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GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

THE CONTRIBUTION MADE BY AREA STUDIES.THE IMPORTANCE OF THE PERIPHERY - THE ROLE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLE AND LOCAL OFFICIALS AND MERCHANTS /MISSIONARIES

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches

Issues to consider

  • Economic factors

  • Local factors

Content to focus on




  • Students introduce the topic for themselves by producing basic mind maps of the key concepts associated with this particular approach/interpretation.

  • Seminar type discussion on the key issues associated with looking at these approaches - why these approaches were adopted, when they were adopted and by whom they were adopted. Students need to be aware of the context within which historians were working. Teachers may wish to point students in the direction of specific historians and texts for the wider reading around this theme.

  • Case Study – the Far East. Students choose any format of working that best suits their learning styles to collect and collate evidence that may be used to develop the following themes:

  • the ‘local’ official thesis

  • the importance of the indigenous people as a factor

  • the role of merchants/missionaries etc

  • Similar themes to those developed above may also be applied to East Africa and the Med - such as Cyprus/Malta. Teachers may wish to consider producing a detailed source pack that allows students to read and work with various pieces of evidence relative to the approaches taken by historians in this field. Students could then be asked to work in pairs to produce very short presentations/contributions to discussion that address the key questions that are being applied to all these approaches – why? when? who? etc.

  • Consolidation and monitoring of learning could be achieved by producing a series of short summaries of the approaches discussed and supply these to the students. Students should engage with the summaries and then decide which particular aspect of the interpretation they have been developing.

  • Smith

  • Porter Cp 3

  • OH5 24,27,32

  • OH3 11,17,30

  • Aldred J. British Imperial & Foreign Policy 1846-1980. Heinemann Advanced History (2004) 0-435-32753-4




  • Ensure a full grasp of these two broad theses. If you feel Med is too ‘peripheral’ and find resources difficult, then West Africa is equally good.




Skills

  • Teachers may wish to continue to encourage students to develop their exam skills at this stage of the course. Students should be given the opportunity to re-cap their skills on ‘A’ and ‘B’ questions and should be taken through the mark scheme once again.

  • Teachers could approach this task by perhaps supplying students with a model version of an answer to this questions and getting students to work in pairs marking the response by using the mark scheme. This will allow students to develop a much greater sense of what the examiners are looking for in a high band response to this particular type of question.

  • Smith p88-90 plus cartoon there – could be developed as a question ‘A’ type activity.









GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

THE INTERPRETATION OFFERED BY NATIONALIST HISTORIANS - WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO MARGINALISED COMMUNITIES AND THE ATTAINMENT OF INDEPENDENCE

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches to consider

  • Nationalist histories

  • The marginalised communities

  • The attainment of independence

Issues

  • Local v London

  • The role of women

  • Impact on UK of empire

  • The loss of empire-reasons for and impact on the UK

Content

  • Australia and New Zealand

  • North Africa

  • South Africa

  • Students produce A3 charts showing the key motivating factors that influence/d nationalist historians. These factors will include the political, social, economic and cultural climates of the times.

  • Students should then be asked to produce research projects (in any format that suits their preferred learning style) on ONE of the following areas with a focus on the interpretations offered by nationalist historians:

  • Australia and New Zealand - the move towards dominion status

  • North Africa-the move to independence and reaction to colonial rule

  • South Africa. The Boer/Afrikaner view of British rule and the gaining of independence

  • West Africa. Local decision making and the move to independence

  • Teachers may wish to adopt a two-stage approach to check learning of this topic. Students should prepare briefing papers based on their research for a seminar type meeting of several small groups in the class. These smaller groups then double-up, and a similar conversation takes place. This process continues until the whole class has been reunited as a whole and the teacher may then facilitate a summary overview diagram on the smart/white board.

  • Themes covered above may be developed further by consideration of the following questions:

  • How important is the view from ‘the other side’ to overall understanding of the development of imperialism in the 19th century? Students could be asked to research the issue and attend the next lesson with one piece of evidence that helps to illustrate the importance of ‘the view from the other side’. Teachers may then facilitate a class feedback session where the different pieces of evidence are shared and the class as a whole move towards a greater understanding of the issue.

  • What differences are there between Australia on the one hand, and North and West Africa on the other in their respective views of British imperialism? Students could work in pairs, each taking either Australia or Africa as their point of focus. Both students produce list of key differences and then ‘teach’ these differences to their partners.

