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2. “BUT EVERY ONE SAID ----- 176.

3. DON’T QUIT - 182.

4. OBERLIN, OHIO - 186.


6. THE BEGGAR - 198.





Pre-Reading questions:
What is the difference between wild and domestic animals?

Is it possible to tame wild animals? Yes, with some love, care and concern it is possible. At times you might have been cruel towards animals.

Read this lesson and find out what change it brings about in your attitude towards animals.
Two thousand years ago, there lived in Rome a slave called Androcles. He was a small, timid man. He was very much afraid of his cruel master who used 10 whip his slaves even for the smallest faults. Androcles was very unhappy working for such a master. Therefore, one day, when he was travelling with his master in Africa, he ran away.
Androcles ran into the thick forest where he knew nobody would follow him. Barefoot and wearing only a short dress, which slaves in Rome always wore, and with nothing to

defend himself. Androcles ran, and ran, and ran. At last, when it was growing quite dark, he reached a cave. There, he fell to the ground exhausted and was soon fast asleep. As dawn was beginning to break. Androcles woke up to hear a terrifying roar

which echoed throughout the cave, making it shake as if there were an earthquake. Androcles nearly died of fright when he

saw a gigantic lion standing in the opening of the cave, roaring loudly.

The lion went on roaring. Androcles expected to be eaten up by the lion. Then he noticed that the lion’s front paw was bleeding. He realized that the lion was in pain. Very slowly and gently he moved towards the lion. He saw that a big wooden

splinter was stuck in the tender, fleshy part of the lion’s paw,


causing the animal great pain. Androcles began to talk to the lion very softly, as one would to a child in pain. He gently lifted the wounded paw, and very carefully pulled the splinter out. The lion seemed to understand that Androcles was helping him. When the splinter had come out, he gratefully licked Androcles’

face with his big, rough, wet tongue.
Androcles and the lion soon became friends. They lived together, sharing everything like brothers. While the lion went hunting, Androcles went fishing and picking berries from the hushes. Every evening they shared their meal. The years passed by happily.
One day, when Androcles was alone near the cave, a party of Roman soldiers, who were looking for runaway slaves, caught him and took him away with them. In those days runaway slaves, when caught were thrown to wild beasts in the stadium. The excited Roman crowd, who liked cruel things, would sit all round the stadium and watch the fun.
Androcles was chained up in a prison cell until the day when he was to be thrown to the lions. At last the day came. Androcles was driven into the stadium through one gate, and a fierce, hungry lion charged through the other gate. Androcles

shut his eyes and knelt down to await his death. Imagine the astonishment of the crowd, when the lion instead of rushing up to him and tearing him to pieces, licked him all over and jumped about like a pet dog. It was Androcles’ own lion delighted to find his dear friend again.

On seeing this unusual happening, the crowd thought that Androcles must be a magician and they demanded that he be set free. The emperor agreed to the crowd’s request and set him free. Androcles requested that the lion be set free too. The

emperor agreed. Androcles and his friend went back to the forests and lived happily ever after.


timid - shy, not brave

whip - a long thin piece of rope or leather, attached to a handle

exhausted - tired

gigantic - huge

splinter - a thin, sharp piece of wood

tender - soft

stadium - a large sports ground surrounded by rows of seats

astonishment - a feeling of great surprise

I. Choose the best answer.

1. Androcles was a ......................... man. a) brave b) *timid c) strong

2. A big ...................... splinter was stuck in the lion’s paw. a) metal b) glass c) *wooden

3. Androcles and the lion soon became.............................. a) *friends b) enemies c) neighbours

4. The crowd thought Androcles must be a ............................ a) clown b) ring-master c) *magician

II Answer these questions briefly.

1. Who was Androcles? What kind of person was he?

2. Where did Androcles fall asleep? What did he see when he

woke up?

3. Why was the lion roaring? How did Androcles help the lion?

4. What happened when Androcles was driven into the stadium?

5. How was Androcles set free?
III. In the following sentences, one word has only consonants.

Fill in the missing vowels.

1. Androcles heard a terrifying roar which - ch- - d throughout the cave. A: echoed.

2. He gently lifted the w - - nd-d paw. A: wounded.

3. Imagine the - st -n - shm - nt of the crowd. A: astonishment.

4. On seeing this - n - s - -l happening ................... A: unusual.

IV. The lion roars. Do you know the cries of other animals?

The monkey gibbers (Chatters).

The donkey brays.

The cow lows.

The sheep bleats.

The dog barks.

The frog croaks.

The cat mews.

The elephant trumpets.

The pig grunts.

The horse neighs.

The hyena laughs.

The wolf howls.

The tiger growls.

The rat screeches.

The squirrel screams.

The snake hisses.
Pick out the wild animals from this list.

V. The lion lives in a den. Where do some of the other animals live?

dog - kennel

beaver - lodge

pig - sty

hen - coop

sheep - pen

horse - stable

frog - pond
VI. Here are some adjectives derived from animals.

lion - leonine

cow - bovine

dog - canine

elephant - elephantine

tiger - tigrine

cat - feline

zebra - zebrine

sheep - ovine
VII. Young ones of animals.

cattle, elephant,

whale - calf

hen - chick

horse - colt

bear, fox, lion, tiger, wolf -cub

duck -duckling

eagle - eaglet

deer - fawn

cat - kitten

pig - piglet

dog - puppy

frog - tadpole

sheep - lamb

VIII. Activity

SPCA - Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals is an organization which aims at creating a conductive atmosphere for animals to live in. Pay a visit to the organization and find out the activities of this organization.



