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GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

Interpretations of Decolonisation

Case study – nationalist and marginalised approaches



Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Content Focus

Approaches

  • Interpretations offered by nationalist histories and the marginalised communities.

  • The reasons suggested for independence from colonial rule.

Issues to focus on

    • The loss of empire and the differing factors leading to independence

    • The impact on the UK of independence and loss of empire




  • Students are encouraged to look back at their basic definitions and to revisit the notion of decolonisation, both as an event and as the basis of a historical approach to the history of British imperialism in the later stages of the period 1850-1950.

  • The theme could be developed by requiring students to focus on one small aspect/example of decolonisation (see left) as a case study of how the end of empire has been interpreted from the local and nationalist viewpoints. This could be a major activity worth developing as a flexible learning unit that would engage students in detailed research and would assess learning in small group seminars and then a more formal written assessment. If it is decided that different pairs/groups will focus on different areas/aspects then perhaps small presentations could also be built into the assessment process. Areas of research could include:

  • How/why historians of this approach have asked very different questions about empire and imperialism when compared with the more traditional historians.

    • The extent to which nationalist/marginalised history and approaches have been examples of ‘history from below’.

    • The significance of the different types of evidence used by nationalist and marginalised historians of decolonisation.

    • The main differences between interpretations of imperialism put forward by the imperialists and those representing the local viewpoint.

  • Ferguson Cp 6

  • Porter Cp 8

  • OH 5 34,35




  • Teachers (and students) will be rewarded by tracking down the 1987 film ‘Kitchen Toto’ (Hook) which is based around the Mau Mau revolt in Kenya.

      • The following questions may be useful either as a basic starting point for those students who require a stronger narrative framework on which to hang their analysis or equally by the more able/interested student who simply wishes to expand his/her knowledge of the theme:

  • How and why was independence in East and West Africa?

      • How was it viewed in the UK and how in Countries like Ghana and Kenya?

      • How and why was independence attained in Burma, Malaya and Singapore? Were there different reasons for each country?

      • Was independence in the Far East viewed in a different light in the UK from independence in W and E Africa?

  • Further areas for discussion might include:

  • What were the primary reasons for decolonisation?

  • Did they differ from area to area?

  • What important factors in the UK led to the attainment of independence in the colonies?




Skillls

  • Teachers should continue to engage students in structured development of the required examination skills.

  • A question worth considering at this stage might be:

  • How far do different approaches towards decolonisation make disagreements and different interpretations inevitable?

    • Course booklet

    • Student notes

    • OCR SAM scripts.

    • OCR Examiner Reports and Mark Schemes.

  • Exemplar examination papers.






GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

IMPERIALISM -THE TRADITIONAL INTERPRETATION

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approach - The traditional interpretation with the focus on political, economic and physical domination and exploitation

Key areas of focus

1. India

2. Australia and New Zealand

Key Issues

1. Continuity of imperial acquisition

2. Economics of acquisition

3 A new’ imperialism?

4. Role of women

5. Impact of colonies on the UK




  • Teacher facilitates a re-cap discussion on this approach (already introduced in earlier section of the scheme).

  • Students produce spider-diagrams or mind maps that summarise the main historians who held these particular views, why they held these views, did their approach fit in with approaches to other races at the time etc.

  • Students may now be required to work in pairs to examine a particular aspect of the imperial history of India based around four key themes. These themes are:

  • To what extent does policy towards India show a continuity of imperial thinking?

  • To what extent was British policy in India based mainly on sheer economic exploitation?

  • To what extent was there a distinct ‘women’s role’ in the development of empire in India?

  • What was the impact of the British on India? (this may be split into social, economic and political themes)

  • The feedback/assessment of learning for this particular task could involve pair peer review that included two pairs of students providing each other with critical feedback prior to what would now be small group making a brief presentation to the rest of the class.

  • Teachers may wish to produce a summary PowerPoint that would bring together the key themes of the topic.

  • Teachers should now begin the consolidation of this topic by engaging students with the query as to how valid the ‘exploitation interpretation’ actually is. Students should be encouraged to discover why the approach was adopted in the first place. The references in the next column will be useful for this activity.

  • Smith Cp 3

  • Ferguson Cp 5

  • Porter Cp 5

  • OH3 6, 7, 9.