  • Betts R. Decolonisation. Routledge (1998) 0-415-15236-4

  • Birmingham D. The Decolonisation of Africa. UCL Press (1995) 1-85728-540-9

  • Blake R. The Decline of Power 1915-64. Paladin (1986) 0-586-08161-5

  • McIntyre W. D. British Decolonisation 1946-1997. Macmillan (1998) 0-333-64438-7

  • Porter Cps 7-10

  • OH5 38

  • OH3 28,24,25,26,27

  • Decolonisation - Nicholas White

  • The End of the British Empire - John Darwin

  • This is a major section and a range of interpretations need to be considered. They are all dealt with in several books written for A students e.g. Decolonisation by Nicholas White and The End of the British Empire by John Darwin

  • Individual histories – Australia and New Zealand are easy to get hold of.






GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

CULTURAL FACTORS OF IMPERIALISM. HOW THE EMPIRE WAS REPRESENTED AND EXPERIENCED. GENDER AS A FACTOR IN EMPIRE

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches

  • How was the empire represented?

  • How was the empire experienced?

  • What was the role of gender?

Issues

  • The impact of empire

  • How significant was the role of women?

  • Factors concerning the loss of empire

Content

  1. India

  2. South Africa

  3. East Africa




  • Students should be reminded of the focal points of this type of study - why these approaches were adopted, when they were adopted and by whom they were adopted. Students need to be aware of the context within which historians were/are working.

  • India will serve as an interesting and accessible Case Study - focusing on the following:

  • The role of women – especially on the nature and impact of UK rule and settlement.

  • How British rule was represented

  • How Brinish rule was experienced by the colonised

Group work may be arranged to cover the following themes. Students may work in pairs to construct mini-web sites (max five hyperlinked pages) that outline the key themes through study of the following areas:

  1. South Africa-and include the Rhodesia’s in this

  2. East Africa- with a focus on Kenya

Teachers may wish to encourage deeper reading and understanding of this topic by developing the following activities:

  • What was the nature of British rule- benign? Intolerant? Exploitative? Ensure there is a clear ‘local’ perspective on discussions.

  • Teachers may wish to choose different countries/parts of the British Empire and ask students to work in pairs constructing A3 charts that will show British rule in these areas in both positive and negative lights.

  • Ferguson Chp 6

  • Porter 8, 9

  • OH 5 17

  • OH 3 29

  • Lloyd T. O. The British Empire 1558-1995. Oxford UP, 2nd ed. (1996) 0-19-873113-7

  • Marshall P. J. (ed.) The British Empire. (The Cambridge Illustrated History). Cambridge UP (2001) 0-521-00254-0




  • Teachers may wish to encourage deeper understanding by offering wider reading and discussion around the following question:

  • ‘How was the empire both experienced and represented?’ (Read Ferguson p 313-7)








GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

APPROACHES THAT FOCUS ON THE IMPACT OF THE EMPIRE ON THE UK

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches

The impact of the Empire on the UK



Issues

  1. What was the impact of the Empire in colonised countries?

  2. What was the impact of the empire on the UK?

  3. The relative importance of the different factors contributing to the loss of empire

Content

  1. Canada

  2. North Africa

  3. India




Two key areas to ensure full grasp of – the first is the impact of the empire on the UK, economically, socially and politically and the second is the varying reasons given for the loss of Empire.

Case Study ONE - Canada

  • Impact on the UK – students produce A3 charts showing the political, social and economic benefits to the UK from having Canada as part of the Empire.

  • Impact of UK rule on Canada – students produce A3 charts showing the political, social and economic consequences – for Canada, of being part of the British Empire.

  • Why independence-dominion status etc – students produce their own notes listing the key reasons for Canada’s status in the empire. Students should also note how / why historians have explained this issue.

Case Studies TWO

  • Egypt

  • The Sudan

  • India, Pakistan and Ceylon

  • Students work in pairs/small groups to research and produce presentations on one of the countries listed above. In each case, presentations should focus on historical approaches that seek to illustrate the impact of empire on the UK.

  • Teachers may wish to develop this theme by encouraging discussion around the question:

  • How fundamental was the fact that the UK was a major imperial power to the UK in the 19th and 20th C?

  • With a focus on the ‘big picture’ with the examples of Egypt, the Sudan, India and Canada-assess the impact of UK colonisation in those regions.