Pre-reading questions.

What ‘They say.. ‘or ‘What will people say?’ has been used to stop us from what we want to do. Identify the people who said something negative and the people who proved them wrong.

“Wilma will never walk. I’m so sorry Mrs, Rudolph, she shall always be a cripple. She cannot support herself without the brace. But she’s lucky to be alive”, said the doctor.
“Wilma will never walk? She can’t walk or will not walk?” asked the mother.

“What difference does it make? She cannot and therefore will not walk”, replied the doctor wearily.

“Oh there’s a world of difference. You see my Wilma will walk. So thanks and good-bye!” hustled out Mrs. Rudolph to the backwoods of Tennessee where she lived.
Mrs, Rudolph was very poor moneywise but she was rich in faith, courage and grit. Wilma was the 20th of 22 children of Mrs. Rudolph. Wilma was born prematurely and looked very thin and frail. To make matters worse, when she was four she had double pneumonia and scarlet fever - a deadly combination that left her with a paralyzed and useless left leg. Her legs could not support her body and she had to wear an iron leg brace.
Wilma was poor and sickly but she was lucky to have a wonderful mother. Mrs. Rudolph knew that her daughter was efficient and the word ‘impossible’ was not in her dictionary.

she knew. Wilma was very bright and did not indulge in self-pity. She had great perseverance. So she said to Wilma, “Look here my child, believe me, if you want to walk, then you shall. All you need is an indomitable sprit, courage, persistence and hard work. It won’t be easy but I promise you, together we shall make the impossible possible”. She encouraged Wilma to exercise her weak leg to make it strong. Wilma massaged her leg daily and could feel it gaining strength.

When she was nine, Wilma removed the brace and took the first wobbly step, all by herself. The first few steps were extremely painful and her walk was funny, but Wilma never let that worry her. Within four years she developed a rhythmic

stride, which was a medical miracle.

Wilma felt her leg become sturdy. Suddenly she had an inspiration. She wanted to be a runner. Everyone who knew her was astounded. Even her walking did not look normal. To run a race-! Well, they did not want to dampen her spirit but ………… Wilma entered her first race when she was thirteen. Every one was amazed to see her on the track. Some were scornful, some envious of her spirit and a few admired her grit. Wilma ran the

race but she came last- far behind the other competitors. But this defeat did not discourage Wilma. She entered every race and came last but one day she came last but one. This was her turning point. From then on Wilma won every race that she ran.

Wilma went to Tennessee state university. There she met a coach called Ed Temple. The coach understood Wilma’s indomitable spirit, her incredible determination and her natural aptitude. He trained her so well that she was selected to compete in the 1960 Olympics Games in Rome.
In the 100-metre dash, the hot favourite was Jutta from Germany. Nobody had ever beaten Jutta. But to everyone’s

great surprise the unknown Wilma won the race. She went on to win the 200-metre dash too.

The 400-metre relay race was Wilma’s final event. Jutta was determined to win at least the relay race. The first two runners in Wilma’s team made perfect hand-offs with the baton and kept good time too. But the third athlete in Wilma’s team was so excited that she dropped the baton instead of handing it to Wilma. While picking it up Wilma saw Jutta race like the wind. Everyone waited with bated breath. Many were sure that

this time Wilma could not outrun Jutta but to their great surprise Wilma did just that. There was a standing ovation when Wilma sprinted ahead of Jutta.

Wilma made history that day for she set a new record as

the first woman ever to win three gold medals in the same Olympic games. But everyone had said she would never walk again!


cripple -someone unable to use their legs - disabled

brace -a metallic support

hustle -move quickly

prematurely -happening before proper time

paralyzed -unable to move part or a side of the body

perseverance -constant effort to achieve something

indomitable -courage that cannot be defeated

wobbly -unsteady

stride -walk quickly

inspiration -a sudden good idea

grit -determination

incredible -unbelievable

aptitude -natural ability

ovation -applause

I. Comprehension:

A. Choose the best answer.

1. The doctor said Wilma would never walk because a. she was born without legs b. one of her legs became paralyzed c. she was stubborn and refused to walk d. *she had an iron brace in her leg

2. Wilma was able to walk later because a. she had great perseverance

b. she had an indomitable spirit c. she had faith and courage d. *all the above

3. “ Wilma did just that” means a. *she outran Jutta b. she disappointed everyone

c. she lost the race d. she surprised everyone

4. When faced with difficulties we should a. pay attention to the doubts of others b. *try to face them with courage and determination c. indulge ourselves in self - pity d. try to do something different
B. Give brief answers.

