, Bernard G. Segal, & Herbert L. Packer, Civil Rights and Disobedience to Law, reprinted in Civil Disobedience: Theory and Practice 90, 92 (Hugo Adam Bedau ed., 1969).
n143. Id. at 97.
n144. Fortas, supra note 34, at 24-25.
n146. Id. at 25.
n147. Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397, 420 (l989).
n148. United States v. O'Brien, 391 U.S. 367, 382 (l968).
n149. Id. at 34.
n151. See generally Jacobs, supra note 104.
n152. Id. at 186.
n153. Id. at 187.
n154. See United for Peace and Justice v. The City of New York, 2003 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 1943 (S.D.N.Y. 2003). The New York Civil Liberties Union recently filed a federal suit challenging New York City's refusal to allow anti-war demonstrators to march in front of the United Nations building and to engage in peaceful political protest.
n155. Fortas, supra note 34, at 28.
n156. Jacobs, supra note 104, at 196-97.
n157. Jacobs, supra note 104, at 194-95.
n158. Id. at 196-97. See United States v. O'Brien, 391 U.S. 367, 377 (1968).
n159. Id. at 196-97.
n160. Id. at 198.
n162. Id. at 199.
n163. Jacobs, supra note 104, at 200.
n164. Id. at 202.
n168. Jacobs, supra note 104, at 202-03.
n169. Id at 203.
n172. See id.
n173. Jacobs, supra note 104, at 202-04.
n174. Id. at 218.
n175. Id. at 231.
n176. Wisconsin v. Mitchell, 508 U.S. 476, 484 (l993).
n177. See Jacobs, supra note 104, at 233.
n178. Fortas, supra note 34, at 36.
n179. Id. at 37.
n180. Id. at 44.
n181. Id. at 38.