  • OH5 16

  • A Burton ‘Politics and Empire’ (Palgrave. New York 2001) has a good range of sources especially on the role of women.

  • Smith Cp 3

  • Ferguson Cp 5

  • Porter Cp 5

  • OH3 6, 7, 9.

  • OH5 16

  • A Burton ‘Politics and Empire’ (Palgrave. New York 2001) has a good range of sources especially on the role of women.




  • A similar exercise to that reproduced in the left-hand column could be offered as an extension activity. Here, the focus could be either Australia or New Zealand or both. More able students could be encouraged to consider a comparison between traditional historical approaches to the white and non-white parts of the empire.



  • Teachers may wish to encourage students to read more widely around this topic by engaging with the issue of the role of women in 19th century British imperial history in more depth. A provocative approach may be to ask students to challenge and provide evidence to refute the claim that there ever was a significant female role in imperial history.



GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

APPROACHES WHCH IDENTIFY PERIODS OF ANTI IMPERIALISM AND NEW IMPERIALISM

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches - Anti and ‘new’ imperialism

Content


South, North and East Africa

  • Teachers may choose to facilitate a recap session where students revisit earlier notes to remind themselves of the basic details of this particular approach.

  • Teachers may wish to now explain why these approaches were adopted, when they were adopted and by whom they were adopted. Students need to be aware of the context within which historians were working. This may be achieved by asking students to work in pairs to produce wall displays that use South Africa as a case study of this particular approach. Wall displays should include -

  • Evidence of continuity?

  • Evidence of anti imperialism?

  • Evidence of ‘new’ imperialism?

  • Economic factors at work?

  • Importance of London?

  • Importance of issues/individuals e.g. Rhodes and Kruger?

  • Alternatively, in larger groups, the displays may take one of the above aspects that students then link together as a continuous wall display.

  • Development and consolidation may include peer teaching of the separate sections. Teachers may also wish to produce a Powerpoint or single-side A4 summary sheet that brings together the key aspects of this topic.

  • Porter Cps 1-3

  • Smith Cp 2

  • OH5 22, 32, 33.

  • OH3 2,3,26




  • Some students may wish to take the issue further by applying a similar investigation to North and East Africa.

  • Ensure individuals like Livingstone are covered as well as the ‘German threat’ issue.

  • Students need to be reminded that they are investigating they were adopted and by whom they were adopted rather than attempting to make judgement as to whether the interpretations are ‘right’ or not.




Skills

  • Teachers may wish to continue to encourage students to develop their exam skills at this stage of the course. The following question may be successfully adapted to the content - ‘Some historians have focused on the importance of purely local factors in their interpretations of imperialism in the 19th Century. Explain how this has contributed to our understanding of imperialism. Has this approach any disadvantages or shortcomings?’

  • Teachers could approach this task by perhaps supplying students with a model version of an answer to this questions and getting students to work in pairs marking the response by using the mark scheme. This will allow students to develop a much greater sense of what the examiners are looking for in a high band response to this particular type of question.

    • Course booklet

    • Student notes

    • OCR SAM scripts.

    • OCR Examiner Reports and Mark Schemes.

    • Exemplar examination papers.






GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

THE INTERPRETATION OFFERED BY HOBSON AND LENIN AND THE IMPORTANCE OF ECONOMIC FORCES

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches

Economic thesis with specific reference to the ideas of Hobson and Lenin. This section allows students to further develop skills already introduced in an earlier section.

Issues

Why these approaches were adopted, when they were adopted and by whom they were adopted. Students need to be aware of the context within which historians were working.



Content

1. East and West Africa



2. Burma, Malaya and Singapore

  • Teacher introduces the topic by outlining the key learning aims and objectives.

  • Students should then be encouraged to produce brief presentations that use evidence based on the Lenin/Hobson thesis to explain the approach with reference to -

  • Burma, Malaya and Singapore

  • East and West Africa

  • It should now be possible to engage students in discussions on the strengths and weaknesses of Hobson/Lenin thesis. What has it contributed to understanding of the main causes of imperialism? What can be aid of the context in which the approach was developed? What current issues (early 21st century) might students wish to argue show similar parallels with the application of the theory in the 19th century?