1. What did Wilma’s mother tell the doctor?

2. How was Wilma able to walk?

3. What inspiration did Wilma have?

4. How did people react when they saw Wilma at the track?

5. What qualities of Wilma made her an Olympic medallist?

6. What have you learnt from Wilma’s life?

II. Skill Development; Skimming Read quickly and find out the following.

1. When did Wilma have a turning point?

2. How did Wilma make history?

III. Vocabulary:

A. In the text you came across many words related to a running race. Match the words in column A with the most suitable words in column B


100 Metre Baton

Practice Dash Relay Race

Ovation Coach

Track Applause
B. You learnt many words, which describe the character of Wilma and her mother. Pick out the words from the text using the clues given.
a. per-------------ce b. pers-------------ence

c. co------------- d. adt------------

e. h----w----ing f. ind-------sp-----

g. g----t h. f-------h

(i) ‘Everyone waited with bated breath’. Here the words in bold letters form an idiom, which means, everyone was anxiously waiting even holding their breath.

(ii) Wilma made history that day ...’make history is an idiom which means ‘do something that is well remembered’.


(iii) Make a scrapbook with all the idioms you know and those you learn during this year.

IV. Writing:

Imagine that you are Wilma and that you are in the habit of keeping a scrapbook.

Write the important events in Wilma’s life as illustrated below from Mrs. Rudolph’s diary. (Of course there are no dates given but use your creative competencies!)

My 20th child born-a girl

Doctors say Wilma will baby

never walk Named her Wilma

Couldn’t accept it. Willing

Wilma very sick

to get her to walk

Scarlet fever and

Wilma took off her brace


Took the first step!. Oh! 1

am thrilled.

Decided to walk

1960 -----------------------

Removed my brace and

took my first step



Pre-reading questions.

1) Name some successful people you know.

2) Have they ever tasted defeat ?

3) What do you think is a mark of success?

The name Abraham Lincoln is synonymous with the abolition of slavery in America. He is known for his famous speeches. From a life filled with challenges and confrontations, here is an interesting anecdote.
During one of his election campaigns a little girl suggested that he grow a beard. She thought his face would look better if he sported a beard. It was after this that Lincoln started growing a beard, and that is how you see Lincoln in his pictures, today.
Lincoln was bom into poverty. He knew what it was to study without money to buy books. He suffered defeat many times but the remarkable thing about him was ‘he never quit’.
Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, was born on February 12, 1809 in a log cabin. He guided his country through the most devastating experience in its National History - the Civil War. He is considered by many historians to

have been the greatest American President. He was nicknamed ”Honest Abe’. The chief among his achievements are saving the Union and freeing the slaves. His martyrdom at the end of the war assured his continuing fame. No small contribution was made by his eloquence as seen in the Gettysburg Address, in which he defined the war as a rededication to the ideals of the Declaration of Independence. In his second inaugural address be urged “malice toward none” and “charity for all” in the peace to come.


Lincoln endorsed the 13th Amendment to the Constitution abolishing slavery.

His victory in the election agitated John Wilkes Booth who began to conspire first to abduct Lincoln and later to kill him. On April 14th 1865, when Lincoln attended a performance at Ford’s Theatre in Washington, Booth entered the presidential box and shot Lincoln. The next morning at 7.22 Lincoln died.
Here are some dates from his life, written in the form of a diary entry. This is what Lincoln writes about his life

The path was worn and slippery. My foot slipped from under me, knocking the other out of the way, but I recovered and said to myself. “It is a slip and not a fall”

Yes, true greatness does not lie in never falling, but in rising every time you fall!
Task : Make a short biographical note on Lincoln based

on the following diary entries.

1809 -Born in a log cabin

1816 -Family forced out of home. Had to work to support family

1818 -Mother died

1831 -Failed in business

1832 -Ran for state legislature -lost

1832 -Wanted to go to law school but couldn’t get in

1833 -Borrowed some money from a friend to begin a business. Became bankrupt. Spent 17 yrs paying off debt.

1834 -Ran for state legislature again -won

1835 -Engaged to be married. Sweetheart died. Heartbroken

1836 -Had a total nervous breakdown. Advised bed rest for 6 months.

1833 -Sought to become speaker of the state legislature defeated.

1840 -Sought to become elector - defeated.

1843 -Ran for Congress - lost

1846 -Ran for Congress again - this time won - went to Washington and did a good job

1848 -Ran for re-election to Congress - lost

1849 -Sought the job of land officer in home state rejected

1854 -Ran for Senate of United States - lost

1856 -Sought the Vice- Presidential nomination at party’s national convention - got less than 100 votes

1858 -Ran for U.S Senate again - again he lost

1860 -Elected President of the United States.

1865 -Assassinated by Booth

abolish - put an end to a practice

anecdote - a short story about a real person

remarkable - unusual

quit - stop doing something

legislature - a body of people with the power to make or change laws

Congress - (here i.e in the USA) a governing body that makes laws

Senate - the upper house of a law-making body

nomination - the formal proposal to choose someone for position

convention - (here) a conference of a political party


I. Comprehension :

A. Say whether True (T) or false (F).

1. Abraham Lincoln was an American Hero. (T)

2. Lincoln had one success after another. (F)

3. Lincoln was a very good President. (T)

B. Give brief answers.

1. What was the remarkable thing Lincoln did as President of the USA?

2. How many times did he lose elections?

3. What does he say about his life?

4. How did be encourage himself?

5. What do you learn from his life?

II. Vocabulary:

In this lesson you come across many words related to the world of politics. Fill in the blanks and find the words.

l.r - -2. l e - - s- - t - - 3. c - - - r - -

4. d - f - - - 5. l - - - 6. r e - - - - -

7. s - - a - - -8. n - - - n- - - -
III. Writing Competency :

Imagine you are Lincoln. Send a telegram to Lincoln’s friend informing him of the following situations.