  • Groups/pairs to analyse differing reasons for independence of the countries in the specified content for this unit

  • Aldred J. British Imperial & Foreign Policy 1846-1980. Heinemann Advanced History (2004) 0-435-32753-4

  • Marshall P. J. (ed.) The British Empire. (The Cambridge Illustrated History). Cambridge UP (2001) 0-521-00254-0

  • Goodlad G. British Foreign & Imperial Policy 1865-1919. Routledge (1999) 0-415-20338-4

  • Lowe J. Britain & Foreign Affairs 1815-1885. Routledge (1998) 0-415-13617-2

  • McCain Cp 8

  • Ferguson esp. Cp 6

  • Porter 8-9 {excellent]

  • OH5 16,19

  • OH4 8,10,14,20,25






GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

OVERVIEW. THE DIFFERING APPROACHES TO BRITISH IMPERIALISM IN THE 19TH C AND THEIR STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES.

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

A review of the evidence the past

  • Students are to understand the different types of evidence available for the study of imperialism.

  • Students are to understand the contributions of the different interpretations to our understanding of British imperialism and its impact.

Students are to understand the strengths and weaknesses of those interpretations

Issues to focus on:



  • Impact of imperialism

  • The decline of empire

Approaches – Case Study

Students would benefit greatly from reading the concluding chapter in ‘Reappraisals in British Imperial History’ by Martin and Hyam (Macmillan, London 1975) and A G Hopkins ‘British Imperialism -A Review ‘’ available from the ‘Refresh’ site of the Economic History Society - free on the internet.



  • Students could then work in pairs to produce detailed ‘reviews’ of the approaches in the Chapter. Particular attention should be paid to:

  • The current state of historiography on British imperialism

  • Ensure notes on all key ‘historiographers’ is up to date

Teacher may then wish to arrange tutorials of small groups of students (4/5). Students should prepare discussion papers around the following question:

  • How fundamentally has the historiography of British imperialism changed between Seeley and McCain?

  • Other theories such as :

  • A Brewer - ‘Marxist Theories of Imperialism’ London 1980

  • WR Louis ‘Imperialism; The Robinson and Gallagher controversy’

  • OH5 38-41 are excellent.

  • The following discussion point would be a considerable stretch and challenge opportunity:

  • To what extent is the evidence available now likely to lead to further shifts in the historiographical debate?




Assessment/Skills

  • Teachers should continue to engage students in structured development of the required examination skills.




    • Course booklet

    • Student notes

    • OCR SAM scripts.

    • OCR Examiner Reports and Mark Schemes.

    • Exemplar examination papers.




GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE DIFFERING APPROACHES

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches

Review the



  • the view of society evident in specific historians

  • the way in which the specified historians are influenced by climates in which they worked

  • merits and demerits of the various approaches

Historians

  • Seeley

  • Hobson

  • Lenin

  • Gallagher and Robison

  • Fieldhouse

  • Porter

  • McCain

  • Cannadine




  • Revision sessions should concentrate on:

  • Ensure exemplar material from specified counties is clearly understood

  • Ensure grasp of theory/historiography is present in all students’ understanding

  • Ensure required techniques are present and that students are not overemphasising content but using it as illustrative material

  • Activities

  • Students produce A3 charts showing evidence of historians influenced by the societies in which they worked. Teachers may wish to consolidate the activity by producing a Powerpoint summary.

  • Students are provided with a sample of approaches and interpretations that reveal aspects of the way social/political/economic climates influenced the ways in which historians worked. Teachers could encourage students to begin to link the approaches to specific examples from the Empire. Higher levels of understanding should be encouraged by requiring students to EXPLAIN the reasons behind the development of these particular approaches.

  • Students could be asked to produce revision wall displays that map out the advantages and disadvantages of the various approaches. Students could ‘visit’ each others wall displays and check their learning and understanding.

  • Students could be asked to work in pairs on one or more of the historians listed (see left). For each historian they should note/list the particular approach, major works and any controversies that surround that historian. Teachers may wish to develop this activity by encouraging students to group and categorise the historians. The results of both activities could be collated and produced as a revision booklet.

  • OH 5 38-41

  • Hyam

  • McCain Intro and Cps 1-2

  • John Tosh ‘The Pursuit of History’

  • John Arnold ‘History, A Very Short Introduction’

  • Richard Evan ‘In Defence of History’








Sample Lesson Plan

GCE History B: H505. F985. Interpretations of British imperialism


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