  • Lenin

  • Hobson

  • Both can be obtained on: www.britishempire.co.uk

  • David Cannadine ‘Ornamentalism’ Esp. cp 3

  • McCain Cp 1 and introduction

  • OH5 25, 26, 31.

  • OH3 2,3,16







Skills

  • Teachers may wish to continue to encourage students to develop their exam skills at this stage of the course. The following question may be successfully adapted to the content - Straight extract from Lenin followed by question What can you learn from this extract about the interpretations, approaches and methods of this historian? Refer to the extract and your own knowledge to support your answer.

    • Course booklet

    • Student notes

    • OCR SAM scripts.

    • OCR Examiner Reports and Mark Schemes.

  • Exemplar examination papers.






GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

THE METROPOLITAN,STRATEGIC AND ‘GENTLEMANLY CAPITALISM’ INTERPRETATIONS

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches

1. The ‘Metropolitan’

2. The Strategic/national security

3. The ‘Gentlemanly capitalism’

Issues


  1. Central v local arguments

  2. Importance of local people/officials

Content

One area of focus may be developed from the following areas:

1. Canada

2. North Africa

3. West Indies

4. East Africa



  • Students work in pairs or small groups to produce a mini documentary on one of the key approaches as they apply to ONE of the following -

  • The documentaries should last for no more than 15 minutes and should not be simply students as ‘talking heads’. Images, maps, diagrams and even music should be encouraged in order to make the documentaries more memorable. Digital video recorders or web-cams should be used to record the documentaries. Students need to organise themselves in terms of team roles – director, camera person etc. All students in the group should contribute to research and writing.




  • Porter Cp 3

  • Smith Cp 5

  • McCain 1-3

  • OH5 7,8,29

  • OH3 6,13,15, 23,28

  • Goodlad G. British Foreign & Imperial Policy 1865-1919. Routledge (1999) 0-415-20338-4

  • Extract from ‘Empire? What Empire? [www.anu.edu.au/NEL]









GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism

Suggested teaching time

5 hours

Topic

INTERPRETATIONS STRESSING CONTINUITY OF EMPIRE AND THE IDEA OF THE INFORMAL EMPIRE

Topic outline

Suggested teaching and homework activities

Suggested resources

Points to note

Approaches

  1. Those which stress continuity of imperial thinking.

  2. The idea of the ‘informal’ empire.

Issues

1. Continuity v ‘new’ v ‘anti’ imperialism

2. The local impact of colonisation

3. The importance of the indigenous population to the decision making process

Content

Some or all of the following areas may be developed -



1. South America

2. India


3. The West Indies

  • Students work in pairs to produce ‘micro’ web sites on one of the following approaches/interpretations. These websites may then be posted on college/school intranets so that all students in the class may access all the information. The micro webs should include links to other sites containing useful information. Teachers may wish to oversee the research and production to ensure that students are focussing on why these approaches were adopted, when they were adopted and by whom they were adopted. Students need to be aware of the context within which historians were working.

  1. The continuity idea

  2. The informal empire idea

  3. India and West Indies for ‘continuity’ evidence

  4. South America for ‘informal’ idea



  • Teachers may wish to consolidate this activity by supplying student with blank A3 tables into which they can summarise the key points raised above.

  • McCain Cp 9

  • Porter Cp 2 and index

  • Ferguson Cp 4 ( India)

  • OH 5 3,11,12,13,25,27

  • OH3 2,18,19,21

  • Goodlad G. British Foreign & Imperial Policy 1865-1919. Routledge (1999) 0-415-20338-4

  • Lowe J. Britain & Foreign Affairs 1815-1885. Routledge (1998) 0-415-13617-2




  • Some students may wish to develop their knowledge and skills in more depth and detail by examining in more detail:

  • continuity concept using West Indies and India as exemplars

  • informal empire concept using South America as exemplar




Skills

  • Teacher leads re-cap and re-familiarisation session on the mark scheme for these particular types of question.

  • Students develop the ‘continuity’ idea using information on India and the West Indies. Work on a model answer using sample MS so they have a clear idea what is needed for full marks

  • P 312 of McCain may be adapted to suit an ‘A’ type question.

    • Course booklet

    • Student notes

    • OCR SAM scripts.

    • OCR Examiner Reports and Mark Schemes.

  • Exemplar examination papers.



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