1818-Mother died.

1836-Nervous breakdown. Advised bed rest.

1860-Won the presidential elections’.



Dear God,

This is Sathyan. I have just returned from visiting my homeland India. My parents took me there for my 12th birthday. They also got me a laptop for my personal use. If you notice, unlike my earlier letters to you, I processed this in my laptop. Sometimes it is very difficult for me to write, you know. I suffer from what is called dysgraphia. I also, have according to my school psychiatrist - ADD- Attention Deficit Disorder, which is usually accompanied by learning disabilities.
I can speak well but I can never hold a pen or a pencil the right way. So I neither write well, nor draw or paint. The letters would come out sloppy and smudgy, the lines never straight, the whole paper blotched and dirty. None of my classmates want to exchange papers with me in pair work because they cannot read them. Paneer was the only one who was willing to pair with me because she was basically nice and was also a fellow Indian among classmates from many countries. But her parents moved away to another part of America and I have no one else to pair with me.
You see, my brain docs not sense what my hand is doing. Only if I grip my pencil very tight, my brain would know that I have it in my hand. This tires my fingers and they get cramped soon.
It is easier for me to speak than to write, but my teachers often want written answers. If I am asked to speak about my trips to Delhi, I am sure I can keep my class spellbound with a description of Taj Mahal, The Red Fort or The Rashtrapathi Bhavan.

I can tell everyone about the sense of awe I felt on seeing the statue of Dr. Ambedkar who was one of the architects of Indian Constitution. I can say how proud I felt about my Indian roots. I can make a fine speech about the patriotic feelings that rushed through my veins when I stood at the grave of the Unknown soldier. But asking me to write about these is sheer punishment. I have pictures in my mind about the Taj and all the magnificent sites of India but my hands just don’t draw them the way I picture them. So I always get very poor marks in the arts class.

It’s okay. I am not complaining. I’m really doing quite well for, you see, you have given me a brilliant mind, a great sense of humor, a wonderful sister and understanding parents.

My teacher this year is the best. She allows me to do a lot of work on the laptop. So my grades are improving.

God, this is just a ‘thank you’ letter, to let you know I’m doing fine. It’s hard sometimes but with you and my family beside me I can face any challenge that life brings. I used to feel hurt when my classmates called me ‘funny’ or ‘strange’ but my parents, teachers and the psychiatrist call me ‘special’. My sister says I’m a ‘super’ brother. So thanks for making me. Thank you for the special people around me who love me unconditionally. Thank you for everything.

In your love and service,


to boot - in addition (idiom)

dysgraphia - impairment of writing ability

psychiatrist - a doctor who treats mental illness


sloppy - untidy

smudgy - dirty with ink stains

botched - badly done

cramp - sudden and painful tightening of the muscles

magnificent - splendid, remarkable

challenge - a difficult task that tests one’s ability


Read the second paragraph of Sathyan’s letter. Find out words, which connect parts of a sentence or sentences into a well knit whole.

Clue - pronouns, conjunctions such as ‘so’, ‘if’, ‘because’ and repetition of words, ideas etc.


A. Say whether the following sentences are True (T) ar False (f). Why do you say so?

1. Sathyan’s parents brought him to India on the eve of his 12th birthday. (T)

2. Sathyan has been consulting a doctor for his problem. (T)

3. He can write well but cannot speak well. (F)

4. Paneer liked to pair with Sathyan because she was a kind person. (T)

5. Sathyan is able to do better because of his computer. (T)

6. It is rude to call people by their deformities. (T)

7. Satbyan is a special child. (T)
B. Give brief answers.

a. Where does Sathyan live?

b. What are some of Sathyan’s problems?

c. Would you like to pair with Sathyan if you were with Sathyan?

d. Is Sathyan proud to be an Indian? How do you know?

e. Which famous Indian is mentioned in the text? What is he famous for?

f. List the people who have been supportive to Sathyan.

g. Do you like Sathyan? What do you like about him?


A. As people become more civilized they also become more courteous in their choice of words. For instance the word madhouse has changed from loony bin, lunatic asylum, mental hospital to institute of Mental Health Often people are referred to by their deformities which is very rude and hurting. Instead of calling someone lame or cripple, we call them physically challenged.

B. Match the following.

1. dyslexic, dysgraphic children a) visually challenged

2. the blind b) the hearing impaired

3. mentally retarded c) special children

4. the deaf d) slow learners

5. dull headed e) mentally challenged

Even here, you can note how language use has changed for the better. The deformed or disabled children are called handicapped or impaired, we may even call them differentially abled for they have different abilities.

The word dysgraphia is derived from the prefix dys meaning a disorder or a difficulty and the Greek word graphein, means to write. By learning what the prefix and the root mean


we can often guess the meaning of words. From this we can guess Sathyan had a disability in writing. Please look up such words in the Dictionary.

III. Writing:

Imagine Sathyan is your pen friend. Write a letter to him giving him your e-mail id, asking him to contact you.

IV. A psychiatrist is a doctor who treats mental illness. Here is a list of names of other specialists.

An anaesthetist is one who administers anaesthesia,

A cardiologist is one who treats heart diseases.

