|Beauty Susan Sontag
For the Greeks, beauty was a virtue: a kind of excellence. Persons then were assumed to be what we now have to call-- lamely, enviously--whole persons. If it did occur to the Greeks to distinguish between a person's "inside" and "outside", they still expected that inner beauty would be matched by beauty of the other kind. The well-born young Athenians who gathered around Socrates found it quite paradoxical that their hero was so intelligent, so brave, so honorable, so seductive--and so ugly. One of Socrates' main pedagogical acts was to be ugly--and teach those innocent, no doubt splendid-looking disciples of his how full of paradoxes life really was.
They may have resisted Socrates' lesson. We do not. Several thousands years later, we are more wary of the enchantments of beauty. We not only split off--with the greatest facility--the "inside" (character, intellect) from the "outside"(looks); but we are actually surprised when someone who is beautiful is also intelligent, talented, good.
It was principally the influence of Christianity that deprived beauty of the central place it had in classical ideals of human excellence. By limiting excellence (virtue in Latin) to moral virtue only, Christianity set beauty adrift--as an alienated, arbitrary, superficial enchantment. And beauty has continued to lose prestige. For close to two centuries it has become a convention to attribute beauty to only one of the two sexes: the sex which, however Fair, is always Second. Associating beauty with women has put beauty even further on the defensive, morally.
A beautiful woman, we say in English. But a handsome man. "Handsome" is the masculine equivalent of --and refusal of--a compliment which has accumulated certain demeaning overtones, by being reserved for women only. That one can call a man "beautiful" in French and in Italian suggests that Catholic countries--unlike those countries shaped by the Protestant version of Christianity--still retain some vestiges of the pagan admiration for beauty. But the difference, if one exists, is of degree only. In every modern country that is Christian or post-Christian, women are the beautiful sex--to the detriment of the notion of beauty as well as of women.
To be called beautiful is thought to name something essential to women’s character and concerns. (In contrast to men ---- whose essence is to be strong, or effective, or competent.) It does not take someone in the throes of advanced feminist awareness to perceive that the way women are taught to be involved with beauty encourages narcissism, reinforces dependence and immaturity. Everybody (women and men) knows that. For it is “everybody”, a whole society, that has identified being feminine with caring about how one looks. ( In contrast to being masculine ---- which is identified with caring about what one is and does and only secondarily, if at all, about how one looks. ) Given these stereotypes, it is no wonder that beauty enjoys, at best, a rather mixed reputation.
It is not, of course, the desire to be beautiful that is wrong but the obligation to be ---- or to try. What is accepted by most women as a flattering idealization of their sex is a way of making women feel inferior to what they actually are ---- or normally grow to be. For the ideal of beauty is administered as a form of self-oppression. Women are taught to see their bodies in parts, and to evaluate each part separately. Breasts, feet, hips, waistline, neck, eyes, nose, complexion, hair, and so on ---- each in turn is submitted to an anxious, fretful, often despairing scrutiny. Even if some pass muster, some will always be found wanting. Nothing less than perfection will do.
In men, good looks is a whole, something taken in at a glance. It does not need to be confirmed by giving measurements of different regions of the body, nobody encourages a man to dissect his appearance, feature by feature. As for perfection, that is considered trivial ---- almost unmanly. Indeed, in the ideally good-looking man a small perfection or blemish is considered positively desirable. According to one movie critic ( a woman ) who is declared Robert Redford fan, it is having that cluster of skin-colored moles on one neck that saves Redford from being merely a “pretty face.” Think of the depreciation of women ---- as well as of beauty ---- that is implied in that judgment.
“The privileges of beauty are immense,” said Cocteau. To be sure, beauty is a form of power. And deservedly so. What is lamentable is that it is the only form of power that most women are encouraged to seek. This power is always conceived in relation to men; it is a power that negates itself. For this power is not one that can be chosen freely ---- at least, not by women ---- or renounced without social censure.
To preen, for a woman, can never be just a pleasure. It is also a duty. It is her work. If a woman does real work ---- and even if she clambered up to a leading position in politics, law, medicine, business, or whatever ---- she is always under pressure to confess that she still works at being attractive. But in so far as she is keeping up as one of the Fair Sex, she brings under suspicion her very capacity to be objective, professional, authoritative, thoughtful. Damned if they do ---- women are. And damned if they do not.
One could hardly ask for more important evidence of the dangers of considering persons a split between what is “inside” and what is “outside” than that interminable half-comic half-tragic tale, the oppression of women. How easy it is to start off by defining women as care-takers of their surfaces, and then disparage them (or find them adorable ) for being “superficial”. It is a crude trap, and it has worked for too long. But to get out of the trap requires that women get some critical distance from that excellence and privilege which is beauty, enough distance to see how much beauty itself has been abridged in order to prop up the mythology of the “feminine.” There should be a way of saving beauty from women ---- and for them.