A dentist is one who takes care of the teeth.

A dermatologist is one who treats skin diseases.

A gynaecologist is one who treats ailments of women.

A neurologist is one who treats the nervous system.

An ophthalmologist is one who treats the eyes.

An orthopaedist is one who treats deformities of the body and bone.

A paediatrician is one who treats the diseases of children.


A radiologist is one who uses radiation for diagnosis.

A nephrologist is one who treats the kidneys.

A pathologist is one who treats diseases.



Pre-reading questions:
What do you do when your first attempt at something does not come right? Do you give up or try again?
Cronin was bored to tears with the routine of a family practitioner. Some came to him for illnesses due to over-eating while others came to him for sickness due to malnutrition and starvation. Some came to him For imaginary illnesses while many who were really sick did not come for want of money. Although he was efficient and sincere, he found no zest in his job. At 33 he was still not focused on his job. He was still wondering whether to specialize in neurology or cardiology or dermatology or surgery or medicine because he lacked perseverance. Worrying over his choice along with over-work, and an indifferent diet made him ill with a severe bout of gastric ulcer.
His doctor sent Cronin to six months complete rest in some rural area on a milk diet because he had a severe case of gastric ulcer. He went to a rain-drenched village in Scotland where all the company he had was long-horned cattle and a few kindly but down-to-earth farmers.
Nothing is more agonizing to an active man as inactivity. Debarred from all physical activities, he found time hanging heavy in his hands. Suddenly he had an inspiration. He had always wanted to write a novel.
“By Heavens! This is my opportunity. Gastric ulcer or not I will write a novel”, he said to himself. Before he could change his mind, he went and bought two dozen notebooks and some pencils, for, you see, this was before the age to computers and

most aspiring authors wrote with pencils in notebooks. But the next morning when he opened his notebook he realized that he had never composed a beautiful phrase in all his life, except of course his prescription to patients and you know how the illegible prescriptions read. He looked out of the window. Three hours later the first page was still blank. He recollected the sharp advice of his old schoolmaster.” Get it down on paper! If it stops in your head it will always be nothing. Get it down!”

The next three months were very tiring. The difficulty of a simple sentence staggered him. He had to spend hours looking for an apt adjective. He had no knowledge of style or form. He corrected his writing many times until the page looked like a

spider’s web. Then he tore it up and started all over again.

Once he began, he could not stop. His characters took shape, spoke to him, laughed, wept and excited him. When he got an idea in the middle of the night he would get up and write it down. The first month he wrote texts of some 800 words. By the end of the second month, it was an easy flow of 2000 words. But he often threw his pen in despair. Once when he reread what he had written he felt his writing to be hopeless. He bundled up the manuscript, threw it in the bin and went for a walk in the drizzling rain.
On the way he met the farmer Angus, laboriously digging a patch of bogged plot. Angus was not a talkative person but somehow he liked Cronin.
“Hey Doc! How are you this morning?” he asked. “Oh, quite well, thank you”, Cronin replied. “But something seems to worry you and you know that’s not good for your tummy! Come on, tell Angus about it”.

Cronin then told him about his not being able to write. The farmer’s weathered face slowly changed and his eyes showed disappointment and even contempt. Angus said, “No doubt you knew what you were doing doctor. My father tried to dig and turn this bog all his days and never made a pasture. I cannot help but dig. For my father knew and 1 know that only if you dig enough, a pasture can be made in this bog. Doc, I am only a simple farmer but even I know that many writers have starting trouble”.

“Yes, 1 know it’s diagnosed as writer’s block. But I wonder whether I can be a writer - whether J can write at all!”
“There, you go again, worrying. Well we won’t know until we try! So go ahead and write.”
Cronin watched his dogged determination with resentment. He was resentful because he bad what Cronin did not have - a stubbornness to see the job through at all costs - an

unquenchable spirit to do even the simplest duties of life with great perseverance. He went back to his room, and rescued the bundle from the bin. Then he set to work again with frantic perseverance. “I shall not be beaten: I shall not give in”, he resolved. He wrote harder than ever and at last towards the end of the third month, he wrote “The End” and sent it to a publisher, and waited.

His health improved and he began to hate the idleness. When his holiday came to a close, he went around the village

saying good-bye to the simple folk who had become such staunch friends. As he entered the post office, the postmaster gave him a telegram, which had just come - an urgent invitation to meet the publisher.


The novel he had first thrown away into the bin later got a prize from the Book Society, was dramatized, serialized, translated into 19 languages and bought by Hollywood. It

altered his life beyond his wildest dreams and all because of a timely lesson - the grace of perseverance - from a village farmer.
I. Comprehension :

A. Choose the best answer.

1. Cronin was bored stiff because a) many of his patients were over-fed b) some had only imaginary sickness c) the routine of a family doctor was monotonous d) his patients were not exciting

2. Cronin had always wanted to be a) a neurologist b) a writer c) a surgeon d) a cardiologist

3. The farmer dug the bog to a) make the land cultivable b) build a house there c) construct a ditch d) while away his time

4. Cronin might not have become a famous writer if he had a) remained a family practitioner b) not visited a village in Scotland c) not written with great perseverance

B. Give brief answer.

1. Why could not Cronin decide what to do?

2. What was the advice of Cronin’s teacher?

3. Did Cronin try hard to become a writer? How do you know?


4. Did his writing skill improve by and by? How do you know?

5. What did Cronin do with his manuscript? Why?

6. What was Angus trying to do?

7. Why did Cronin resent Angus?

8. How had life changed?

9. What was the lesson he had learnt?
II. Vocabulary:

1. List out the words in the passage connected with a doctor.

Example: prescription, ulcer

2. The word reread means read again. So re-means again.

Give the meaning of redo replace

rewrite resell

rebuild recharge
3. ‘Over’ in ‘over-eating’ means ‘more than necessary’. Find out the meanings of

overdress, overdo, overcrowd, overload, overpopulated, over-sleep, overtake,

over-weight, overwork, overreact.
4. The following words are connected with the books. Use the clues and supply the missing letters.

1. What you must have to start writing a book?

i n s p-r-t-n(inspiration)

2. What you must have to continue writing?

p - rs - v - a- e (perseverance)

3. What writers do while writing?

s -1- -1 words

4. The handwritten first copy of a book

m - - us - - ip

5. Write a paragraph about your first attempt at cycling or cooking.



Pre-reading questions:
This is an extract adapted from Tagore’s ‘Gitanjali’. Find out who the narrator is. who is the addressing?
I went from door to door in the village begging for alms. Some gave food, others a handful of grain - rice or wheat or millet. for I was a ‘Sadhu’ who had taken a vow of poverty. Suddenly quite out of the blue appeared glorious golden

chariot with a radiant, gorgeous Being riding in it. The whole scene was so awe-inspiring that there was no doubt in my mind that it was the Almighty, the Creator of the universe.

My heart swelled with a feeling of bliss. I thought the days of my adject poverty were to be over. I was sure the Benevolent

Giver would grant me a boon, enriching me with the treasure of heaven. I waited, for I believed the Almighty woud give abundantly, unasked and unbidden. For the Omniscient and Omnipotent One knows what we need before we mouth our

request. I waited with bated breath for showers ofblessings to descend upon me.
I felt my hair rise - the aura of the Divine Being scintillated. I was feeling euphoric, for the chariot stopped right in front of me. I thought my years of devotionwas going to be richly rewarded. Utter bliss thrilled me when He smiled at me. stood spell bound.
He held out His hand suddenly and asked me, “What have you to give me?” My heart stilled. He asked again, “What have you got for me?” I was flabbergasted. I thought I was supposed to get, not give something. But He still held out His hand. The Creator begging something from a beggar? Thoroughly

confused 1 stood undecided for what could I give someone who has everything? What would be proper? In a daze, I plunged my hand intn the bottom of my bag and offered to him the smallest grain. He closed his fist over it and with an enigmatic smile he disappeared.

Still in a daze I walked back to the choultry and emptied my bag on the verandah. When the grains tumbled out rolled a grain - a golden grain! I gasped. One grain - almost the same size as what I gave him. How I wish I had given all that I had. My soul questioned, “Do you think the Creator, the Lord of the Harvest needs your pittance? He wants only one thing yourself.” “He wants me - first me- a worthless, selfish Sadhu with an outsized ego? Why, nobody would want me,” I replied. “Nevertheless He wants you, as you are - all of you - not withholding anything,” argued my soul. I submitted, “Divine Seeker take me! Take all of me my life, my love. Give me the strength to surrender myself to thy will with love.”

alms - food or money given to poor people

take a vow - make a solemn promise

radiant - very bright

gorgeous - extremely beautiful

awe-inspiring - making one feel great respect

abject poverty - being extremely poor

benevolent - kind or generous

boon - favour

abundantly -in large quantities

omniscient - knowing everything

omnipotent - powerful

aura - a distinctive atmosphere that surrounds someone

overwhelmed - having a strong emotional effect


euphoric - feeling very happy

bliss - perfect happiness

jest -joke

enigmatic - mysterious, difficult to understand

surrender - yield

Comprehension :

I. Choose the best answer.

1. The man went from door to door

a. to call people to worship.

b. to tell people about the chariot.

c. to give the blessings of God.

d. to collect alms for his livelihood.

2. The narrator thought it was the Almighty because a. his presence was awe-inspiring. b. he rode a golden chariot. c. he came out of the blue sky.

d. he was looking gorgeous.

3. The narrator believed God would grant him a boon because God a. is omnipotent b. is omniscient c. has untold riches d. is benevolent

II. Answer these questions briefly.

1. Who is a ‘Sadhu’?

2. What did the ‘Sadhu’ expect from God?

3. What qualities did he think God has?

4. Why was the ‘Sadhu’ confused?

5. What did the ‘Sadhu’ realize?

6. Did he finally give what God wanted from him?


I. The words ‘Sadhu’ ‘Chaultry’ are words that India has contributed to the English language. See how many other Indian English words you can identify using the clues given below.

1. G _ _ _ is a well respected teacher.

2. An _ _ _ t means a dam.

3. A _ _ _ a a posture in Yoga.

4. Z _ _ _ is the golden thread woven in the borders of most silk saris.

5. P_p__d is a favourite Indian side dish.

6. J _ _ _ n means a soldier.

7. B_ l_ _ d _ means a creche.

8. Ag_ _b_ _ _ i is an incense stick used in pooja.
II. Given below are same words which Indians use but which have not been accepted by the English. Discuss in groups and try to find out why we use them even if the English do

not favour them.

Co-brother, Co-sister, Cousin brother, Cousin sister
III. Game:

Get into your groups. When the teacher says ‘start’, begin to write down the English words you use instead of their Tamil equivalents. For example, instead of saying ‘Perundhu’ we say ‘bus’ or ‘chair’ instead of ‘Narkali’. When the teacher stops the game, the group which has written down the highest number is declared the winner.



Pre-reading questions.
Name some big Indian trees famous for sheltering many creatures. Same trees also serve as a meeting place in villages. List the other uses of big trees.
The Baobab tree, a native of Africa is one of the largest and oldest trees in the world. It can grow to a height of 30 metres. With enormous, bulbous trunk and stunted but widespread branches, which look like gnarled roots, the baobab tree looks very strange. Its branches are bare of leaves for nine months of the year. So it looks as if it has been uprooted and stuffed back upside down.
There are many interesting folktales about the origin of the baobab tree. One legend is that God Thora did not like the tree growing in his garden. So he plucked it out and tossed it over the paradise to earth where it landed upside down and continued to grow. Another story is that it was one of the first trees to grow along with the palm tree, the flame tree and the fig tree. But the baobab wanted to be tall as the palm, have bright flowers like the flame tree and bear tasty fruit like the fig tree. The gods got irritated at the baobab’s constant complaint. So they pulled it out and planted it upside down to keep it quiet.
Where the baobab grows, it rains only for three months followed by a very dry season. The tree collects all the rainwater its roots can reach and stores it in its pulpy fibre. During drought, animals and people extract the tree’s water to survive. The tree produces an edible vitamin rich gourd-like fruit called monkey bread, which is a favourite of baboons.

The baobab is a friendly, nurturing tree, which supports countless creatures from the largest of mammals to thousands of tiny insects in its many crevices. So the Africans hold the tree in high esteem. The trees can live up to 3000 years and the old trees are each given names. Each name begins with the word ’Mother’, for the tree like a mother, is a symbol of endurance, conservation, caring and creativity.


native - belonging to a place

enormous - huge

bulbous - round and fat like a bulb

gnarjed - twisted and rough

legend -a story from the ancient past

pulpy - fleshy

edible - suitable for eating

baboon - a type of monkey, with a large face

crevices - narrow openings

endurance -ability to tolerate a difficult situation for a long time

conservation - the care and management of the natural environment

I. Comprehension :

Choose the best answer.

1. The baobab tree looks very strange because a) it is very tall and wide b) it has a bulbous trunk c) it has stunted root-like branches d) *all the above

2. According to the legends the tree seems upside down because a) *God Thora threw it upside down b) it grew upside down after Thora threw it

c) the gods replanted it upside down to keep it quiet d) all the above

3. The baobab is called the mother tree because a) it provides water for people and animals during drought season b) it provides an edible fruit c) many animals find shelter in it d) *like a mother it creates, conserves and cares for everyone

II. Give brief answers.

1) What is strange about the baobab tree?

2) How does the tree help animals and people during rainless months?

3) What is monkey bread?

4) What are the stories connected with the tree?

5) Why do the Africans name the tree, ‘Mother’?

III. Vocabulary

1. List the words in the text that belong to the world of plants.

2. Pick out names of animals in the text.

3. Give the opposites of a) enormous × ...........................

b) bare × ...........................

c) oldest × ...........................

d) edible × ...........................

e) dry × ...........................

f) high × ...........................
IV. Writing competency

Find out something interesting about the oldest tree in your school or neighbourhood and write a paragraph on it.



Pre-reading questions:

1. From the title try to predict or guess what the following text is about.

2. Who does ‘her’ refer to - a bird or a person or a plane?
“What uttar nonsense Jane! None of the jobs you have listed are women’s jobs. Women flying planes! Absolutely impossible. Here, take your composition, be more practical!”. The teacher almost threw her notebook at Jane. She had given her fail marks and also written bad remarks. A tearful Jane hung her head in shame. She was in the third standard in a small village in Northern California in the US and the year was 1959.
Jane had been asked to write a composition on her ambition. She had always wanted to be a pilot like her father Mr. Harper. He was the only crop dusting pilot for the many villages around and was very much in demand. Jane had always admired him and wanted to help the crop grow. She had also loved to do parachute jumping, cloud seeding to get good rains, fire-fighting and air-lifting sick people. But her teacher thoroughly disapproved of all these jobs.
Jane showed her composition to her dad. Mr. Harper read the essay carefully and admired Jane’s imaginative yet powerful writing. He praised her but Jane silently pointed out her teacher’s remarks.

Mr. Harper said “Oh, don’t you know about Amelia Earhart? She is a woman and she flies. It a woman wants to, she can take up any job. Don’t you ever give up your dreams.


You can become a pilot if you try hard, if you train well and responsible. and are. Live up to your dreams”.

As Jane grew, whenever she shared her ambition for a career, she was laughed at, “Girls can’t become airline pilots.” So, as she began to grow up she forgot her ambition. In standard X her teacher Mrs.Slaton wanted the students to write about what they would be doing ten years from then. Jane thought at least she could be an airhostess but she was not pretty enough. Perhaps she could be a waitress and worte it down.
Two weeks later, the teacher returned the composition and asked the class this question. “Class, if you had unlimited money, unrestricted admission to the finest schools, unlimited talents and abilities, what would you choose to do? Write that below what you had already written. Alter they had finished she said “Those who have written the same answer, put up your hands,” Not a single hand went up. Mrs. Slaton looked around at the wistful expression on the faces of her students. She said, “Class, you do have unlimited potentials, you can raise unlimited money if you really tried. When you leave school this year, if you don’t work to achieve your goal, no one else will do it for you. Come on, what do you want your life to be like? Go for it.”

Mrs. Slaton was so sincere and enthusiastic that Jane’s buried ambition was rekindled. After class, Jane went up to Mrs. Slaton and shared with her, her dream. Mrs. Slaton listened to her and said, “You want to be a pilot? Fantastic! Just do it! Go ahead.”

Jane did just that, it was not easy at first. She took flying lessons, became a pilot in a private airline but always only as a co-pilot. Her employers were hesitant about promoting her

because she was a woman and overlooked her and promoted very junior or less-experienced men.

Jane did all that she had always wanted to do. She did crop dusting, parachute jumping, and seeding clouds.

In 1978, at last, she became one of the first three female pilot trainees ever accepted by United Airlines. Eventually she became the captain of Boeing 737 and enjoyed it. She could realize her dream because she worked hard “ My teacher Mrs. Slaton inspired me to pursue my dream. Yes, any woman can do all that I have done and more.” Kalpana Chawla and Ms. Williams are two Indian women astronauts. So never let your gender prevent you from pursuing your lofty dream.

I. Glossary :

absolutely - completely

crop dusting - spraying plants with pesticide from a plane to keep them healthy

cloud seeding - the technique or process of scattering substances such as silver iodide into clouds from an aircraft in order to precipitate rain

unrestricted - without any limits

potential - capability

II. Skill Development: Scanning

Read the first two pages of the text quickly. Spot the words / phrases and fill in the blanks.

1. Jane lived in a village in ------------------- --------------.

2. She wrote the composition in ---------------------standard.

3. Jane’s father was a ---------------- ------------------.

4. Jane’s father’s name was Mr. ----------------------.

5. --------------------------------was a woman who flew planes.

III. Comprehension:

A. Choose the best answer.

1. “Woman flying planes! Absolutely impossible....” said a. the airline trainer b. Jane’s X standard teacher c. Jane’s III standard teacher d. Jane’s grandfather.

2. Jane’s ambition was --------------------- a. crop dusting from a plane b. parachute jumping c. seeding clouds d. doing all the above

3. Jane could succeed only with great difficulty because------- a. she was not good enough as a pilot b. she was quite junior in the company c. her employers saw her only as a woman. d. she did not bribe the boss.

B. Read the following statements carefully and write A if you agree with them and DA if you disagree with them.

Example: A woman can be an astronaut. (A)

Only women can manage the house. (DA)
1. Women can fly air-planes. ( )

2. Men are not good at caring for their babies. ( )

3. Denying technical education to women is unfair. ( )

4. Denying education to anyone because of their gender or caste is a social crime. ( )

5. Men and women should work together to create a just society. ( )

C. Discuss your answers in your groups and say why you agree or disagree with the statements.


D. Answer the following questions briefly.

1. Why did Jane’s teacher fail her?

2. What jobs did Jane’ want to do?

3. Why did her teacher disapprove of these jobs?

4. Were there women pilots before Jane?

5. Why was Jane only a co-pilot?

6. Did Jane realize her dream finally? What enabled her to achieve her goal?

IV. Vocabulary:

A. Compound words can be formed in many ways. Read the second paragraph of the text and fill in the table given below.

Noun + Verb + ing Compound word

Parachute Jump Parachute





B. You can learn more compound words easily. Here are some words related to sports and games. These belong to the semantic group of sportys.

1. horse + r -- --(e) + ing Horse racing

2. --- + rid (e) + ing ----------------

3. W-- --d + S-- -- f + -- ----------------

4. b-- -- t + rac(e)+ -- ----------------

5. rock + cl-- -- -- + -- ----------------


C. Sometimes we use different word endings for men and women. Jane wanted to be a waitress: Her brother jight have wanted to be a waiter.

See how many you can fill in the following table.

Masculine Feminine





D. Some job words are the same for men and women. Usually these are formed by adding - er to the verb. See how many you can fill in.

1. One who painted is a Painter

2. One who trains other is a ---------------------

3. One who dances is a ---------------------

But waht about one who coaches? ---------------------

one who cooks? ---------------------

one who types? ---------------------
E. Now-a-days the need to distinguish between men and women workers seems unnecessary. In fact it is considered

more polite no to exclude women. It is courteous to use more gender friendly or gender inclusive or gender neutral words such as pilot, captain etc. Look at the examples and write gender inclusive worlds.

Example: Chairman ------------------> Chairperson

Mankind ------------------> humankind


Gender Exclusive Gender inclusive

Fireman FireF-- -- -- --er


F. Now rewrite the words in bold letters in the following sentences in a gender-inclusive way.

eg. Time and tide wait for no man.

Time and tide wait for no one.

1. Every man is some mother’s son.

2. It is not everyman’s cup of tea.

3. Nature is the father of man.

4. No man is an island.


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